Over Veerkracht (Resilience) (in Dutch)

De leer van de thermodynamica is in de 19e eeuw ontstaan uit natuurkundig onderzoek dat werd uitgevoerd om de efficiëntie van de stoommachine te verbeteren. Inmiddels heeft deze wetenschap belangrijke wetten over het Universum ontdekt.

Volgens de thermodynamica beweegt de energie in het Universum op de lange termijn zich van een onmogelijke extreem hete situatie, de Big Bang, naar een toestand van extreme kou en een hoge waarschijnlijkheid, de Big Freeze, waarin alles netjes uniform verdeeld is. Het universum beweegt van extreme chaos naar extreme ordening.

Energie stroomt daarom altijd van hoge (chaos) naar lage temperatuur (orde). Vrijwel alle energie op aarde komt van de zon in de vorm van electro-magnetische straling. Met behulp van deze zonnestraling transformeren planten, algen en bacteriën simpele chemische structuren in complexe biomassa (chemische energie). Bacteriën en schimmels breken deze structuren weer af waardoor de cyclus wordt gesloten.

Biomassa wordt door de rest van de organismen op aarde direct of soms veel later (olie/gas/steenkool) geconsumeerd. Het consumeren van de primaire zonne-energie vindt plaats in voedselketens waarin de organismen ook zelf weer worden geconsumeerd.

Vanuit ons menselijk perspectief interpreteren wij het consumeren van de participanten in een voedselketen als een competitie (“survival of the fittest”) maar we kunnen het ook zien als een uiterst flexibele keten van chemische reacties die worden uitgevoerd in bewegende zichzelf reproducerende chemische fabrieken.

 Energie is de mogelijkheid om iets in beweging te krijgen of te houden. De opgeslagen (potentiële) energie in de aarde wordt soms in meerdere stappen omgezet in beweging (kinetische energie). Tijdens deze omzetting gaat er altijd warmte verloren (dissipatie, wrijving, weerstand, erosie).

De energiestroom van de zon wekt door de rotatie van de aarde stroom-systemen (flow-systems) op. Stroom-systemen hebben een boom-structuur als de stroom van een punt naar een oppervlak of een volume gaat. Een voorbeeld zijn het weersysteem en een meanderende rivier-delta. De longen en de bloedvaten in ons lichaam hebben precies dezelfde opbouw omdat hetzelfde proces ook in ons lichaam optreedt.

Volgens de Constructal Theory van Adrian Bejan verbeteren de stroomsystemen zich steeds opnieuw en dat doen ze door gebruik te maken van de permanente slijtage (dissipatie, wrijving, weerstand, erosie) die de stroombeweging veroorzaakt.  Uiteindelijk vindt er altijd weer ergens een doorbraak plaats in de meander.

Adrian Bejan heeft de Constructal Theory volledig analytisch afgeleid uit de wetten van de Thermodynamica. Hij  beschouwt het principe van de verbeterende stroomsystemen (“construction”)  als een Hoofdwet van de Thermodynamica. Volgens hem is ontwerpen niet een intelligente actie maar een volstrekt logisch gevolg van de werking van ons Universum.

De stroom van onmogelijkheid naar uniformiteit, van hoge onwaarschijnlijkheid naar hoge waarschijnlijkheid gaat gepaard met allerlei tussenstadia waarin de bestaande structuren de nieuwe structuren de weg wijzen.

De doorbraken in de meanderende stroompatronen maken beter gebruik van de huidige mogelijkheden maar de oude paden behouden lange tijd hun functie. Hierdoor is een stroomsysteem niet afhankelijk van één pad en is daardoor ook bestand tegen calamiteiten (bijv. een sterk verhoogde regenval in het stroomgebied van de rivier).

Het systeem waar de stroomsystemen onderdeel van uitmaken bestaat uit Machines (Constructal Engines) en Barrières (Brakes).

De machines en de barrieres zorgen ervoor dat de aarde niet te warm of te koud wordt.

De machines zoeken de weg van de minste weerstand, optimaliseren de stroom, bouwen structuren op, slopen de barrieres, produceren kinetische energie en minimaliseren de slijtage. De machines slechten het pad naar de Big Freeze waarin alles gelijk zal zijn en alles stil zal staan.

De barrières bevatten potentiële energie, leveren de weerstand om de minste weerstand te vinden, slopen de machines, optimaliseren daardoor de dissipatie en produceren een maximale hoeveelheid straling met een hogere golflengte als de binnenkomende zonnestraling die de aarde weer verlaat.

Produceren (Machines) en Consumeren (Vernietigen, Slijten) houden het wankele evenwicht van Moeder Aarde in stand.

De evolutie van ecologieën, steden, organismen (wet van Kleiber), talen (wet van Zipf), organen (de longen, bloedvaten), sporten en technologieclusters voldoen aan de Constructal Theory.

In 2002 hebben Holling en Gunderson het boek Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems gepubliceerd.

Panarchy bevat een integrale visie op de evolutie en de adaptieve cyclus van  de constructal engines die men ecosystemen noemt.

Panarchy is ontstaan door het combineren van ogenschijnlijk conflicterende theorieën. Die theorieën leken conflicterend omdat ze betrekking hadden op de verschillende fasen (Zie Plaatje Phase Space hieronder) van de adaptieve cyclus die een ecologie doorloopt.

De combinatie van de vier mogelijke fasenruimten levert een op-en neergaande cyclus op waarin op een zeker moment een sprong (bifurcatie) wordt gemaakt naar een compleet nieuwe ruimte. Nadat deze sprong heeft plaatsvonden stopt de dynamiek van de oude ecologie.

De meest herkenbare fase is de Exploitatie-fase (B).  Dit is de opgaande lijn waarin de ecologie een hoge mate van orde bereikt en overschotten (Potential) produceert.

De vier fasen van de Panarchy Cyclus voorgesteld als een landschap met een rollende bal

Aan het eind van deze fase neemt de potentie af en wordt er van alles gedaan om de levensduur van de ecologie zo lang mogelijk te rekken (C -Conservation). In deze fase zijn de structuren verouderd geraakt en zijn er op allerlei plaatsen reeds alternatieven (bypass) ontstaan die beter passen op de huidige vraag naar beweging.

De ecologie is in de conservatie-fase vrijwel tot stilstand gekomen en besteed al zijn energie aan het onderhouden  van zijn eigen structuur.

Tijdens de langzaam opgaande lijn van de Exploitatie-fase neemt de verbondenheid en vooral de afhankelijkheid (Connectedness) tussen de participanten onderling enorm toe waardoor de ecologie steeds kwetsbaarder wordt voor verstoringen.

De constructal engines in de ecologie gaan steeds efficienter samenwerken wat ten koste gaat van de diversiteit en de variatie in de ecologie.

De ecologie kan verstoringen opvangen totdat de  verschillende paden nog niet zijn dichtgeslibd maar een verstoring die alle paden tegelijkertijd raakt is dodelijk.

Op het laatst wordt de Veerkracht (Resilience) enorm op de proef gesteld en kan het gebeuren dat de Ecologie volledig ten onder gaat (Release) of na een grondige Reorganisatie weer aan een nieuwe levensloop kan beginnen.

De resilience van een ecologie wordt gemeten door de snelheid te meten waarmee een ecologie zich weer herstelt van een verstoring.

Volgens Panarchy beweegt een Ecologie zich op verschillende schalen en plaatsen en kan op die plaatsen in verschillende fasen verkeren waardoor er allerlei soorten van interactie mogelijk zijn. Hoe hoger de schaal hoe langzamer de cyclus verloopt. Hoge schalen dempen de fluctuaties van de lagere schalen.

Een snelle lokale reorganisatie kan zich plotseling heel snel verspreiden (een lopend vuur (Revolt)) terwijl een langzame geleidelijke ontwikkeling (een organisatie) een snelle ontwikkeling weer kan dempen of tot stilstand kan brengen (de organisatie van de Brandweer (Remember)).

Panarchy is een Zelf-Refererend Cyclus-Model dat bestaat uit Vier Fasen en (minstens) drie Schaalniveaus.  De panarchische golfbeweging bestaat uit twee stappen n.l. de  positieve weg Omhoog naar de Top (exploitation, conservation)  en de negatieve weg Omlaag naar het Dal (depressie, reorganization).

Op een bepaald moment kan de golfbeweging zich splitsen waardoor een nieuw (ander) niveau van organisatie optreedt. Deze sprongen doen zich volgens een vaste regelmaat voor.

Als we kijken naar terminologie en inhoud valt het op dat er een groot verband bestaat tussen Ecologische-, Economische- en Persoonlijkheidstheorien. De natuur, de economie en de mens lijken onderhevig te zijn aan dezelfde wetten.

De theorie over de Menselijke Natuur heeft erg veel weg van de Theorie die wij over de Natuur zelf hebben ontwikkeld. De mens is een zelfstandig bewegende ecologie, een stromend stroomsysteem waaraan een groot aantal participanten deelnemen.

Bacteria wisselen DNA uit

Die participanten hebben zich in de loop der tijd verenigd omdat een samenwerkingsverband veel efficienter bleek te zijn dan een solitaire ontwikkeling.

In het begin bestond het samenwerkingsverband uitsluitend uit simpele chemische fabriekjes, bacteriën, die genetische ontwerpinformatie (DNA) van hun fabriekjes uitwisselenden. De eerste fundamentele stap in de samenwerking van de bacterien was de statische spons. De mens heeft erg veel ontwerp-informatie gemeen met de spons.

Spons

Later gingen de organismen bewegen en waarnemen. Hierdoor gingen ze als individuen samenwerken met andere organismen die genetisch op hen leken (zie Genetic Similarity Theory).  Het uitwisselen en combineren van ontwerp-informatie ging gewoon door (sex).

In volgende fasen ontstonden er hogere ordeningen, zoals lichamen die lichamen konden bevatten (huizen, steden, vliegtuigen, onderzeeboten en auto’s).

Op dit moment is de (grote) stad het hoogste niveau van koppeling maar niets houdt de “Constructal Law” (of de Entropie) tegen om een ordening te gaan scheppen op  het niveau land of aarde.

Dat betekent dat er nieuwe slagaderen moeten komen om de ontwerp-informatie en de energie die tussen de grote steden gaat stromen te faciliteren. Overduidelijk is dat het Internet de basis vormt van het zenuwstelsel van de aardse informatievoorziening.

De thermodynamica is een statistische theorie. De kansverdeling van een Systeem wordt de Entropie van het Systeem genoemd.

Om een kans te kunnen berekenen moet je de kansruimte (de Phase Space) bepalen. Die bestaat uit alle mogelijkheden.

Het aardige is dat je niet hoeft te beschikken over kennis van alle combinaties van alle componenten van een specifiek systeem om erg veel te weten te komen over een kansruimte.

Je kunt gaan spelen met willekeurige componenten (a,b,c,d,e,….), de combinaties in een matrix stoppen, gaan tellen en patronen zoeken in de getallen die er dan worden gevonden. Je bent dan bezig met de statistiek van de statistiek of beter de waarschijnlijkheid van de waarschijnlijkheid. De mogelijke patronen worden beschreven in de Driehoek van Pascal.

Wat dan blijkt is dat er achter het patroon van Pascal weer een patroon zit (zie plaatje).  Dat patroon bevat wederom driehoeken en het is zeer waarschjinlijk dat er achter de driehoeken weer driehoeken zitten. Driehoeken in driehoeken in driehoeken in…. noemt men een fractal, een zelf-herhaling.

De  (on)waarschijnlijkheid is eigenlijk heel mooi en vooral ook simpel geordend en komt voort uit een zichzelf herhalend patroon, de Drie-Eenheid, dat in iedere godsdienst op aarde voorkomt.

Wetenschap en Godsdienst gaan uiteindelijk over hetzelfde.

LINKS

Over de Big Bang

Over Thermodynamica

Over Constructal Theory

Waarom een stad een organisme is

Waarom de genen bepalen wie we aardig vinden 

Over Pan en Anarchie

Over de Wet van Kleiber

Over de orde achter de wanorde (Over de Driehoek van Pascal)

Over de Uitgebreide Driehoek van Pascal

Over de drie-eenheid.

About Saturn, the Son of the Sun

Early astronomical traditions identify the “Primeval Sun” as the planet Saturn.

Saturn was id]]><![CDATA[entified with Osiris in Egypt and Shiva in India.  The Babylonians, the founders of Astronomy, called Saturn the "Light of Heaven, the Sun-God Shamash (or Šamaš).

Tacitus records the Jews as worshipping the planet Saturn, Shabbatai,  as their god. In Plato’s Timaeus, the word for the planet Saturn is Helios, the “Sun” god. Popular Greek traditions identified Saturn as Kronos (Father Time). At that time Saturn ruled “over the Pole“.

The Pole was seen as the Entrance to the Other World. The Shaman using his Light Body had to Climb Jacobs Ladder to get there.

In Sankrit, Suryaputrah,  “Son of the Sun”  is the name for the planet Saturn. The Medieval Alchemists called Saturn the “Best Sun”.

The Kabbalah divides the Universe  into Ten Spheres, or Sephiroth, which have Planetary and other Correspondences. The Sphere of Saturn is known as Binah (“Understanding“) and the terrestrial sphere, known as Malkuth, is said to have its foundation in Binah.

Long ago Saturn exercised the supreme power on Earth, his reign being remembered as the Golden Age, his time revered, a time which Man longed to return to. At this moment the Cycle is  ruled by Kali. The Mother Goddess Kali represents the Moon in Saturn.

Semitic civilizations referred to the god Saturn as “El”. El was the source of the Great Flood. El was represented by a Black Cube. The Kaaba (“the Cube of Space”) is a cube-shaped building in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, and is the most sacred site in Islam. The building predates Islam, and, according to Islamic tradition, the first building at the site was built by Abraham.

In Ancient History the World was ruled by the Female and  the Mother Goddess. The Vulva or the Yoni (Circle), of the Ancient Mother Goddess was always combined with a Black Stone (with a Point), the Symbol of the Phallus (Lingham) of the Male Creator. The God and the Godddess created the Universe in a short moment of Extreme Extacy.

The Pelgrims have to encircle the Black Stone of El Seven Times just like the Rings of Saturn encircle the Center.

About the Number Seven

The Blog “About the Sum of Things” is about the so called Seal of Saturn and the related 3×3 Magic Square of Saturn also called the Lo Shu in China.

Saturn is the Seventh Planet and Saturday (Sabbath) the Seventh Day of the Week.

In the Blog it is shown that the 3×3 Magic Square generates Two Cyclic Systems. One System, the Wheel of Karma  is a Fractal Torus and is related to the Expansion and Compression of the Universe and the number 2. The Fractal Torus contains Seven Levels associated with the Chakra’s, the Seven Heavens, The Seven Tones and the Seven Colors. The Tower of Bable and the Egyptian Pyramids are a Simulator of the Torus.

The other is a Cyclic Vortex System, the Cycle of Death, related to the number 3 and the Triangel.

The Number Seven is the Repeating Factor of the Torus System. After Seven Steps a new Fractal Level of the Expansion/Compression-Cycle is reached. On the Seventh Day a new Stage in the Creation Process of our Universe is started.

The Torus looks like a Yoni and as you can see the Lingham of Shiva is Inside the Torus. This is the reason why Saturn is associated with Binah and Shakti, the Female Part of Shiva. It also explains why Saturn is related to Fertility.

The Sequence of the Trinity (A-U-M) controls the Creation/Destruction-Cycle of our Universe.  This is the Cycle of Shiva, the Creator and Destructor.

Shiva and Shakti are the Circle (Torus, Yoni) and the Lingham (the Point, Singularity, Lingham). They are the 0 (or the 9) and the 1.

The only thing you need to Create our Universe is de Tao (0), the One, the Two and the Three and they will Generate Everything.

Why is Saturn the Son of the Sun?

There are two explanations. The first one is a Physical Explanation related to Plasma Physics. In the stage of the Golden Age our Solar System contained only Three Planets and Saturn was the Best Sun. Plasma Physics is able to explain many ancient Symbols.

The Second explanation goes back to the Numbers. The Magic Square of Saturn is the First Magic Square that can be constructed. 2×2 is not existent and 1×1 is a Point. The Magic Square of the Sun is the 6×6 Magic Square with Sum 666! and Constant 111. The 3×3 Square can be extracted (is a Son) out of the 6×6 Square.

Adam-Kadmon
The Demiurg with the Torus and the Zodiac

About  Kronos, Father Time

The Greek called Saturn Kronos, Father Time.

Most of the Souls are not aware of Cycling Cycle of the Fractal Torus of the Number Two of Duality,  the Wheel of Karma. They stay in the same Place and Their reincarnations are a Merry Go Round.

Some Souls move around the Torus and experience many experiences in the Seven Universus.

All of them are Kept in de Rotating Matrix of the Demiurg.

If you really want to be Free you have move out of Duality into the Cycle of the Divine Trinity (Shiva).

When you want to leave the Rotating Cycle (Torus) of everyday Life and move into a higher dimension (more possibilities, more perspectives), you have to Twist Yourself and Merge with Yourself.

You Twist when you Cross the Cycle of Life and Enter the Cycle of Death of the Trinity. When you join this Cycle you leave the Seven Heavens and move to the Void in the Middle of the Death Cycle.

The Void, the Kingdom,  Cleans every thing and makes every thing New.

You Merge with Yourself when you integrate the Inside and the Outside, the Up and the Down, the Male and the Female.

The Klein Bottle, The Universe Closed in Itself, the Basic Structure behind Alchemy.

“If we then become children, would we thus enter the kingdom?” Jesus said unto them, “When ye make the two one, and when you make the inside like unto the outside and the outside like unto the inside, and that which is above like unto that which is below, and when ye make the male and the female one and the same, so that the male no longer be male nor the female female; and when ye fashion eyes in place of an eye, and a hand in place of a hand, and a foot in place of a foot, and a likeness in place of a likeness; then will ye enter into the kingdom.” (Gospel of Thomas, Logion 22).

LINKS

About the Sum of Things

About the Cube of Space

About the Myth of Saturn

About the Mother Goddess

About the Dance of Shiva

About Saturn and the Sun

About the Seven Heavens

About the Great Flood

About the Golden Age of Saturn

About the Torus and the Vortex

About Time

About the Twisted Universe

About Alchemy

About the Polar Myth

About Combining the Combinations

steam_engine

Evolution means the creation of larger and larger islands of order at the expense of even greater seas of disorder in the world. In the process of evolution, each succeeding species is more complex and thus better equipped as a transformer of available energy.: Jeremy Rifkin, Entropy: A New World View (1980).

You wouldn’t enjoy a perfectly ordered universe. A wholly ordered universe would be at perfect equilibrium and would be dead. There can arise no Order unless there is a Flow of Matter and Energy which decreases in intensity as a system moves toward equilibrium. Motion, change or evolution in the Universe is driven by fluxes of energy and energy-rich matter flowing from sources of high potential to sinks of lower potential.

During the road from Being to Becoming Cyclic Auto-Catalytic Systems are created that Re-Create themselves until they Die. Islands of Order Appear and Disappear in the Sea of Chaos.

About Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the Science of the Transfer of Energy.

In strict Scientific terms Energy is classified into two main forms: Kinetic and Potential energy. Kinetic Energy is defined as the energy of a moving object. Potential Energy is defined as the energy in matter due to its position or the arrangement of its parts. The various forms of Potential Energy include gravitational potential energy, elastic potential energy, chemical potential energy, and electrical potential energy.

The First Law of Thermodynamics says that the total quantity of Energy in the universe remains Constant.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that the quality of this energy is degraded irreversibly. The Second Law predicts that our Universe will end when the Explosive Motion of the Big Bang wil stop and we will reach the Absolute Zero.

Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1790-1832) detected the Second Law of Thermodynamics when he tried to find the most efficient heating engine.

According to Carnot the Efficiency of an Engine is (T1T2)⁄T1, where T1 is the highest temparature. The Higher the Difference between the two Temperatures of the Engine the Lower the Efficiency. The Bigger the Step the Higher the Waste. If you want to build a highly efficient Engine, the Engine has to make very Small Steps when the Engine is heated.  This principle is known as Adiabatic Expansion (and Compression).

Physical, Chemical, and Electrical energy can be completely changed into Heat. But the Reverse (heat into physical energy, for example) cannot be accomplished without a loss. The irreversible increase of this nondisposable, useless, energy in the universe is measured by the abstract dimension  called Entropy (from the Greek entrope, change).

The Entropy measures the degree to which the probability of the system is spread out over different possible states. If all the possible States of the System are the Same, the System is in Equilibrium and the Entropy, the State of Order,  is on its Maximum.

In the Beginning of the Universe Every Thing was Different. In the End State Every Part of the Universe will be the Same.

About the History of Innovation

The central actor in the 19th century model of cultural innovation is the Artist, conceived, as an individual creator of works of art. Art is produced only by a handful of exceptional individuals.

The process of technical innovation in the 19th century was seen in terms similar. The central focus was on the work of individual inventors and researchers, commonly with little or no specifically scientific training.

By the early 20th century, this model was displaced by an industrialized process of innovation.

The first major step in this process was the rise of the Research University and the development of a large class of technically trained workers. In the 20th century, pure scientific research had become the preserve of universities and specialist research institutes.

The second major step was the development of corporate forms of business organization, which allowed Research and Development to become an organized business activity, operated on industrial lines.

The pattern of innovation in the 21st century is radically different. In most sectors of the economy, the rate of technological progress has slowed down substantially. Technological progress is characterised largely by Incremental Improvements to mature products.

In Computing and Telecommunications, the rate of progress has accelerated dramatically since the late 1980. The convergence of Computing and Telecommunications in the Internet has fundamentally transformed every activity it has touched. Everything that can be formalized will be formalized.

The Internet makes it possible that disjunct Networks of Isolated Innovators connect and share their Knowledge and Experience.

The Artist,  now connected with many other “exceptional individuals” all over the world,  is on its return.

About Incremental and Disruptive Industrial Innovation

There are two types of Industrial Innovation called “incremental”  and disruptive” innovation.

Japan (and now China) has made incremental improvement the cornerstone of  Technical Advancement. After months and years of gradual (adiabatic) changes, products look radically different, as happened with semiconductors, solar cells and batteries.

The US claims that it is the Champion of Disruptive Innovation.  Their “Internet”-entrepeneurs like Amazon, Google and Facebook believe in a “Statistical” model of Innovation, A Portfolio or an Innovation Ecology.

One of the many “Trials and Errors” will result in a big breakthrough that will Disrupt the Market. Behind Disruptive Innovation lies the Concept of Evolution, Survival of the Fittest, the Essence of Capitalism.

Disruptive Innovation uses Incremental Innovation to improve the Parts of the Portfolio.

Incremental Innovation (“Proces/Product/Business Model Improvement”) takes place  when an Innovation is improved until the Limits are reached.

Incremental Innovation could use the Efficient Small Steps of the Adiabatic Process to reach the Goal of the highly Effective.

Most of the time Proces/Product Improvement (“Standardization”) is not a Structured Process because People believe Innovation is about “Thinking Out of the Box”. If People “Think out of the Box” the proces will move into a Chaotic State and will Die.

Creative Incremental Innovation will produce a Lot of Waste (“Heat”, “Fuzz”) and accomplish Nothing. Managed Incremental Innovation has to remove the Waste and the Constraints.

With every step that is taken the System has to become more probable so the results of the proces will be more predictable. When the Limits are reached, we have to Restucture the System to move on.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics shows that Closed Systems finally Converge to a State of Equillibrium with a High Probability, a High Entropy.

Systems that are Isolated by a Boundary behave as Closed Systems. Systems that are Open to other Systems Merge and become Closed.

Most of the Time people don’t understand the Boundary of their System and Act in a Shared Boundary. In this Shared Boundary Competition takes place. Competition is a waste of Energy. If People could define their Boundaries they could Cooperate.

People Communicate. They  Share their Ideas, Problems and Solutions.  When a Process is well understood the Improvements of the Process are disseminated through the Human Networks and widely Copied.

Human Networks are Closed Systems that are connected to other Networks by Boundary Spanners.

Most people don’t understand that there are other people in other Networks who are doing the Same thing they are doing. They think their activity is Unique and don’t understand that the State of Uniqueness was only there at the Beginning.

Secrecy slows down communication between the People in the Network. The result of Secrecy is that People are unable to learn from others so they are unable to reuse the solutions of others. Secrecy is again a Waste of Time.

In the end the Competitive Advantage of the Innovation is completely gone and the Entropy of the System is at its Maximum.

At that moment every Process in every Part of the System will be the Same and the Companies will Merge or will be taken over by other Companies. Winner Takes All.

The Temperature of the Industry will move to Zero and every Movement (and Innovation) will stop.

About Creativity

There are two Views on Creativity. Creativity is a Combinatorical Game and Creativity is a Spontaneous Eruption of Ideas forced by High Pressure.

At such a moment, “the Aha-Erlebnis“, two or more Frames of Reference Fuse and a new Innovative Combination is created.

The last view has a lot to do with the theory of “Self-Organized Criticallity“.

The Metaphor of this Theory is the Disaster, the Avalanche or the Sand Pile that Suddenly moves when the critical grain of sand falls. At that moment a Significant Part of the Collection of individual grains Combines and moves on its own.

When a System is reaching the Boundaries of Proces Improvement and a Huge Pressure to Innovate is experienced,  two or more Systems (“Frames of Reference”) Fuse (Combine).

When the Systems are in Equilibrium the Fusion is easy (“Connecting”) otherwise the Fusion could become a Disaster, a Disruption, a Creative Destruction and a Huge Amount of Heat (Waste) is produced.

About Managed Creativity

If Innovation  is a Combinatorial Game we have to restructure a System into a “loosely-coupled”  System of Components and combine the Components with the “well-articulated” Components of other Systems.

A Loosely Coupled System is a System where each of its components has, or makes use of, little or no knowledge of the definitions of other separate components. The components act as Black-Boxes“.

A Component is “well-articulated” if it contains Just Enough Functionality to do the job. An Under-Articulated system is Rigid. It contains Not Enough functionality to Adapt to the Changing environment. When Systems grow old they become Over-Articulated because the Designers want to add new functionality without looking at the Boundaries of the System. Over-Articulated Systems overlap and it becomes very difficult to find the Essence. Designers always want to Solve every problem with their Own System.

Genrich S. Altshuller was a Russian Patent Officer who tried to find a Pattern behind Patents.

Altshuller screened over 200,000 patents looking for Inventive problems and how they were solved. Of these only 40,000 (20%) had somewhat Inventive solutions; the rest were straight forward improvements.

Altshuller defined an Inventive problem as one in which the solution causes another problem, a Contra-Diction or Conflict,  to appear. He found that the same problems had been solved over and over again using one of only Forty fundamental inventive principles. Altshuller  named his method  TRIZ.

Humans are prone to reivent the Wheel many times because they only look for Solutions in their own Frame of Reference. The Solution of their Problem is almost all the time already available in another Domain.

Roni Horowitz has analyzed the Principles of Althuller and found a deeper structure behind TRIZ which he called ASIT.

ASIT is about Thinking Inside the Box instead of Outside the Box. The so called Closed World condition, forces the thinker to find a creative solution by heavily limiting his or hers Space of Possibilities.

The Qualitative Change Principle looks for solutions in which the influence of the main problem factor is either totally eliminated or even reversed. The System has to become Perfect. Every Component has to fullfill just one Task  (“Well Articulated”) and the Functions of the System have to create a “Closed World” which means that the System has to be Closed in Itself.

About Combining the Combinations

The Second Law of Thermodynamics shows that it is Almost Impossible to move back to an old solution when the Solution is widely used.

Nature Solves its Problems by Experimenting but the Experiments are not completely at Random. Nature uses an Established Infrastructure and Plays with all the Possible Paths that Emerge out of the Existing Infrastructure, The Adjacent Possible.

Before life emerged on Earth, the planet was dominated by a handful of basic molecules. Each of these molecules was capable of a finite series of transformations and exchanges with other molecules in the primordial soup.

According to Stuart Kauffman Life  started when the Chemical Parts of early life  started to Re-Create themselves in a Cyclic Process  called AutoCatalysis. Re-Creation of the Same Structure is one of the most important principles of a Living System. Our body is recreated all the time in an endless Cycle until we Die.

If you could Play with all the Primordial Combinations, you would end up with the Components of Life but it is impossible to create a mosquito, or a sunflower, or a human brain.They were created when the Combinations started to Combine Again and Again.

Innovation in Nature is an endless Cyclic Expanding proces of Combining the Combinations.

This process moves on until the Limits of the Expanding Space of Possibilities are reached. These Limits are reached when there is not enough “useful” Energy available.

Combining the Combination happens in Nature but also in our Culture. Old infrastructures are used in a new way and a complete new field of Combinatorics appears.

Johannes Gutenberg took the older technology of the screw press, designed originally for making wine, and reconfigured it with metal type to invent the printing press which made it possible that new ideas, concepts and procedures were better dissiminated through the Human Networks.

Is there an End to Human Innovation?

The Universe is Expanding and is Creating New Combinations of Combinations all the Time.

The Law of Kleiber shows that the Combinations of the Combinations Fuse. The Law of Kleiber is just like Self-Organized Criticallity represented by a Power-Law. Power-Laws are independent of a Scale and therefore applicable on every Level of the Universe. They show that One Principle (“a Fractal“) Repeats itself on every Level.

Every time when the Combinations Fuse they are better equipped as a Transformer of Available Energy but the Creation of larger and larger islands of Order happens at the Expense of even greater seas of Disorder. Humanity is Wasting resources at an increasing rate, and that will lead to the destruction of our civilization.

The Combinations become Bigger and Bigger AND the Big Structures Attract Each Other. The larger group of possibilities will always be the Dominant Attractor.

This is the main reason for the success of Google, Facebook and Twitter. They have aquired the Power to Control their Market by Giving away their Products for Free so the Amount of Users would grow Exponentionally. They make money by letting other companies pay for the Use of their Huge Attractor.

The Small Auto-Katalytic Chemical Factories, the Bacteria,  that were created in the beginning are now fusing into Very Big Cities and the next Step will be One Mega-City covering a Huge Area of the Earth.  These Mega-Cities will be extremely Efficient and Effective. When this happens Nature will be replaced by a Human Made Technological Structure that has to use completely new ways to produce and use energy.

The next Step is easy to imagine. The Human Race will start to create new Mega-Cities on other Planets that will fuse into Mega-Planets.

The Big Problem will of course be Energy. We have to find new Sources all the time to support the Human Need to Expand and Discover. Every time when we create a new and Bigger Source of Energy the Amount of useless Heat will increase and the End of the Universe will get closer and closer.

Human Invention is Speeding Up the End because in the End Humans want to become One with the Whole.

According to the Second Law of Thermodynamics the Universe is moving to an Equilibrium State and not to an Extremely Impossible Innovative Configuration. At a Certain Point of Time Human Innovation has to Stop because we will reach the State of Absolute Zero Temperature and every Movement will Stop.

In the End the Universe will move into a State of Infinite Sleep.

What to Do?

The most important thing you can do when you want to Innovate is to create a Deep Understanding of just One Frame of Reference.

You have to become an Expert in Something and you have to have the attitude to create the Perfect Frame of Reference.

Every time when the System is not performing you have to solve the problem Inside the Box but you have to make use of Solutions that are Outside the Box.

Every Time when you are Satisfied,  remove a Constraint and Force Yourself to Solve the problem.

At a Certain Moment your Frame of Reference will Explode and will produce many Fragments. They are the Basic Building Blocks of Your Domain.

Start to Play with the Building Blocks and new Possibilities will appear that you have never Thought off.

You now have entered the Adjacent Possible.

LINKS

Why Neural Networks look like the Universe

About Creativity and High Pressure

About Self-Organized Criticallity

About Self-Organized Criticallity and Innovation

About Complexity Theory and Innovation

About Loosely Coupled Systems

About Boundaries

About Triz

Stuart Kaufmann about Radical Emergence

Advanced Systematic Inventive
Thinking

About ASIT (Advanced Systematic Inventive Thinking)

How Nature Plays

About Constructal Law

About the Origin of Good Ideas

About the Adjecent Possible

About the Law of Kleiber

Why Cities are Organisms

About the Beginning of the Universe

About  the End of the Universe

A City is an Organism

The System of Life is growing in size and in complexity, and so do the infrastructures sustaining it.

In 2008 the point was reached where more than 50% of the world population lives in cities. That percentage is growing. By 2030, over 60% of the world’s population – nearly five billion people – will be living in urban area.

The System of Life is generating Super Organisms and the City is one of them.

Urbanization is only a relatively recent phenomenon. As far as we now know urbanization started in Mesopotamia around 4000 – 3500 BC.

For the Ancient Mesopotamians, the cities were the centers of life. Their beginning of time was not a Garden of Eden, but rather an ancient site called Eridu, which they believed was the first city ever to be created.  The creator of Eridu was Enki, the God who came out of the Deep Waters of the Ocean  (the Abzu). The city of Eridu was destroyed by the Great Flood in 3117 BC.

Every time one of the Rulers of a City took control over many Cities and a State was created with a new Center, the Capital. In the Center of the Capital the Palace of the Ruler was situated. What we see is an Expanding Pattern in which the same Structure repeats itself all the Time.

Initially the two life-essential resources for cities were Water and Food.

As Cities grew and as technology evolved, the supply of these resources became dependent on energy for processing, for pumps and for transportation. In the process, cities and their resources evolved into a system of life energized by the individuals that populate cities, and fuel its dynamics.

mexico-city
Mexico-City

Kleiber's law
Kleiber's law

About the Law of Kleiber

The Law of Kleiber shows that Bottum-Up Structures are more efficient than Top-Down Structures.

It also shows that Big Structures are more efficient than Small Structures. The Law is applicable from the level of the Bacteria to the Level of the City and higher.

These two statements are a contradiction until we realize that there are two ways of looking at the same structure. One view is the Top-Down View. The other is the Bottom Up View. When we look Down we see a huge Hierarchy and start to believe that Big is Beautiful.

When we look Up we see that all the work is done by Small Cooperative Components starting at the Bottom with the Bacteria.

The Law of Kleiber is explained by the fact that all the organisms (including the Cities) contain the Same Fractal Structure.

Bacteria exchange their DNA
Bacteria exchange their DNA

About DNA

In the Beginning the Chemical Soup generated Self-Reproducing Chemical Factories. These Factories combined into bigger Factories by exchanging and combining their Factory-Designs (DNA-parts).

Every time when the Factories fused they became more Efficient, Bigger, Stronger, Older and therefore more Competitive. When the Factories became more Competitive they started to Protect themselves against the other Factories.

To Protect themselves the Multi-Cellular Systems began to Sense in Many Directions and became better and better in Predicting the Future.

One of our Ancient Ancestors is the Sponge which is a static Cluster of Bacteria. Scientist have detected that the DNA of the Sponge has a lot in common with the Human DNA. The Sponge contains the Basic Fractal Structure, the Tube.

In a later stage our Ancestors developed something we call a Brain. The Brain is used to Sense the Now and Predict the Future.

The Human is a Moving Sponge who is able to Imagine. With his Imagination the Human is capable to Change the Future (and the Past).

Sponge
The Sponge, the Tube, is the Basic Structure

One of the Bilateria: The Octopus
The Octopus is a Sponge with a Brain.

About Innovation

The Law of Kleiber can be explained by the principle of Self-Reference (Similarity,  Fractals).

The Small Structures at the Bottum combine into comparable structures on a higher level.

What we don’t see is that the structures on every level can be decomposed in the Same (DNA-)Components with a different Scale and a different Name.

Innovation is nothing but a  Combination of  the Components in many different ways until all the combinations are made.

At that moment One of the Combinations becomes the new DNA and a new Level is explored.

Life explores every possible path.

About Cities

A City is a Combination of Houses.

A City protects a Cluster of Houses. A House protects a Cluster of Humans and a Human protects a Cluster of Organs.

All the way down to the Bacteria,  Cooperative Clusters are formed that give the participants a more Secure Way to Live.

A House is a Body. It supports the Body but it also contains all the Bodily Functions.

If we provide the House with these Bodily Functions the House becomes more Sustainable. It is possible to regenerate the Waste that the Humans produce into Energy just as the Liver is doing in our Body.

If we Cluster the Bodily Houses into a City and we provide the City with the same functions of the Body we are able to create structures that are independent of the input of external Top-Down Sources of Energy and Food.

If we are able to detect the DNA of the House and the DNA of the City we are able to Compose new Types of Houses and Cities that are Adaptable, Scalable,  highly Sustainable and are also in Balance with Nature.

It will also be  much more easy to Destroy or Move buildings and cities to another Place without the production of Waste.

looking-to-toledo1
Toledo (Spain)

About Synchronization

In the Miedeval City the Major Cycle was the Cycle of the Seasons. In the Modern City we have become almost independent of the Cycles. We import Food and Energy out of every place in the World.

It takes a Lot of Energy to transport the Food and Energy and Many Places on Earth are dependent on a small amount of other Places that contain the Sources of our always increasing Need to Survive the Effects of our Environment.

When a lot of People (The Slaves) are dependent on a small amount of people (The Masters), the Masters start to dominate the others and increase their Power until Eternity. Power is the most important Addiction of the Humans.

The problem becomes bigger when we realize that many people are producing Food and Energy but are themselves not able to use the Food and the Energy they are producing.

The independence of the Cycles has created a huge unbalance. This unbalance is not only visible in the City but in every place on Earth that is providing Energy and Food to sustain the Modern City.

The only solution to this problem is to create self-sustaining (autarkic) Cities that are able to supply their own food, water  and energy.

Paris
The kernels of Paris

When we want to restore Balance we have to Synchronize the Cycles in the City.  This can be done with the help of Smart Technology (Sensors, Actuators, Analytics) but we can also make use of very old fashioned techniques that were used in the Middle Ages.

When Humans communicate from the Heart and focus on the same subject, the Humans start to Synchronize. They become a  Group.

The most important structure in the Miedeval City to Synchronize its inhabitants was the Building of the Heart, the Church.   The Church was always situated in the Center and was visible from a long distance. The Church was also the only place where people were always Protected.

The Human Heart is doing the same thing as the Church is doing in the City. It connects the Mind with the Organs of  the Body and the Pericardium provides one of the major Rythms of the Human Body.

If we want to Synchronize the City we have to create a Center where People are able to Commun(e)nicate about the Shared Goals of the City. The most important way to share can be found in the Human Culture. The Centres have to contain all the ways Human Culture is performed.

chartres4
The Spiraling Spiral in the Memory Palace of Chartres, the Symbol of the Fractal Universe

About the Memory Palace

Art, Music and Singing were United in the Medieval Cathedrals. The Medieval Cathedrals also contained all the Knowledge (The Memory Palace)  that was needed to understand the Universe.

If we want to Synchronize the Modern City we have to build Modern Cathedrals in the Center of the Center and use them as Places to Commune, to Educate, to Make Music, to Dance and to Sing.

We have to design them as Modern Memory Palaces (Simulators) to teach the Masses about the Fractal Universe and give them Feedback about the State of their own Environment.

sagrada-familia-barcelona-projection
The Sagrada Familia in Barcelona (Antoni Gaudi)

LINKS

This is a  presentation about The City as an Organism

Why the Tube is such an Important Structure

About The Law of Kleiber

Why Innovation is a Combination of Combinations

An Interview with Geoffrey West of the Santa Fe Institute about the Law of Kleiber

About Thermo-Economics

About the Autarkic City

About Cybernetics

About Synchronization

How Gaudi used a Machine to design the Sagrada Familia

About Machines that generate Architectures

How the Heart Synchronizes the Body

About Super Organisms

About Smart Technology

About Addiction

About the Master/Slave-relationship

About the Heart

Why the Cathedral contained all the Knowledge that was Needed

About the start of Civilization

About the Law of KLeiber

A power law relates one variable to another raised to a constant power. The general form takes y = xa, where y and x are variables, and a is a constant exponent.

A power law exhibits the property of scale invariance. When you multiply the Scale (x) with a factor b the function (y =  baxa) does not change its Shape.

In 1817 Goethe wrote his book ”Zur Morphologie“. This book was the start of a new science called Morphology, the Science of the Shapes.

In his book Goethe describes the so called Uhrplant, the Primal Plant, which is based on the shape of the Leaf. Goethe believed that every Plant was a Leaf within a Leaf within a Leaf.

At the time of Goethe the concept of the fractal was not known. It was developed in 1975 by Benois Mandelbrot (“The Fractal Geometry of Nature”).

A fractal is a self-similar structure. It’s shape repeats itself on every level of expansion.  Some fractals are scale-invariant.

Scale Invariance in the Leaf
The scale invariant fractal structure of the Leaf

About Kleiber’s Law

Metabolism is the process by which your body converts what you eat and drink into energy. During this complex biochemical process, calories in food and beverages are combined with oxygen to release the energy your body needs to function.

The oldest and best known Power Law is Kleiber’s law devised by the Swiss-American zoologist Max Kleiber in 1932.

Kleiber’s Law, MR = W3/4, describes the relationship of the metabolic rate (MR) to the biomass W, raised to an exponent.

Kleiber’s law means that a cat’s metabolic rate is not a hundred or 21.5 times greater than a mouse’s, but about 31.6 — 100 to the three-quarter power.

This relationship seems to hold across the animal kingdom  and it has since been extended all the way down to single-celled organisms, and possibly within the cells themselves to the internal structures called mitochondria, the cellular powerplants, that turn nutrients into energy. Mitochondria have many features in common with bacteria.

The law of Kleiber is  also applicable to super-organisms” like ant colonies, Cities and Eco-Systems.

Because of Economies of Scale, larger and more complex forms of organisms need less energy for each individual cell. They grow and reproduce more slowly and they live longer.

Kleiber's law
Kleiber's law

About Fractals and Kleiber’s Law

Kleiber’s law can be explained from a general model that describes how essentialmaterials are transported through Space-Filling Fractal Networks of Branching Tubes.

Goethe was right. The leaf is a one of the fundamental structures of Nature.

The factor 3/4 (3/3+1)  is a consequence of the fact that a Fractal Structure has to incorporate a not-Fractal Structure, 3-Dimensional Space.

One of the Bilateria: The Octopus
One of our fellow Bilaterians: The Octopus

About Bilateria

About 590 million years ago, the Central Nervous System (CNS), the Brain, appeared.

The organisms with a CNS (including the Humans), the Bilateria, are able to Act and React to a Possible Harmful Stimulus.

The CNS of the Bilateria is  a result of  an Increase in Competition between the Life Forms that came out of the Continuing Fusion of  the Cooperative Life Forms, the Bacteria. The first step in this proces was the Tube of the Sponge.

The fundamental Bilaterian Body Shape is a Tube running from Mouth to Anus, and a second Tube called the Notochord, with an especially large Sphere at the front, called the “Brain“.

The Bilateria have Five Body Spheres (1) the Brain; (2) the Spinal Cord; (3) the Heart and Lungs; (4) the Digestive Organs and Kidneys; (5) the Bladder and Reproductive organs.

Lung

About the Tiny Spheres of the Lungs

When we look at the Lungs, one of the Fractal Tube-like branching-structures of the human organism, we can see that the Branches end in Nodes called the alveoli (“little cavities“). The end-nodes of the branching system are tiny Spheres.

Alveoli
The Alveoli use another basic structure of Nature: The Sphere

In the tiny Spheres the Exchange takes place of Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen between the Lungs and the Blood-Vessels. Each human lung contains about 600 million alveoli.

Water diffuses from the alveoli cells into the alveoli so that they are constantly moist.  Oxygen dissolves in this water before diffusing through the cells into the blood.

The Oxygen-rich blood returns to the Heart via the pulmonary veins to be pumped back into circulation. The Carbon Dioxide is pumped out by the Lungs.

In the many million Small Spherical End-Nodes Two Circulatory Systems, the Cardiovascular System (Heart) and Pulmonary System (Lungs), are Connected.

The Big Structures of Nature are able to Scale because the Connection-Points of the Networks are Very Small.

They are reusable on Every Scale that is Bigger than the Scale of the Connection Points.

We will see that all the other Fractal Systems in our Body are based on the Same Principle.

Villi
Villi

About the Tube of the Digestive System

The Tube contains the Digestive System. It breaks-down larger food molecules into smaller ones that can be absorbed into the blood stream. This happens in the Small Intestine in the vili and microvilli.

The villi (“shaggy hair“)  are tiny, finger-like projections that are approximately 0.5-1mm in length. The microvilli are mechanosensors and have a lot in common with the flagellum (“the roter“) of a bacterium. Microvilli appear in many places in the body. They are also of importance on the cell surface of white blood cells, as they aid in the migration of white blood cells.

The Tube of our Digestive System is highly similar to the Tube of the Sponge, the first fusion of the Bacteria in a  more efficient metabolic structure.

The Output part of the Tube is called the Large Intestine (Colon). Its function is to absorb water from the remaining indigestible food matter, and then to pass Useless Waste Material from the body. The large intestine houses over 700 species of bacteria that perform a variety of functions.

Liver
The Liver Fractal

About the Chemical Factory of the Liver Cell.

The Liver is  a Fractal Branching System that detoxifies harmful substances absorbed via the Small Intestines.  It’s basic structure is the Liver Cell.

The Chemical reactions in the liver cells produces a lot of waste heat. This is carried round the body in the blood and warms less active regions.

The Liver regulates the amount of Blood Sugar, Lipids, Amino Acids.  The Liver is the Storage House of  Blood, Iron, Vitamine A, D, B12  and Clycogen, the Source of Energy of the Body.

The Liver produces Bile that is stored in the Gall Bladder. Bile is used to dissolve fat.

White Blood Cell
The White Blood Cell

About the Spleen and the Immune System

Another Fractal Branching System, the Lymphatic System ( “The Immune System“, Spleen),  maintains the health of the body by protecting it from invasions by harmful pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. These pathogens are the cause of many diseases, so it is necessary to detect and eliminate them rapidly.

The Lymphatic System is connected to the Blood System and produces the White Blood Cells (Lymphocites).  The Lymphocites are the Basic Unit of the Human Defense System. They look like Bacteria.

A lymphocite fits with a pathogen
A lymphocite fits with a pathogen

The surface of a lymphocyte is covered with a large number of identical receptors. Recognition and destruction occurs when the receptors of the lymphocyte fit like a key into the surface of the pathogen.

The Immune System is a Highly Adaptive System. It is able to generate new types of Lymphocites out of a Library of DNA-components.

Nephron
Nephron

About the Kidneys and the Bladder

The Kidneys serve the body as a natural filter of the blood, and remove wastes which are diverted to the urinary bladder. The Nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney. In humans, a normal kidney contains 800,000 to 1.5 million nephrons. Nephrons are wave-like structures. Its chief function is to regulate the concentration of water and soluble substances like sodium salts by filtering the blood.

About the Electro Magnetic System

The last  Fractal Branching System, the Meridians, is a Fast Electro-Magnetic Channel that connects to Organs to the Spine and the CNS.

The Ancient Chinese Scientists believed that this System pumps its Energy, the Chi Force, out of the Earth Magnetic Field.

The Ancient Egyptian Scientists believed the same thing. They named  the Four Cavities the Four Suns of Horus and the Spine, the Djed Pillar (Dj means “Snake”).

The Five Organs of Acupuncture
The Five Systems of Acupuncture

About the number Five

The number Five (4 +1 ) plays an important role in Ancient Chinese Medicine.

The Central Fractal System, the One (1), the Fire System, the Blood System, with its Center the Heart,  contains Four (4) Links to the Other Systems.

The Four Systems are combinations of Two Forces, Expansion and Compression.

The Two Forces came out of One Force (“The Void“).

Two Systems contain the same combination (Expansion x Expansion (Wood, Gall Bladder, Liver, Three Heater), Compression x Compression (Metal, Lungs)).

Two Systems combine Expansion and Compression in a different order (Expansion x Compression, Compression x Expansion). They create a Wave (Water, Bladder, Kidney) or Spiral -like (Earth, Immune System) structures.

The Five Spheres of the Body are incorporated in one Super Protective Sphere, the Coelum, the Skin.

In the Human Embryo the First step of Division of the Cells is between the Coelum,the Multi-Cellar Body, and the Brain, the CNS. In the first step the One was divided into the Two, the Actor and the Monitor.

The CNS  “mirrors” the activities of  the Body and acts as a “predictive simulator”.

The Shape of the CNS is a mirror (Up-Side-Down) of the Shape of the Multic-Cellular Body.

The Bilateria are a Fuse of two Organisms in which one organism changed into the Body and the other changed into the Brain.

These two structures are always competing in the Human Being.

The Brain is Looking Up at the Sky. The Body is Looking Down at Mother Earth, it’s Creator.

The Brain and the Body are United in  the Heart, the Balancer of Body and Soul and the Keeper of the Rhythm (The Pericardium).

Sponge
Sponge, The Tube

About Bacteria

The Body Shape of the Tube was inherited from the first Multi-Cellular Organism, the Sponge. The Sponge is a  Static Cluster of Amoeba, free moving bacteria, that are propelled by their flagellum (a Roter).

Bacterium
The Basic Building Block of the Body, the Bacterium

Bacteria are small chemical factories that are able to share and combine their production processes by exchanging DNA.

With their flagellum the Bacteria Explore the environment to find the chemical food they need. When they have found food the Circulation of the Flagellum moves into the Opposite Direction.

The bacterium integrates incoming chemical signals during a few-second period of its travels, and adjusts its direction of advance accordingly.

The integration is achieved through temporary chemical modifications to molecules located in the bounding membrane, which transfer nutrients to the cytoplasm, and also through changes to certain other molecules in the interior of the cell. Such integration is essentially a short-term memory mechanism.

Bacteria exchange their DNA
Bacteria exchange their DNA

At a certain moment the Bacteria got together because the Sponge is a much more Efficient Metabolic Structure than a group of Free Moving Bacteria.

Strangely enough the DNA of the Sponge already contains the complete Bleuprint of the Humans.

Scientists now believe that most species on earth are a result of a loss of DNA from the original Bleuprint that was created when the Bacteria finally fused into one Organism.

About the Nano-Level

Recently scientists have found Electric Fields as strong as 15 million volts per meter in the Nano-Parts of the Cells. These fields are as strong as those produced in lightning bolts.

It’s not clear what causes these strong fields or what they might mean but they could account for a until now unknown (by Science) or well-known (by the Old Scientists, Chi) Source of  Bodily Energy.

The nano-parts of the Cell could be the very very very small universal building blocks of Nature.

What has Happened?

In the beginning the Chemical Soup generated Self-Reproducing Chemical Factories.

These Factories combined into bigger Factories by exchanging and combining their factory-designs.

Every time when the Factories fused they became more Efficient, Bigger, Stronger, Older and therefore more Competitive.

When the Factories became more competitive they had to Protect themselves against the other Factories.

To Protect themselves the Multi-Cellular Systems started to Sense in Many Directions.

In the first step a Nerve-Net was created.

In the second step one part of the Organism turned Upside-Down and became a Specialized Predictive System (the CNS).

This part fused with the Bodily Part creating one Organism that contained Two Organisms.

The Bilateria, the Organisms with Two Complementary Parts, Body and Mind, were born.

Some of the Bilateria called Humans fused in Social Structures and the Social Structures fused and fused and became more efficient, bigger, stronger, older and therefore more competitive.

In due time they will Rule the Earth and will start to create bigger and bigger systems until they will rule the complete Universe.

To make this possible the Humans need every other part of Nature to Sustain their Growth. This will certainly result in a huge Collapse of their own Eco-System.

The main reason this is happening is that the Humans forgot to Copy the Designs of Mother Nature.

The Brain (Thinking and Sensing, Left Brain), Looking Up at the Sky,  believed it could do a much Better Job than it’s counterpart the Multi-Cellular Body (Emotions and Imagination, Right Brain), Looking Down at the Earth, the Source of All Creation.

Kleiber’s Law shows that we are now using 122 times more Energy per Person than we really would need if we would Scale in the right way.

What can we learn from Kleiber’s Law?

All organisms including the humans depend for their maintenance and reproduction on the close integration of numerous subunits.

These components need to be serviced in a relatively `democratic’ and efficient fashionto supply energy, remove waste  and regulate activity.

Natural Selection solved this problem byevolving hierarchical fractal-like branching networks, whichdistribute Energy, Information and Materials between Big Reservoirs (“Lungs”) and Small Connection Points (“Alveoli”) of other Circulatory Systems (“Blood”).

This Fractal Bottum-Up approach is highly effective and efficient.

The not-fractal, Top-Down,  machinery designed by the Humans is Scaled with a factor 1 so we can improve a lot by copying Mother Nature.

LINKS

About Goethe and Morphology

About the Heart Chakra or Why the Heart connects the Brain and the Body

How to use the Heart to find Balance

About the Heart and Ethics

Why Humans look a lot like Bacteria

About Kleibers Law and the Rain Forest

About the Five Worldviews

A movie about Fractal Structures in Nature

About the Fusion of Water in the Cell

About the Number Five in Chinese Medicine

Why Humans are part of Super Organisms

How the Humans evolved out of the Bacteria

About the Left and the Right Brain

About the Void

How the Heart synchronizes the Body

About the Fast Transmisson Channel in the Body

About Kleiber’s Law

A general model to explain Kleiber’s Law

About Kleiber’s Law and the Growth of Cities

About the Immune System

About Bacteria

About the Law of Kleiber and Ant Colonies

The terrestrial evolution of metabolism and life

A movie about the origin of vertebrates

There is only the Dance

shivadance
Nataraja

Shiva the Hindu god of destruction is also known as Nataraja, the Lord of the Dance. Like yoga, dance induces trance, ecstasy and the experience of the divine.

The most common figures depict a four-armed Nataraja. These multiple arms represent the four cardinal directions. Each hand either holds an object or makes a specific mudra (gesture).

The upper right hand holds a hour-glass drum which is a symbol of creation. It is beating the pulse of the universe. The drum also provides the music that accompanies Nataraja’s dance.

The opposite hand, the upper left, bears on its palm a tongue of flames. Fire is the element of destruction of the world. It is also the symbol of passion.

The second right hand is held in the abhaya pose (without fear) and so a gesture of protection. It depicts the god as a protector.

The left leg is raised towards the right leg and reaches across it; the lower left hand is stretched across the body and points to the upraised left foot which represents release from the cycle of birth and death.

The hand pointing to the uplifted foot is held in a pose imitative of the outstretched trunk of an elephant. In Sanskrit this is known as the ’gaja-hasta-mudra’ (the posture of the elephant trunk), and is symbolic of Ganesha, Shiva’s son, the Remover of Obstacles.

Nataraja dances on the body of a dwarf apasmara-purusha, the man of forgetfulness, who embodies indifference, ignorance and laziness.

Creation is possible only when the weight of inertia is overcome and suppressed. The Nataraja image thus addresses each individual to overcome complacency and get his or her own act together.

The ring of fire and light, which circumscribes the entire image, identifies the field of the dance with the entire universe. The lotus pedestal on which the image rests locates this universe in the heart or consciousness of each person.

The hands of Shiva represent the Human Faculties of the Imagination (Creation, Spirit, Vishnu), Control (Destruction, Thinking, Compression, Shiva), Desire (Agni, Fire, Sensing &Acting, Expansion) and the Emotions (Soul, Ganesha, Motivation, Removing Obstacles).

Vishnu, the Holy Spirit
Vishnu

Imagination

Humans need the “Illusion of Control” to sustain their Identity. Deep within they don’t want to believe that Other Human Beings or the Forces of Nature (“the Acts of God“) are also Active Agents.

The Imagination creates the Identity, the believe that I Am What I Am.

When we are in Deep Meditation, the Observer, the Consciousness, is able to watch the constant popping up of  Images (Ideas) out of the Nothing. 

If we are not able to keep the Observer-state, we move into the Sleep of the Darkness or our Senses are attracted by one of the Images  and move into the Dream State.

According to Buddist belief the Dream State, (Maya, Not-That) is Not the Real Word.  This world is hidden behind a veil. Behind the veil lies the Void.

The Void is not empty. It is comparable to the Zero-Point-Field, the state of the Universe before the Big Bang. In this state everything,  even the impossible,  is possible.

In the Void, Ideas of the First Creator (Brahman) Pop-Up, Move into Existence for a while and finally disappear. 

For a very long time Brahman was in deep meditation until one of the Ideas of Brahman created a Huge Excitement. This was the Idea to become Aware of Itself.

To make this happen Brahman had to spit itself into two parts, the Observer (Being, Consciousness) and the Actor (Becoming, Desire, Acting).  

Maya, the Material World,  the Expanding Universe, was created when the Desire to become Aware generated the first Split of the Universe, the split between the Void and the Not-Void, the Whole.

At this moment the Left Brain and the Right Brain of Brahman are fusing and soon we all will experience the Whole which is not the Void. The Void will stay a Mystery for Ever and Ever.

Ganesha
Ganesha

Motivation

Ganesha rides a mouse, the symbol of mankind’s ignorance, his hidden fears and insecurities and his deep attachment to petty worldly objects.

By riding on the mouse, Ganesha shows that one can and must control and overcome all negative feelings. One can be the master of oneself and need not be a slave.

The head of Ganesha, the Elephant,  symbolizes the Atman, the Soul  and his human body signifies Maya.

Our “Head” or better our Soul is connected to the Void,  but our Body is an Expression of the Non-Void.

Our Body is part of the Material World and has to obey the Rules of the Material World.

Ganesha represents the Emotions, the Motivation, the Rotation, that started when Maya started to expand. When an Elephant is In Motion it is able to remove all obstacles.  

An Elephant is Part of a Herd that needs a Shephard (Vishnu, the Imagination) to find Its Way.

When an Idea pops up in the Imagination it moves the Wheel of the Emotions and the Body want to realize the Idea in the Material World.

Agni, the God of Fire
Agni

Desire

Agni brings about growth, expansion, ascension, and transformation. It is the fire hidden in earthly things which rises out of them to heaven beyond.

Fire is the symbol of agni. The quality of fire is to spread itself. Because it spreads itself in every direction, it is present everywhere. Even though it spreads in all directions its motion is always upwards. It carries everything that it consumes and purifies, upwards.

If the motivation to realize the idea is there,  the Fire of Agni is lighted and the Human becomes passionated.

If you are  not able to control your passions you will become Addicted to the idea and the idea will never be realized.

Shiva, the Destroyer
Shiva

Control

Shiva is the Destroyer. He wants to bring everything back to the void.  The Fire of Agni is able to expand the orginal idea to exceptional proportions.

At a certain moment Shiva stops the Fire and takes over Control. The idea is simplified,  put into a plan and is finally on its way to the Material World.

The Cycle Moves On

But the Creative Energy is already busy to generate new Ideas. If this happens,  the orginal plan is adapted and adapted (“scope creap“) and will never be realized.

LINKS

About Emptyness

About the Fusion of the two Minds of Brahman

About Ma’át, the Egyptian Shiva

About Good and Evil

About the Illusion of Control

About Addiction

Why you need an Obstacle to become Excited

About Scope Creap

About Crowds

The theory of  the Wisdom of the Crowd supposes that it is possible to create collective wisdom out of the combination of the wisdom of many disconnected independent intelligent (wise) individuals.

This theory has nothing to do with a Crowd. As you will see Crowds are not intelligent. Crowds are groups of people that are totally synchronized and act out of their collective emotions.

When people talk they move into a state of entrainment within a few seconds. The reason is the dialogue itself. If focuses the participants on the same issue.

When many people focus their attention at the same subject  (television, movie, music, soccer match, a ritual, ..) the same effect happens. Individuals in a crowd become the crowd.

When many individuals  are not focused on a shared goal they will never become a crowd. In this case every individual will go his own way looking for a “real” crowd.

Human beings want to be part of a crowd because a crowd is one of the most effective ways to generate a lot of personal energy.

Most people, the generators,  are energy producers. Some people are energy consumers. Extraverts take their energy out of the crowd. Introverts accumulate energy when they are alone and relaxed. It is not easy to entrain introverts.

parties

crowd2

crowd

RUSSIA-EASTER

soccer

Why Crowds give Energy

Entrainment or Trance is a state of the body in which the Left and Right Brain are synchronized. When this happens the Human becomes his Emotions.

Sociologist Randall Collins has called this interactive rhythmic entrainment the “hum of solidarity“.

As in an empassioned conversation, the synchrony of our rhythms forms an inaudibly low frequency, we hum. If you record such a conversation and speed up the recording a few octaves, you will hear it. Laughing together is a perfect example, often showing rapid synchronization.

Ritual practices (meals, parties, etc) help sustain these moments of solidarity over time. The local energy exchange is a fine-grained flow of micro-events that build up in patterns of split seconds and ebb away in longer periods of minutes, hours, days.

These local interactions combine, giving rise to another form at a ‘higher’ degree, a social emotion. Emotional energy is defined by Randall Collins as a feeling of confidence, elation, strength, enthusiasm, and initiative in taking action. And it is the giving and recieving of emotional energy that keeps a practice, an idea, a fad, a tune, and a people going.

Shamans and cultural leaders have known this for centuries and used rhythmic or emotional entrainment to heal, commune with, or even to brainwash and destroy one another.

The role of rhythm in trance music is largely in synchronizing an individual’s internal rhythms (heart rate, respiratory rate, blood flow, neural potentials) with those of others. And this is done by using a swift, loud, clear rhythm to drive everyone.

When people synchronize they experience a rise of their energy-level and this energy-level persists for about a week. That is why spiritual rituals are repeated every week on a Sun-day, the day of the Energy of the Center.

crowd in panic

How to control Moving Masses

Events that create a huge amount of emotional energy like concerts and soccer-matches attract huge amount of people. There have been many incidents where the movement of the entrained crowds has created many casualties.

People in crowds obey just two rules. Copy the other and keep a certain distance to the other.

The distance is a very important variable. When the distance exceeds the limit of the personal field, the personal fields merge and the personal identity dissolves into the collective identity.

At that moment the crowd starts to move on its own. The “leader“, the first person in the crowd,  becomes a very important person. When the “leader of the crowd” does not know what to do, the crowd will start to behave in a chaotic way. Experiments show that about 5% of the people in a crowd are “leading’ the crowd.

When you want to control a crowd you have to control the people that are in front of the crowd.

When you want to control a moving crowd you have to create a structure that guides the crowd (“way-finding”).  One of the most important mistakes is to create a bottleneck in this structure.

When the crowd moves into this bottleneck it will slow down the speed of the crowd and the distance between the members of the crowd will decrease until the crowd will stop at a certain point creating a “traffic jam”.  At that point people will be crushed.

When people participate in a crowd the Emotions of the crowd become dominant. When the crowd is attacked or is unable to find its way,  the negative Primary Emotions appear.

In  this state individuals are able to produce highly agressive behavior (Fight), extreme passive behavior (Freeze) or extreme avoidant behavior (Flight).

When the flow of the crowd is disturbed somewhere and the collective moves into the state of panic the bottleneck will certainly kill or injure many people.

osama_bin_laden

How to manipulate the Masses

The predictable behavior of a crowd has been known for a very long time. This knowledge was used by intelligent “dictators” who wanted to use the masses for their own aim. Good examples are of course Hilter and Goering, his communications manager.

When they tried to move the masses, the mass media were in their infancy. At this moment it is possible to reach millions of people with ease. The “leaders” of this moment know that they have to behave and talk in a certain way to entrain their followers.

The big problem is that crowds are unable to think so they have to simplify their message and emphasize certain “mantra’s“. The effect of their behavior is that the world becomes very simple.

The most effective way to influence the Crowd is to divide the Crowd into two parts, the In-Crowd (“we’) and the Out-Crowd (“not-we”) and to project everything that is wrong on the Out-Crowd. Hitler used the Jews but at this moment the Muslims are the most used “Out-Crowd”.

There is nothing wrong when Leaders use the Psychology of the Masses to move the Masses. The masses, the Sheep,  need a leader, the Shepherd. Without a leader they start to drift and will never reach the Promised Land.

When Leaders misuse innocent people of the Out-Crowd to increase their own power there is something terribly wrong.  These Leaders are criminals and should be treated this way.

LINKS

About the Good and the Evil

About the Fascist State

About Entrainment

About Trance

About the Left and Right Brain

About the Emotions

Randall Collins, Interaction Ritual Chains

How crowds behave in a public place

Why Crowds Panic

A Scientific paper about Entrainment and Religion