Latour speaks about the New Constitution.
A Constitution is a Law that Controls Laws, a Meta-Law.
To ormulate the right Laws we have to Solve the Distinction Between Hard and Soft, Science (Facts) and Politics (Society, Values) , Nature and Culture, Thing and Subject.
Politicians have to realize that the State is an Ecology that Contains a Diversity of Matter (Things) and Life Forms (subjects) and Scientists have to realize that Objects are also Actors, they move and/or are a cause and/or an Effect .
Politicians (Thinking, Feeling (Social) <–> Manipulate / Consensus )and Scientists (Thinking (Unity) , Sensing <--> Make, Analyze) ) have to realize that besides their Archetypes there are other Archetypes like Seeers (INtuiting) and Empats (Feeling). that Play a Role in the Cycle of Paths of Change.
Does the New Constitution, the new Meta Law also apply to Things-Animals and Things- Machines (Robots)? Who will Speak for the Lakes, the ozon layer, the Trees and the Self-driving Cars in the Parliament of Things.
Are the Laws of Nature in conflict with the New Constitution or are they the same Laws (and what are these Laws)?
What is Happening?
We are witnessing a Global Transformation in which the old Organizational Mass Structures are Loosing their Power and the Struggle between the Hawks (Rich, Influentional) and the Doves (Poor, Isolated) comes back.
History Repeats itself in a completely different Context filled with Big Brother Technology.
Is it possible to create a Big Brother State that citizens Love to live in?
It looks like (Surveillance Capitalism) could become our Big Friend by Automating Us.
The History of the State.
The State was invented in Sumer translated in Akkadian as the “Land of the Civilized Kings”.
Their forefathers moved from a hunter-gatherer society to an Agrarian one prior to 5000 BCE.
Theory of the State.
State formation is explained by The production of surplus (Wealth) resulting in a division and specialization of labor: leading to Classes who worked the land and to those who could devote their time to other tasks including astrology and warfare.
Large societies tend to develop Ruling classes and supporting Bureaucracies (Systems, Connectedness) , which leads to larger organizations that want to Control the world.
For a very long time the Hierarchy was the most important Control-System in Use.
Currently the Center of the System is moving from the Top to the Bottom because of the Rise of Communication Technology (Internet).
A big part of this blog is about the State we live in called the Constitutional State, the Nation State or the Rechtsstaat.
All of them are highly Dependent on the Belief that People are regulated by Laws and that there is something behind all these Laws which is an Eternal principle that represents the Good.
A deep (but not very difficult) analysis shows that the State is an instrument to benefit a certain Elite (A Tribe?) that is Sustained by the Systems of the State in which the Educational System is the most important.
The article by William I. Robinson: Gramsci and Globalisation: From Nation‐State to Transnational Hegemony shows that the current Social Networks of Local Elites connect on the World level and are influenzing the Global Nation States.
The extreme wealthy creators of the Global Social-Network Technology know that they are able to Control the World with a Silent Revolution in which the Needs of their users can be changed to live in a new type of Paradise in which the old Roman theory of controlling their citizins with Food & Play will Lead the Way.
1.List of Chapters.
This list contains numbered summaries of the chapters of this blog. It makes it possible to Jump into the blog without missing much.
Watch out: THis Blog is still in Development. It will not be the same in a few weeks from now.
Comment? <-click there.
2: What is a State?
A State was an instrument to support the Ruler of a Boundary in Space called a City State.
The Rulers became Omnipotent when they transformed themselves into a God.
THe City State Monaco.
3. History of the State starting with the GREAT FLOOD.
Before the Great Flood Humans were organized in Tribes and later in Kingdoms. Most of the humans were owned by other humans.
After the Industrial Revolution the Slaves started a Revolution and the Kings had to share their Power with the Many still divided in the Rich and the Poor.
People no longer felt they were Owned by some Ruler; instead they now gave their Loyalty to something bigger, the Nation-state.
4. The Constitutional State.
This is a new concept in which the “good” is put into a General accepted Meta-law (a law that rules over other laws) chosen by a Majority of people. The big problems with a Meta-System is that it not bounded. It suffers Infinite Regress.
The big problem with a not bounded Constitution is that it will eventually cover All of the Humans, the Animals, the Territory of Earth (UNO) or even Space.
5. The problems of the Constitutional Sate.
To service its citizens the Rechtsstaat starts Companies that operate in the for- and the non-profit Market.
These Companies are now sold (or “given”) to the rich elite or the rich global companies that are now controlling the world.
Poor Citizens are paying Taxes for the benefit of the rich others.
This is Splitting the State and gives Opportunistic Leaders (Populist) the chance to drive their followers into a Renaissance of the Fascist State.
The STaat is also competing with other rechtsstaats (EU, UNO, ..). that control the “lower” rechtstaat giving the Nationalists the opportunity to dissolve structures that were created to Prevent a 3de World-war.
6. The End of the Nation State.
States are connected to a physical boundary. The United Nations relate to Earth.
The perspective of Humanity changed when we were able to see the Earth in the Middle (Bible, Creation Story) the Sun in the Middle ( Science Copernicus) to the Center of the Milkey Way in the Middle (Hubble Telescope, Technology).
The Cycle of History is moving to the Center. Our movement into Space_ generates a new (Space)-Spirituality created by the Meta-Myth of Joseph Gampbell that motivates people to leave Earth and move to Mars or even further.
7. About Anarchy and Terroism.
The Institutions of the state and the Elite that controls the state have been an object of Destruction for a very long time. Until now the State seems to be Resilient/ Anti-fragile. It restores and grows from Chaos.
8. Living in Caves. The Pre-Historic State.
What can we learn from the time Humans were not part of a State (and part of a Tribe).What we can learn is that a lot of the experience of that time is put into our culture and in our myths and religion.
9: Are Humans different from Animals & Organisms.
Organisms & Animals “create” organizational structures that look like States. How different are we from organisms and our cousins the Apes. An important feature we don’t want to see is Synchronization. It helps dictators to control the masses.
10. Diverging States?
In 1989 The Berlin Wall fell and the western Nation-State became the “normal” model of the World. After that moment old conflicts started all over again. The same happened when the world wanted to get rid of “real” Dictators like Saddam Hoessein.
States are not a computer program that controls citizins, we can Restart.
States revert to their Initial State which is a Tribal Structure in which Violence is a normal tool to control the Population.
The New Leaders Copy the Story of the Ancient Leaders by Remembering old Stories about Lost Battles. This happened everywhere in the World from YugoSlavia to Ruanda.
Dictators with the use of State Violence control latent conflicts.
States are a very Complex Balancing Act in which many Powers are Neutralized.
11. The Techno-State.
In 1999 I wrote a document called MOVING UP and MOVING DOWN Ideas and opinions about the connection between Small Scale specialized human networks and large scale collaborative IT-technology.
It shows that we are moving to a connected Collaborative Space mostly called the Internet (or Hyperspace).
Hyperspace is now owned by big Global companies like Google and Facebook that Sell and Predict the Activity-profiles in Hyper- and Physical Space of many people on earth.
This blog is the result of an increasing frustration about the Performance of the State I live in (The Netherlands).
My Government acts without a vision, spends a huge amount of (tax)money and makes nistake after mistake most of the time in the use of Technology but also in providing effective Healthcare, Education, Protection, etc etc.
I Spend a few weeks reading thinking and writing about the State and came to the conclusion that we are facing the end of the Nation State.
It looks like Big Brother is already there and we are facing a situation in Europe that looks like the rise of the Totalitarian fascists States around 1933.
Is history repeating?
2. What is a Sate?
A Nation State is a Top Down Management Structure that controls a lot of people that share a lot. Currently the Top (Government) is loosing its power to other powers (Companies) .
In this last case the Nation State will transform into a Network of Special Economic Zones comparable to Hong Kong that provide a Tax-haven and a Secure haven to the very Rich. .
People that look alike synchronize and turn into a crowd that follows the directions of the Leader if he (or she) uses the Rhetoric of the Common Enemy. Most of the influentual Dictators were aware (by instinct or training) that they could bring a huge amount of people in Sync doing things they never believed that was Possible.
Nation States are fragmenting into small Cultural Identities.
The Greek philosopher Aristotle believed that questions of the State, how it should be organized, and how it should pursue its ends, were fundamental to the achievement of happiness. Aristotle was aquainted with the City-State of Athens.
The State we live in is the result of a Top-Down/Bottom Up process that repeats itself many times.
States start as small City States, and grow into Big Burocratic States.
Burocratic states are highly fragile and are therefore easily destroyed by a calamity or taken over by groups of violent people specialized in warfare that are triggered by famine caused by a change of climate or a change of the environment caused by human activity (desert creation, the industrial revolution).
Another cause of the end of a state can be found in internal conflict between competing groups often part of the Rulers (Masters) and the Ruled (Slaves).
This conflict can result in a Split of the state and or a Fusion of comparable parts. India and the Us are an example of both in which Religion was the cause of the split and a Cultural Likeness (“Capitalistic, Calvinistic) the reason of a Fusion.
The Huns, especially under their King Attila, made frequent and devastating raids into the Eastern Roman Empire. invaded Italy and almost conquered Rome.
Chinese government build big walls to protect the country against the Mongols.
In time the Victors fill in the old framework of the burocracy with their own people and the system becomes fragile again.
Systems (and humans) Reproduce themselves with Parts that reproduce themselves ( autopoiesis. ).
3. History of the State.
The next Great Flood will probably not be caused by a collision with a meteorite but by the melting of ice caused by the rising of tememperature caused by Climate Change.
The repeating process of State-production was stopped by and started again after the Great Flood. This happened around 3117 BC.
“After the Flood had swept over the earth and when kingship was lowered again from heaven, kingship was first in Kish. . . . in Uruk the divine Gilgamesh . . . ruled 126 years . . . its kingship was removed to Ur”
The City State of Ur.
Ur was a new .start. Soon the City States started to make war and grew into a bigger structure.
Ur has always been an important location, a harbor, part of the trade-routes that connected the East and the West. Because of the Trade The rulers (Male and/or Female) of Ur became very rich.
Rulers become God and The High Priest gets te power.
Extreme richness, Power and Praise often leads to many psychological disorders (described by Interpersonal Theory) including Histrionic, believing your Fantasy is true ) Narcissism (extreme self-esteem) and Paranoia (Believing that Everybody is a Threat).
Shulgi, the greatest king of the Third Dynasty of Ur, who solidified the hegemony of Ur and reformed the empire into a highly centralized bureaucratic state. Shulgi ruled for a long time (at least 42 years) and deified himself halfway through his rule.
The transformation from ruler to God brought the King to the highest state of Power. Many rulers copied this behavior and many new Gods appeared making life very complex.
At the time of Shulgi rulers were often adviced by Magi that had a lot of knowledge about Mass Manipulation, Personal Magic and Medicine. When the rulers became God the Magi became the High Priest.
In the Egyptian state the Priests were very powerful. They rebelled against Akhhenaton and restored the cult of Ammon.
Ancient Israelite religion was originally polytheistic; the Israelites worshipped many deities including El, Baal, Asherah, and Astarte. Yahweh was originally the national god of the Kingdom of Judah.
The ancient economies of China, the Incan Empire, the Indian Empires, Babylon, Greece, and the various kingdoms of Africa operated on principles of reciprocity and redistribution with a very limited role for markets.
Cycles: History repeats itself.
Below you see a picture of a cycle-generator that generates Cycles in Cycles (etc). Cycles are driven by harmonic patterns that have a lot in common with music (“the Music of the Spheres“).
The Waves and the Overtones of the cycle going Up and Down can be described with recurring themes part of a five-fold-pattern (Pentangle). This pattern shares the four World Views of Path of Change (PoC) with a center which represents a whole. . PoC is a very old theory about Change that was discovered by Will McWhinney.
Two states of The State of Rome.
Rome was a state ruled by an elected emperor controlled by an elected parliament with representatives that were Roman Citizen.
Emperor Constantine the Great made Christianity the leading religion of Rome because it looked a lot like the belief of his soldiers the (persian) cult of Mitra. Mitra transformed into Archangel Michael.
The Emperor of Rome transformed into the Pope of Rome.
To the Romans, anyone who was not a citizen of Rome or who did not speak Latin was a barbarian. In Europe there were five major barbarian tribes – the Huns, Franks, Vandals, Saxons, and Visigoths (Goths) – and all of them wanted to destroy Rome.
The rulers of the barbarians soon created kingdoms, empire-states that took over the rule of Rome. As always the expansion of the new Empires generated conflicts and war.
The Secular State.
In the renaissance the Zeitgeist of Europe turned into the state of Imagination/Spirit.
The Bible was translated in the languages of the empires and a unique interpretation of the Christian Faith turned into a Work Ethic based on the theories of Calvin.
Cpitalism and the freedom of Faith were born. The State left the field of religion and the Secular _State was born.
The State of the (Capitalistic) Hawks.
“The German sociologist Franz Oppenheimer (1864-1943), said, there are only two ways for men to acquire wealth.
The first method is by producing a good or a service and voluntarily exchanging that good for the product of somebody else.
This is the method of exchange, the method of the free market; it’s creative and expands production; it is not a zero-sum game because production expands and both parties to the exchange benefit.
Oppenheimer called this method for the acquisition of wealth the “Economic means“.
The second method is seizing another person’s property without his consent, i.e., by robbery, exploitation ND/OR looting.
The Noble Price winning Economist Daniel Kahneman wrote a book called Hawkish Biasis in which he explains economic behavior with the same attitudes Exchange (cooperation, Dove) and competition (Hawk, war, immoral behavior).
Oppenheimer called the thawkish method of obtaining wealth “the political means.” And then he went on to define the state, or government, as “the organization of the Political means,” i.e., the regularization, legitimation, and permanent establishment of the political means for the acquisition of wealth of the Hawks (the Upperclass) .
Around 1789 Europe was in the Social State meaning that social-conflicts started to increase.
The French Revolution (1789) started a revolt of the underclass that was hit by an economic crisis caused by a change of the climate caused by an explosion of a vulcano in Iceland. After the revolution the Middleclass (Bourgeoisie) took over the power and created factories powered by the steammachine. This stage in history is called the Industrial Revolution.
The French Revolution triggered the start of the Socialistic Movement in England that caused many revolutions in for instance Russia and China. Both are countries that are controlled by an Elite (“the Party“).
Although most of the time not highly visible all countries with a State are controlled by an Elite that creates a Network connected to special Schools/Universities, Political Parties and big Companies or networks of specialized comparable Small companies (Farmers rtc).
The State as an Selforganizing System.
Anthony Giddens (1985) stresses that the emergence of the “Internally Pacified State” that centralizes the Means of Violence and hence prevents Armed Struggles between opposed classes was accompanied and enabled by a large expansion of the apparatuses of Surveillance and Bureaucratic Administration.
Giddens argues that the nation state is a “Power Container” [Giddens, 1985: 13] that stores and concentrates Authorative and allocative resources and that with the rise of capitalism the nation state replaced the City as the most important power container.
The Institutions of the State are the Keepers of the Rules that facilitate the systems in the state to self-organize:
Can a human society be constrained in such a way that self-organization will thereafter tend to produce outcomes that Advance the Goals of the society? Such a society would be self-organizing in the sense that individuals who pursue only their own interests would none-the-less act in the interests of the society as a whole, irrespective of any intention to do so. This paper identifies the conditions that must be met if such a self- organizing society is to emerge. It demonstrates that the key enabling requirement for a self- organizing society is ‘consequence-capture’. Broadly this means that all agents in the society must capture sufficient of the benefits (and harms) that are produced by their actions on the goals of the society. ‘Consequence-capture’ can be organized in a society by appropriate management (systems of evolvable constraints) that suppress free riders and support pro-social actions. In human societies these constraints include institutions such as systems of governance and social norms. The paper identifies ways of organizing societies so that effective governance will also self-organize. This will produce a fully self-organizing society in which the interests of all agents (including individuals, associations, firms, multi- national corporations, political organizations, institutions and governments) are aligned with the interests of the society as a whole.
4. The Constitutional State.
At the turn of the nineteenth century, the constitutional state took its origin from a revolution against absolutist rule and feudal inequality.
‘Constitution’ as a revolutionary new concept of law meant as an ideal-type: written, supreme, secular law, decided by the people and regulating all public power.
Constitutional monarchy was the dominant type of constitutional state in Europe throughout the nineteenth century.
It was marked by a fundamental dualism between monarchical and parliamentary power, which tended towards parliamentarization and came to an end with complete constitutionalization and democratization of European states as an outcome of the First World War.
While the post-war years represented the apex of European constitutionalism, the deep European crisis of the 1930s with the rise of dictatorship destroyed the core function of constitutionalism, to legally bind state power, which came to be restored only gradually after 1989 for the whole of Europe.
Currently a big part of Europe is controlled by the European Union (EU) created 1-1-1958. The citizen support for the EU is in a steep decline culminating in the rise and come back of many nationalistic parties and the Brexit (Exit of Brittain).
5. The Future of the Dutch Constitutional State.
The big problem not adressed in the document above is that Law is a symbolic system that could be in line with the Zeitgeist or otherwise.
It is almost impossible to program the citizins of a country unless the program is put into many examples that are thaught at primary school.
Louis Althusser is a Marxist Philosopher who claims that Education is the Foundation of the Ruling Power of the State.
The ZeitGeist is currently in the State of the Center (Whole, White, Boundaries).
Citizins want to be treated as respected Individuals (Informalization) and are exploring boundaries (Intensivation) . Young people Cross boundaries, companies work without boundaries (Globalization) and countries define new boundaries.
The system of rules governing a rechtstaat is becoming too complex and the connected system becomes too bureaucratic, while capacity problems are arising on account of the large flow of applications, public participation procedures, complaints, pleas and proceedings against the government on the part of assertive citizens.
Competing Rule Systems.
Next to this there are many more “rechts states” (EU, UN) that are are creating and enforcing competing rule-systems.
Public services are what make the state visible to its citizens.
Public services are citizens’ direct line to government. They make the state tangible through an almost daily interaction, direct or indirect.
public infrastructure made the previously far away centres of power more accessible.
Currently many public services are given over to the Market making the state more and more invisible.
Especially in small cities and parts of big cities (comparable to city-states) a new third sector is growing that contains cooperatives of civilians that develop shared autarkic non-for-profit (social) functions like energy& food-production, care for the elderly etc etc. These functions are based on exchange of material and services (reciprocity ).
6. The End of the Nation State.
“Similar varieties of populism are erupting in many countries. Several have noted the parallels in style and substance between leaders such as Donald Trump, Vladimir Putin, Narendra Modi, Viktor Orbán and Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.
All countries are today embedded in the same system, which subjects them all to the same pressures.
20th-century political structures are drowning in a 21st-century ocean of deregulated finance, autonomous technology, religious militancy and great-power rivalry.
Finally, the old superpowers’ demolition of old ideas of international society – ideas of the “society of nations” that were essential to the way the new world order was envisioned after 1918 – has turned the nation-state system into a lawless gangland“;
Everything that was structured most of the time by a Top Down Hierarchical Structure and Controlled by Lawmakers that enforce their own rules is now attacked by many new connected (by a Telecom Network) bottom-up structures that make it possible to Control and Direct the Individuals in the Masses with Highly Intelligent Big Brother technology.
The 2nd part of Chapter 6 is cited out of an Article out of Forbes.
From Top to Bottom.
There is a strong popular demand for decisions to be taken at lower levels than Central Government.
At the extreme, this has fuelled Iindependence movements in Scotland, Quebec, Catalonia and Western Sahara, not to mention Palestine and Kosovo. Less dramatically, we see an increasing devolution of Central Powers in most countries.
Multinational Corporations are more powerfull than Governments: They operate globally, unrestricted by borders.
The biggest tech companies are now richer than most countries, and foreign Governments find it very difficult to tax them properly on the profits they make.
Hannah Arendt The Origins of Totalitarianism.
At the very center of Hannah Arendt’s analysis of The Origins of Totalitarianism is her insight into the decline of European Nation-States.
Nation-states were always based on a fiction so that the demanded Liberté, égalité and, fraternité demanded by liberal States was held to be compatible with the national Homogeneity of the Nation.
But as different Ethnic Groups demanded recognition and rights and as refugees advocated for rights within traditional nation-states, the Tension between legal equality and national recognition set the nations of Europe Against the states and led to the rise of Fascism in Italy and Totalitarianism in Germany.
Today there are similar indications that nation-states are once again failing and . that the rise of populist nationalist movements around the world is a response to the widespread failure of nation-states to address 21st century problems.
This is why a strange brand of Apocalyptic Nationalism is so widely in vogue. But the current appeal of Machismo as Political Style, the Wall-building and Xenophobia,the fantastical Promises of National Restoration – these are not cures, but symptoms of what is slowly revealing itself to all: nation states everywhere are in an advanced state of political and moral decay.
7.The History of Terrorism, Anarchy, The End of the State by Violence.
Deprivation (poverty, lack of education, lack of political freedom) can drive people to terrorism.
Late in the 19th century, Anarchist labor unions began to use the tactic of general strike. This often resulted in violence by both sides and some of the strikes even resulted in the Deaths of striking workers, their replacements and security staff. In this climate, some anarchists began to advocate and practice terrorism or assassination.
Violence Against the State is used by Groups of People (“Freedom Fighters”) who do not recognize that the current State represents the (Origional) Citizins and/or that the Law of the State is not the Accepted general Law (“Religious Fighters“) of a Culture that occupies the State.
Sometimes the State uses Violence to Control the Citizens of the State (State Terrorism).
8. Living in a Cave: Lessons from The Pre-Historic State of the Humans.
The State was created when we,the humans Stopped Moving Around, Settled Down and started Agriculture. . The first place we settled down were Caves.
Outside the Cave Nature was filled with many Animals and Plants we could eat.
To Kill Animals we made Weapons and to make weapons we needed Fire and Iron. Powerful Weapons were filled with Magic.
Magic is a System that gives the Focused Human Belief-System to take the role of Observer in Quantum Mechanics.
As a a human we have to Cope with Violent Acts like an Accident, the Killing of an Animal that looks like a Human and the Strange Transformations of our Body we encounter when we Grow from a Child to a Grown-up.
Our transformation follows the Path of the Hero.
This path has a lot in common with Paths of Change, a General Theory about Change.
The Humans in the Cave became Aware of the Cycles of the Day, The Year and the Equinox.
They crated Rituals to cope with Stress and to avoid Bad Luck.
OSEPH CAMPBELL: “After the animal has been killed, the hunter then has to fulfill certain rites in a a mystic participation with the animals whose death he has brought about, and whose Meat is to become his Life.
“So the killing is not simply slaughter, at any rate, it’s a Ritual Act. It’s a recognition of your dependency and of the Voluntary Giving of this food to you by the Animal“.
The humans in the cave specialized and new Crafts came to life. The oldest “jobs” were the Firemaker and the BlackSmith. Both jobs were taken by Shamans. Important crafts were projected on the Gods.
In the Creation-Myths Gods like Ptah and Vulcan were worshiped as the Creator of all things and the patron of various crafts, such as Sculpting and Metalworking.
The Blacksmiths are the Makers & the Warriors.They have a lot in common with the Druids and Bards of the Celts and the Magi of Persia. A Blacksmith was called a Merlin in Celtic Culture.
Vulcan – God of fire and volcanoes as well as Smith of the gods
Heru Behutet is shown as a Hawk-Headed Man bearing the double crown of Egypt, holding Metal Weapons, and more often as a Winged Disk flanked by a White and a Black Cobra (White and Black Alchemy).
The Mesniu had shaved heads, wore short tunics that exposed their chests, and bore either an inverted Lance or some other Metal instrument.
In the rear of their temples was situated a “Holy of Holies,” called the Mesnit, which was only accessible by the Mesniu. A Holy of Hollies is Fractal Model.
In the Bible the Blacksmiths are associated with the children of Tubal Cain. One of his descendants is Hiram, the Master Builder of the Temple of Solomon. Building big Buildings became an Art.
In African Orisha Culture, the Ogun, the Blacksmiths are always isolated in a special group outside Society because they are the carriers of the Third, (Evil) Eye of Horus and are able to manipulate the Force of Life, Nyama or Ka (Chi, Prana, Ether, the Fifth Element).
Creative People are able to manipulate the Power that Creates.
As soon as the States were created Humans started to Trade & exchange Objects, Creating a new concept called Wealth.
Humans measure their Importance by the physical objects (including caves and animals) they own or are able to buy. They show their importance just like animals in the way they look, wear clothes and the Language they speak.
Humans are experts in detecting lying but we are experts in lying when we deceive ourselves.
There many types of animals that create and defend a Territory.
9. Are Humans different from Animals & Organisms?
Organisms create Complex Organisational structures that look like a State. They do that by Imitating others that look Similar or Act Similar. Acting Similar (Copying) is the reason for Synchronization.
10: States: What makes them Work?
Humans attribute a human Personality to an Active process (an Agent). The weather is nice and States look like a Father ANDor a Mother. or a Family.
George Lakoff is a specialist in Metaphor. A Metaphor is a function between two models.
For instance Freud made a model of the Human by Mapping the Human Body to a Steam Machine.
George Lakoff believes in his book Moral Politics that US Citizins see the State according to their party as a Nurturing Mother (Democrats) or a Strict Father (Republicans) part of a Family (Being a Tribe).
Metaphors are also often used to motivate a country going to a War or to perform another Violent Act.
States are Born and Grow Up just like Humans.
Just like life a birth is not a gentle process but comes with stress and pain. The Big Battles between states live for many years and the Reason can be revoked to start a new Battle.
The same applies when a State was a Superpower in the past. States without a shared dramatic story don’t motivate citizens to support the state without asking questions.
The State works when the Citizens are able to Trust the state and or be Proud to be part of the state they live in. The state is Evaluated by its Activities but also by the people it represents (PoliticianS).
When we use model of Path of Change (picture below) we can see that Politicians combine Rules and Social (vice verse) which means that they play a Game in which they make a combination between What People Believe and What they Value and are PART OF A CYCLE in which ACTION and REFLECTION takes place.
The task of the Politician is to establish Consensus between the citizens of the State.
Many thought the internet would spawn a Digital democratic utopia: Today, we witness the opposite Hacking elections and Polarizing open societies.
Democracy is not only about Voting but also about having a Voice to articulate what is Needed. Citizens want to participate in the beginning of a project and not only use the result. One of the possibilities is to Vote with the Tax you Pay .
Participatory Budgeting (PB) is a democratic process in which community members decide how to spend part of a public budget. It gives people real power over real money.
PB started in Porto Alegre, Brazil, in 1989, as an anti-poverty measure that helped reduce child mortality by nearly 20%.
Since then PB has spread to over 3,000 cities around the world, and has been used to decide budgets from states, counties, cities, housing authorities, schools, and other institutions.