the Future of Engineering (Version 1.4)

This a highly dynamic blog .Everyday I will add new parts so when you want to follow my progress come back as often as you like .

In version 1.3 I swrite about the Ancient Science of Egypt in Chapter 6 .

In version 1.4  I write about the role of consciousness in Design in chapter 7.

When you want to discuss the issue of the Future of Engineering join the Linkedin Group with the same name.

After  a few lines my English Text starts->

.De inspiratie om te gaan schrijven ontstond toen ik door Harm Rozie in contact werd gebracht met ingenieurs die bezig waren met het verbeteren van hun vakgebied onder de noemer (First Time Right).

De reden is dat de meeste technologieprojecten die vaak meer dan een miljard kosten mislukken en dat het er op lijkt dat de aannemers erg veel baat hebben van dit mislukken omdat dan alles nog een keer of meer moet.

-> Part 1: Collin.Managing Complex Projects

The amount of failing complex technology-projects is increasing.

I got in contact with a group of people who were trying to solve this poblem. One of them is Theo Lohman. He developed a method called Collin (Collective Intelligence) .The Model of Collin

Kent Palmer has been busy in the US to solve the same problems in a completely different way. Kent is building a new engineering theory he calls Schema Theory.

Theo and others have  developed Relatics . Relatics is a tool to support the making of project-documentation.

You can link documents to a common project-datamodel. The idea behind Relatics is that big projects fail because the participants loose oversight. This can be prohibited  by making standardized documentation.

Relatics is a manual tool. You have to make the projectmodel and the  links to the content/documentation by hand.

We have developed a tool that makes a semantic-network  out of the content of a project using text-mining. This tool can also be used to make a semantic network out of of any software-code.

Leo Ruijven, wrote a dissertation about Collin (and more) called : A unified framework improving interoperability and symbiosis in the field of Systems Engineering.

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Part 2. Paths of Change (PoC)

I found out that Collin has a lot to do with Paths of Change (Poc) of Will Mcwhinney. The main reason is that PoC contains a general framework that has been used for many ages in many cultures.

PoC is a Meta-Theory (or better a Meta-Praxis) that explains many theories (and philosophies).

PoC uses the concept of Worldview, a Sensory definition of a unique perspective at the world you live in. “look/view” is not the right word because one of the worldviews is called  Sensory.

Poc has a lot in common with the Archetypes of Jung (Sensing, Thinking (Unity, Models, Rules), Feeling (Social, Emotions) and Intuiting (Mythic, Imagination).

PoC is a fractal framework which means that Poc can be applied to  Itself.

Poc is also a clyclic framework which means that the views of the Paths of Change are connected in a cycle (and a meta-cycle (etc.) that moves With (Introvert) and   Against the cClock (Extravert) .

Poc also contains a center. (the cross) that can be seen as a Projection of Consciousness seen as the Observer.

5elements

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 Garl Jung called the framework behind his Archetypes a Quaternion, a 4×4-square that contains complementary (“dual”) concepts (Senses/Facts vs Imagination), (Object/Unity) vs/Subject (Social).

The Quaternion has a lot in common with the Chinese  Lo Shu Magic square which is the “generator” of the ancient Chinese Cyclic Models.

The Lo Shu Square on the back of a small turtle surrounded by the signs of the Chinese zodiac

Jung got a lot of his ideas out of a very long discussion about the dreams of Wolfgang Pauli, one of the creators of Quantum Mechanics.

A Quaternion is a square. A square can be divided by a line into two Triangels. The mathematical Triangle has a lot to do with the Spiritual triangel, the trinity . The Triangel is also a basic building block in Geometry.

The work of Kent almer is called Schema Theory.

Schema Theory uses Mathematics  as a foundation and shows that the history of mathematics follows the history of Engineering. Both make use of the same ideas/concepts.

To me this is fine because  I am a trained mathematician.

The nice thing with mathematics is that most mathematicians are also philosopher because both need the same concepts to explain what they are looking for or have found.

Kent Palmer uses the concept of the Schema as a central frame to explain what is or was happening in Engineering . A Schema is a 2-dimensional frame.

Part 3: Kent Palmer About Naming SYstems

My Father was born in the center of the Netherlands called “de Veluwe”. His family spoke a different dialect as my mothers family.

Later I met other people with diffrent dialects. I even found out that Science and Banking use their own dialect.

A Dialect is a unique way in which people speak a language that is often highly related to a shared language.

There are many ways to group dialects (Location, Social Class, Profession,.History, culture ..). Dialects can be highly confusing that’s why standardizing terminology is needed when you want to make enduring relationships. 

Bahktin, a Russian Philosopher spent his whole life researching literature. Bahktin developed the concept of the Chronotope : “the intrinsic connectedness of temporal and spatial relationships that are artistically expressed in literature”. Bahktin found many cycles (the Wheel of Life) that are explained by Paths of Change.

ferris wheel under blue sky

In 176 At ABN (a big bank) I was asked to take care of the Data and the Terminology of the bank (Data-Management). We used a special database called a Dictionary to store all the definitions of the data and their technical implementations in database, software and manual processes. The model of the Dictonary was called a Meta-Model.

After some time we found out that the meta-model was a self-reference (a fractal) and it all came back to my favorite subject I found when I was trained as a programmer.

To teach us we  were given highly difficult problems we had to solve in a very short time using a highly limited computer (1969 CRI Leiden). I found out that the best solutions were always fractal.

Later the specifications of the software and the coding  were stored in the same dictionary now called a repository.

Later I got into contact with many scientists that were highly interested in data and the meaning (semantics) of data.

In my fathers dialect  a  Plank was called a schap. In English Schap is called scape . A plank is a horizontal frame that is used to carry objects.

A LandScape is A portion of land or territory which the eye can comprehend in a single view, including all the objects it contains.

A Horizontal Frame can be seen from a Stake. A stake (“paal”) is a pointed foundation hit in the ground.When you climb  the Stake you can see the Horizon. When you climb you use a scale.

The Horizon is a Horizon-tal Line.

calm water with sun and orange skyPerspective (looking thhrough a hole) was invented by Painters in the Renaissance and was transformed into Projective Geometry that was transformed into the Model of Curved Space/Time that was used by Einstein when he developed Special Relativity Theory.

Parallel lines cross at infinity which is the Horizon.

Vriendschap is called Friendship in English. A Ship is a Scape. a horizontal frame floating on Water.

A Scape, a view or picture of a scene, has various synonyms: context, situation, environment, ecosystem, medium, milieu,or Gestalt.

In the linked document called Naming Systems Kent Palmer writes bout Meta-Systems, Meta-Systems float above normal Systems.

Meta  means about the thing itself. It’s seeing the thing from a higher perspective. When you want to get oversight you have to go UP until you see the Horizon. UP is called Abstracting.

An Abstracted System is always simpler than the System itself. This means that Abstracting is leaving “things out”.

When the process of leaving things out is chaotic you will leave the relation between the Meta-System and the System it is about.

If this is the case the total development-process is in a mess. To save the project or sometimes even the company you have to find all the content produced and reconstruct the genesis of the project to pick up the pieces.

When ABN and AMRO (another big Bank) were fused I was made responsible for this process. To fuse the two banks we needed new technology (called everse-engineering) to get the meaning out of all the stored content in many sometimes very old libraries called archives.

We even needed tools to extract the meaning out of operational software without source and object in in the state of a load module.To save the bank we even had to look worldwide for solutions and got into contact with institutions (NASA) that finally pointed back to Scientists in the Netherlands.

This started an ongoing research-relationship until today in which we develop new tools to handle the new content (pictures, movies, ,,)  available and try to reach a higher level of understanding.

An important point to note is that software-engineers especially in highly complex businesses have perhaps solved more problems than the engineers that started the field of system-engineering.  I am sure that Kent Palmer is aware of this point.

Part 4:  Kent Palmer About Meta-Systems

Kent Palmer wrote a document: The Advance of the Systems Engineering Discipline through an understanding of Meta-systems theory.

To write This part I have copied ltext out of the document but have also added pieces of my own thinking/out of my own practice.

Paths of Change (PoC) contains connected Steps that are defined by a World-View. A World is a long period of time. The steps always end at the same step. That is why PoC is called a Cycle.

A world-view is about looking in a special way or at a special direction at a scape.

As we already saw we are looking Up into the sky when we are abstracting. When we have abstracted (made things simpler) we have developed a theory.

When we apply/use the theory we are practising. Practice is about going Down until we are standing with our feed on the ground (earth).

We can also look backwards (the Beginning, Creation, History) or forwards (Future, Horizon).

Systems Engineering can be viewed as a practical discipline and Systems Theory as an academic pursuit.

A dual is a mirror of paired concepts. Theory and practice are duals.Their mirror is the reverse of a  process we call abstracting.

A Mata-System is a dual of a System but it is not necessary that the reverse-process is a mirror.

A System has an environment or ecosystem (” or a Scape) that surrounds it and which it is embedded in. This use of “meta” means beyond (or part of or connected to )  rather than above.

In this case systems can even live (or interact) in their-Scape.

Systems (in terms of theories) can even be tested in their Meta System without going from theory to practice.Perhaps practice does not need theory or practice is ahead of theory.

The only thing we have to detect is the stake we have climbed to see the horizon of the system or what is behind its horizon.

Systems Theory should learn from Systems Engineering. But there are equally many places where the reverse is true.

Systems Theory has no practical side that allows it to generate problems for the academics to solve. But on the other hand Systems Engineering lacks the theoretical foundation that will allow it to ground its practice.

It can appropriate Systems Theory but really it needs not just a Systems Theory but also the inverse of that, a Meta-systems Theory. It will take both of these to ground a robust Systems Engineering practice.

Part 5: Kent Palmer: Emergent Design: Explorations in Systems Phenomenology in Relation to Ontology, Hermeneutics and the Meta-Dialectics of Design

This is a highly complex document with a lot of discussion about subjects most engineers don’t know about. I have taken out of this document what I can use to make a point. I understand that a part of the language is too difficult.Text between “is a citation

Systems Engineering is focused on creating systems as artifacts that are used and operated, which, in turn, change the environment for newer systems that will take their place in the future“.

“These systems are created by a lengthy and involved development process that includes: Requirements Development, Architectural and Sub-system Design, Implementation, Verification, Validation, Integration, and Operation”.

Schemas are templates of pre-understanding of spacetime envelopes that we project onto our experience in order to differentiate objects of different scales in terms of their dimensionality”.

Kent Palmer is desperately trying to find a level of abstraction (a place high in  Sky) to make a distinction between all the ways objects (humans but also animals or perhaps machines) that look or are aware have an understanding of the environment they exist in.

He believes that we live in space/time which is the result of a very long  process of thinking about perspective in painting which is looking through a very small hole at a scape.

In the scape we look at objects he calls envelopes (something filled with something else). In spacetime objects have a location that possibly moves in space and a form that also moves and changes in time. humans make pictures/movies/content of the movement share/ communicate about the content and remember/imagine and make models of the content.

Space/time is a highly dynamic environment.What we make or have made is sometimes stable for some time but the process of making (“engineering”) disappears and is sometimes reconstructed (archeology“) with a lot of imagination involved.

sand desert statue pyramid
Spynx

A schema looks like a method but he calls it a template of pre-understanding.

The richness of nature comes from the variety of schematic organizations (“a ants nest”) that are being projected by different species, while the artificial creation of our human centered environments tends to blot them out and replace them with our own schematizations exclusively, which leads to a lessening of the variety of schematizations that can be realized in the overall natural environment“.

Are Ants engineers?

It looks like organisms that are very different from the human and that don’t use language are able to ceate arifacts that are highly comparable to what human engineers are making. Until now we don’t know how they are doing this.

animal world apiary beehive bees

Kent Palmer makes a difference  between ants and humans by using the concept  of a  Shared  experience. of a lifeworld. This concept was created by Edmund Hussler around 1936.”The ‘lifeworld is a grand theatre of objects variously arranged in space and time relative to perceiving subjects”.A “ifeworld means a person’s subjective construction of reality, which he or she forms under the condition of his or her life circumstances“.

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Part 6:  About the Age of Reason and the Power of the Imagination.
Kent Palmer writes about the many  strange coincidences that happened when he was looking for patterns that could help him to extend General Systems theory.The same happened to me. It all happened when I got into an unexpected Jump Of my Kundalini.

kundalini tyoga.jpeg

This happens when (the 7th)and the down chakra (called Trumpets in the Bible) fuse.This   started a strange process of synchronicity that brought me a lot of information about the theory behind ancient knowledge.THis ancient knowledge returned to the West (Italy) at the Renaissance when the archives of the center of knowledge of the ancient world in Heliopolis (Egypt)(later  Alexandria) were found in Byzantium. Heliopolis was a Scientific center of the World a long time ago and attracted “scientists” sometimes called Magicians  (see Magi) that advised the Rulers of the World that wanted to prevent the world for a new disaster comparable to the Great Flood.The most important knowledge to protect  was  the control of the power of the Mind by the Imagination.To block this power a counter-movement was organized out of Venice, the financial center of the world. The managers of this movement started to promote Reason as a powerful force.They decided to use Newton as as an Example of  a briljant Scientist and started to block the thinking of Leibniz that had a lot to do with Alchemy, the Science of Ancient Egypt.

So ABove So Below: The fractal pattern of the Moebius Ring repeats itself, The Cup of the Heart is a Dual Trumpet called  Chakra in India.

This al started the Age of Reason, The Enlightment, in which the Imagination was transformed into the confusing Fantasy and the warm Emotions of the Heart became a blockage for Cold scientific thinking.Part 7:  About Consciousness

What is Shinto? Shinto is the Religion of Japan. In Shinto “gods” are called kami. Kami is, in essence, one of those spiritual concepts that can be found everywhere and in everything. It is a mystical property established because there is no direct difference between the material world and spiritual existence.  In shinto even machines have a spirit.

woman wearing red and white dress walking near a shinto shrine
Shinto Schrine

In classical Roman religion, a genius loci (plural genii locorum) was the protective spirit of a place.

In almost every ancient religion Spirits were related to special places or special people (“saints”). When you visit such a place many people feel the power of the place.Ancient Religious Places like the Cathedrals of the Middle Ages reused the power of the ancient places. A good example is  Chartres which was a holy place of the Druids.

BlackMadonna
The Black Virgin of Chartres Cathedral

The book the Third Reich of Dreams shows that people know what will happen in the Future. After Hitler came to power in 1933, Charlotte Beradt, a Berlin-based journalist, began to awaken night after night bathed in perspiration, teeth clenched in terror. On one of these nights, after dreaming of being hunted “from pillar to post” by storm troopers, a new thought arrived: what if she wasn’t the only one? What if the things that appeared in her nightmares were also being visited upon other people? This startling thought set in motion the seeds of a research project. Beradt quietly began to query people about their dream-life.  She found out that many people dreamt the same dreams and dreamt the concentration camps of Hilter long before they were invented.When people are brought under hypnosis they can be brought back to the past (into their past lifes) and into the Future. The experiments showed that people are able to predict a shared future with a high accuracy. The best explanation for the fusion of Quantum Mechanics and Relativity Theory is the so called Wheeler Feynman Aborber Theory. This theory showes that it is possible to influence history in the future.John Wheeler believes that the Universe is a Self-Observing system. Wheeler suggested that reality is created by observers and that: “no phenomenon is a real phenomenon until it is an observed phenomenon.” .When I was a young child I found out that I was able to Read people. When you read people you are able to see what is in their mind.  When I was much older I met highly expirienced Adviser that took a training in reading. We experimented  with collective reading and proved that we could read an organization. Will McWhinney organized workshops in NeW Mexico near Taos. We were introduced to many “new” techniques that were developed there called Organizational Dreaming (OD) and Organizational Sculptures (OC). In OD people agreed to solve a problem by sharing their dreams. In OS one person used other people to build a balanced structure that represented his problems. After a signal everybody made a next step en told the “scluptor” what came up in his or her mind. This gave remarkable results. Much later OC came back in the Netherlands as Opstellingen (Constellations).

aerial photography of rock formation
 

The concept Paranormal indicated that science does not believe what abnormal people are capable of.Is it possible to ask the domus of a city if it wants engineers to develop a new part or let designers destroy an old part?Is the design of a system something that is known before it was made?Part 8: Is it possible to make a Whole with only Holes? What is nothing? AHow to combine combinations.

brown painted infrastructure beside trees
The Sagrada Familia

LINKSABout Ratio and Magnitude, How Newton changed Greek Mathematics.About the Battle between Leibniz & NewtonAbout the RenaissanceAbout AlchemyAbout HeliopolisAbout Ecologies

About Creation

About Erving Goffman and Frame Theory

About the Foundations of Mathematics

About the limits of Reason

About Projective Geometry

About the Foundations of Medicine

Medicine is the science and practice of establishing the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. Medicine is about the quality of life.

This blog is about the foundations of medicine.

Current  Medical Science is realizing the vision of  the Rockefeller Foundation to take over control of evolution to create a Super Human. Most people are not aware of the dact that this was the vision of Nazi-Germany.

The history of western medicine starts with the creation of the Hospital by the Church of Rome.  When the Church lost its wealth, the responsibility for the poor sick in  the hospitals was given  to the Merchants of the big Cities who started to make money out of Medicine.

The hospital at that time looked like a church.

Research in medicine started when it was allowed to open the body and examine all the parts. Chinese medicine became holistic because it was not only forbidden to open the bdy but also to touch the body only at the pulse.

The practical treatment of disease was given to the (Guild of) the barbers who even made use of acupuncture. Later the apothecary took over a part of the job because of their knowledge of herbs and medicine preparation.

In the 18 th century medicine started to treat mental health and created a split between brain and body. Currently we know that mental problems can be caused by bodily problems and that the inagination is capable to imagine an illness.

Because of Quantum Mechanics we now know that our material reality is a product of our mental imagination. This is called the Placebo-effect.

Western Medicine took a big step when new tools where invented to support diagnosis. Many doctors started to specialize in a  pavillion part of a new type of hospital. Later the many pavillions where joined into a big building that had to move up to use the available space. When Medicine went up it became an abstract theory without a relation to life.

We are now moving to Smart Medicine. In smart Medicine data about the body  is sensed with specialized sensors. The collective data is analyzed  with advanced statistical methods to find general patterns.

The new Hospital is a Call centre and we are treated at Home by a programmedHuman a Robot Nurse.

The personal data is correlated with the collective patterns to find personal patterns and personalized solutions. Until now these solutions are of a chemical nature (“pills”). In the future the new “pills” will be “waves”.

To interpret the collective patterns we need a shared foundation. This foundation is now mostly based on chemical theories with life as an interaction (“reaction-chain”)  between molecules as parts with the computer-program DNA in the center.

A body is a complex Chemical Factory. the Mind is a Computer (“Operating System”). The Brain (‘Up”) controls the Body (“Down”).

In the future Quantum Mechanics will be the new foundation. The  standing wave pattern of the Body, the Biofield, will show the instabilities of the body . This field will be stabilized (“healed”) with complementary wave patterns. Medicine will be based on =resonance.

Quantum Mechanics also explains Homeopathie.

In the future we will see a move from (bio)Bio-Chemistry to (bio)Physics.

This  blog contains parts of two documents of the website of Marco Bischof.  Marco is one of the leading scholars in the field of  holistic medicine in the German speaking world. Both documents written by Marco are about Biophysics.

The most important Part (2) of this blog   is about the (Bio)Field.

It is possible to read Part 2 without reading Part 1.

Part 3 is about a possible mathematical foundation of Medicine called Global Scaling. Clobal Scaling is based on waves, fractals and continued fractions that explain harmonics.

Part 1 About the History of Biophysics.

From 1950 to 1970 biophysics developed faster than in the 100 years before. While in 1944, when the first volume of Otto Glasser’s „Medical Physics“was published, in the USA the number of workers in the field counted not more than 200, in 1950, when volume II appeared, about 200 institutes or departments were devoted to biophysics. At the same time the scope of the field also greatly expanded. Glasser’s handbook still remains one of the most complete treatments of the full range of biophysical investigations;

However, in the same period of the 1950’s molecular biology experienced its breakthrough with Watson and Crick’s 1953 model of DNA. The first phase of its development (1930-1950) which included the acceptance of the existence of macromolecules, the use of x-ray diffraction analysis (started by Bernal in 1934) for determining molecular structures and the development of extraction methods that avoided degrading of molecules, was characterized by a relatively broad definition of the subject.

The term „molecular biology“ was first used by Warren Weaver in 1938 to describe a grant programme by the Rockefeller Foundation promoting „experimental“ or „physiochemical“ biology. He claimed this was a new branch of science in which modern tools were „reaching deeper and deeper into the living organism“. The program was supported by such people as W.T.Astbury, who was the first to describe himself as a molecular biologist,

Schroedinger’s little book What is life ? (1944), in which he took up Delbrueck’s idea that the gene could be a molecular structure (Schroedinger called it an „aperiodic crystal“), played an important role in the beginnings of molecular biology. The book inspired many physicists after the war to go into biology.

Delbrueck’s idea originally came from Niels Bohr: it concerned the question if not maybe certain aspects of the life of a cell, such as self-replication, could only be explained by a new kind of natural law still to be discovered,

THis natural law was transformed in the principle of autocatalysis detected by Stuart Kauffman. In autocatalysis structures are recreated to become self-reproducing structures (autopiesis).

in a similar way as classical physics had been replaced by the quantum physical worldview. The inspired search for such new natural laws was one of the main motivations of many of the newly converted molecular biologists Gunter Stent, Maurice Wilkins, and Francis Crick all have confessed to having been greatly influenced by Schroedinger’s book. Most of them participated in the 1st phage meeting at Woods Hole where a proper school of molecular biology was created in 1945.

However, this romantic, even somewhat vitalistic program of the very beginnings of molecular biology was soon turned almost into its opposite, the still ongoing, gigantic enterprise of analyzing systematically a broad range of molecular details. Maybe it was inevitable.

When in 1937 the eminent biologist Barbara McClintock met Max Delbrueck, maybe the single most influential figure of the founders of molecular biology, she considered his approach to be fundamentally flawed. „He has never developed a feeling for the organism“, she said.

The second phase of molecular biology (1950 onwards) clearly is characterized by a narrowing down of the subject to the investigation of biological „specificity“ (molecular „information“), involving the study of proteins and nucleic acids in view to understand genetical structures and mechanisms.

This trend was not without influence on the development of biophysics proper, as is reflected in the Study Program in Biophysical Science, Boulder, Colorado, 20 July-16 August 1958, organized by the Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry Study Section of the U.S.National Institutes of Health. Its objective was to „encourage the further blending of concepts and methods of physical science with those of life science in the investigation of biological problems“, in other words, to further physicalize biology. Its approach was that of molecular biology.

Basically, molecular biology and mainstream biophysics as they have developed since the 1950’s because of their extreme emphasis on molecular and physicochemical aspects of physiology have to be considered as being in the tradition of physiological chemistry rather than physiological physics. They are based rather on the kind of work exemplified by Höber’s „Physical Chemistry of Cells and Tissues“ (1945)[14], and later, Setlow and Pollard’s „Molecular Biophysics“ (1962)[15], and represent a late triumph of the reductionist program of the Berlin school of 1847.

However, this approach has long remained foreign to the practice of physiological science. As Cranefield wrote: „there is ample indication that during the last few decades physiologists in all countries have not considered the elucidation of molecular mechanisms, the dissolving of physiology into biophysics and biochemistry as their immediate goal. (…) As for the theoretical bias of modern physiology, it is still common to define physiology as the physics and chemistry of life and to assume that the mechanistic stand is correct.

Nevertheless, a position sometimes called organicism holds a very wide popularity today: the position that is identified with the frequent use of such concepts as homeostasis, integration, adaptation, organization, and whole organism.

These biological concepts are essentially neutral but to some they carry a flavor of vitalism“. This alternative current of physiological and biological thinking which can refer to Claude Bernard who rejected German reductionism, represented by such names as A.G.Gurwitsch, E.S.Russell, E.Rignano, P.Weiss, J.Needham, D’Arcy Thompson, J.S.Haldane, J.Barcroft, W.H.Cannon, C.H.Waddington, A.Meyer-Abich and L. von Bertalanffy, has only quite recently fallen into disregard.

Correspondingly, there is also in biophysics another tendency which has developed since the 1920’s and has not always been eclipsed by the dominating school to the degree it seems to be today.

In Germany, it has been represented by the work of Walter Beier and his school at the Institute of Biophysics of the University of Jena (German Democratic Republic). Applying the findings of the school of the Austro-Canadian biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy to biophysics, Beier has developed a systemic, comprehensive approach which always aims at the wholeness of the system considered. In this approach a system is not viewed as a conglomerate of parts and it does not investigate isolated phenomena, but rather the wide field of interactions. Biological processes on each systemic level, i.e., molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and organismic, are considered in the context of the higher level in which they are embedded. Besides systems theory, Beier’s approach is based on the irreversible (non-equilibrium) thermodynamics of open systems (while earlier biophysics uses equilibrium thermodynamics), information theory, cybernetics, and uses tools such as factorial analysis. He also follows Rashevsky who introduced relational and similarity considerations and optimization principles into biophysics.

THE SITUATION TODAY As we have seen, today in biophysics such a holistic approach is not widespread. The textbooks rather reflect the fragmentation of contemporary science with its excessive analysis, lack of synthesis and of a viable theory of life.

Biology has lost the wholeness of life, if not life itself, from its view. In spite of the programmatic postulate which has accompanied it since 1847, biophysics still has not developed into a theoretical biology. Beier is one of the few biophysicist aware of the central importance of theoretical biophysics as a complex, interdisciplinary branch of science, and has also shown a practicable way to develop theoretical models. His approach, developed in the 1960’s and 1970’s, can now be used as a starting point for the development of a modern, holistic, and organicist (non-reductionist) biophysics which should place much emphasis on investigating the holistic functions of organisms, such as self-regulation in growth and healing, morphogenesis etc.

Besides the conceptual tools that Beier has brought into play, such a new approach in biophysics must call upon many new developments in science, such as nonlinear electrodynamics, deterministic chaos, cavity quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the vacuum.

Full use of the consequences of quantum physics, such as the Heisenberg indeterminacy, the holistic principle inherent in the quantum picture, and non-locality, has not yet been made.

Dürr also points to the fact that in molecular biology and chemistry the phase relationships of the electrons are not taken into account (only the intensities) and that the phase structure of the wave formed by the superposition of the partial waves of the millions of electrons in the DNA double helix molecule, may contain, in holographically coded form, additional important information.

A most fundamental element of such a new approach in biophysics will probably be a shift from the molecular to the field aspect of living matter, as proposed by Welch and by Popp, among others, which seems to be the only viable way to synthetize the myriads of molecular details science has amassed, into a holistic model of the organism.

One of the most important goals of applied biophysics in the near future must be the development of non-invasive methods to assess the functional state of whole and intact organisms, and that of the organism’s subsystems in the context of the whole organism.

This goal may be realized by measuring the electromagnetic field produced by the living organism; any interpretation that leads to useful results has to be based on a model of the organism making regulation processes accessible at the field level.

BIOPHYSICS: THE PHYSICS OF BIOLOGY OR THE „BIOLOGY OF PHYSICS“ ?

Any discussion of the future of biophysics inevitably leads to the fundamental question of the relationship between physics and biology. It seems clear that, besides drawing upon new developments in physics, a new biophysics also must become more biological again.

Any program of reducing biology to physics and chemistry has to consider that the actual physical laws have been obtained from the investigation of non-living phenomena, easier to investigate by the physical approach because they are less complex.

Maybe the reason for the failure of biophysics to develop a theory of life is just this reductionistic approach postulating that life processes should be explained by the already known physicochemical laws of non-living nature.

Not a few scientists of past decades, most notably J.S.Haldane and Adolf Meyer-Abich, as well as contemporary ones (e.g., Dale A.Miller[24], Gunter Albrecht-Buehler) have postulated that the principles governing life are more fundamental than those of non-living matter, and therefore biology should replace physics as the paradigmatic „leitwissenschaft“ (leading science).

Without subscribing to any vitalistic notions,takes a similar stance and shows a way which may lead beyond the ages-old controversy. He postulates that physics has to change and enlarge in order to describe biological phenomena; he rejects a reduction of biology to contemporary physics, but does not exclude one to a future, enlarged physics. According to Beier, to achieve a mathematization of biology, the biophysicist should not simply copy physics. „

Biophysics has to contribute to the establishment of purely biological postulates and principles without reducing these to physics. We can consider this method as an enlargement of physics. Physics in a sense ‘incorporates’ biology, via biophysics. Such a procedure can be taken by the materialist as well as by the vitalist from their respective standpoints to be a justification of their views. This again shows clearly the uselessness of a mechanist-vitalist controversy“. Rashevsky wrote that according to the Goedel theorem there must be physical phenomena which cannot be deducted from the laws of physics, even when they do not contradict those laws, and it cannot be decided if biology does not belong to this class of phenomena. Rashevsky and his school based their work on the presumption that biological phenomena are governed by such non-deductable principles.

To identify and formulate these more fundamental laws of life of which the known physical laws may turn out to be special cases, in the same way as the laws of classical Newtonian physics turned out to be special, restricted cases of the laws of quantum physics, should be the most noble goal of a new biophysics. Biophysics is predestined to take on this task. These laws have to be formulated in a mathematical way, but not necessarily metrically, as Rashevsky has shown.

PART 2: FIELD CONCEPTS AND THE EMERGENCE OF A HOLISTIC BIOPHYSICS

Due to recent advances in several disciplines, the basic features of a holistic biophysics are now emerging. It is proposed that the postulates for such a field must include that it will be based on the intrinsic holism of quantum theory and the properties of macroscopic quantum effects, that it should include the principles of nonlocality, nonseparability, and interconnectedness, that it will be based on a field picture of reality and the organism, and finally must include consciousness.

This blog attempts to show why field models are appropriate tools for the holistic modeling of the organism, proposes a hierarchy of regulation systems based on fields, gives a review of field models proposed in biology, biophysics, consciousness research and social science, and discusses the possible role of fields in bridging the mind-body gap.

Finally, a discussion of the perspectives that may be opened up for biophysics by some recently proposed extensions of electromagnetic theory leads the author to suggest a role for the physical vacuum in the organism.

Introduction

“Can Physics deliver another biological revolution ?” asked an editorial in the journal Nature of January 19991. However, the so-called “new physics-biology agenda” which several U.S. universities, foundations and government agencies intend to fund heavily, is actually a very old agenda going back to the 1930’s, namely that of molecular biology, which now in a gigantic effort of total genetic mapping, called by some “the New Manhattan Project of Biology”, strives to bring the molecular biology project of total technological control over life to a final fulfillment.

Is this the kind of “new biophysics” we want to be supported with all that money and effort ? I am certainly not alone in asking this question, and with the growing dissatisfaction about the reductionist, molecular-genetic approach to biology the number of those who develop and support an entirely different kind of biophysics is increasing.

A look into the history of biology and biophysics shows that there always have been alternative traditions to the molecular-reductionistic approach now dominant in these fields.

In biology, during some periods, e.g., in the first half of this century – holistic or organismic approaches have been far from marginal, in some disciplines, such as developmental biology, even constituting the dominant trend. Biophysics itself, although a relatively young field of science, has already experienced several changes in emphasis in the course of its history. The German founders of biophysics at the beginning of the 19th century, people like H.Helmholtz, E.Du Bois-Reymond, E.Brücke, C.Ludwig, E.H.Weber and G.T.Fechner, usually are depicted by historians of science as staunch reductionists and opponents of vitalistic and idealist ideas in biology. However,  in reality they were not in such a sharp opposition to the romantic Naturphilosophie spirit of the time, and nearer to the antireductionistic approach of Claude Bernard, than is generally assumed. Likewise, in the 1930s when molecular biology started its rise that has made it the dominant approach in biology and biophysics, there were a number of other viable biological programs, some of them holistic, that could have been chosen for promotion by the Rockefeller Foundation.

The reason why the officers and scientific advisers of the Foundation chose to promote the molecular vision of life was that they sought to develop, under the influence of Jacques Loeb’s engineering standpoint aimed at controlling life, a mechanistic biology as a central element of a new science of man whose final goal was social engineering.

Originally, the Rockefeller Foundation had intended to promote its goal of social control by eugenics, supporting several research projects concerned with eugenic selection. When eugenics lost its scientific validity amd social acceptance, the molecular biology program of creating a new biology grounded in the physical sciences and able to rigorously explain and eventually control the fundamental mechanisms governing human behaviour, promised a surer, if slower, way toward social control by eugenic selection based on the more readily accepted principles of genetics and protein science. Even within the scientific developments that stood at the origin of molecular biology, before it definitely took the reductionist turn leading to the present situation, at least one also forms an important element in the foundation of a modern holistic approach in biophysics: the quantum philosophy of Bohr, Schroedinger, Jordan and Delbrück.

Biophysics and the Quantum Revolution

The philosophical contribution to the rise of molecular biology originated in Niels Bohr’s speech „On Light and Life“ at the International Congress on Light Therapy at Copenhagen, August 15, 1932 23 where he postulated that a new physics was required for interpreting life; life was not reducible to atomic physics. A few of the key figures in molecular biology, mainly M.Delbrück and E.Schrödinger, were strongly influenced by Bohr’s views 24, which Schrödinger took up in his book „What is Life ?“ 25. The book inspired many young physicists traumatized by the wartime use of physical expertise, to go into biology and had a strong influence on the development of molecular biology 26.

However, the book certainly was more influential by interpreting the genetic viewpoint of H.J.Muller, T.H.Morgan and M.Delbrück in physicist’s terms and by backing it with the prestige of physics than by convincing biophysicists of the Bohr-Schrödinger hope of discovering new physical laws through biophysical investigation of biological phenomena27.

These ideas – which have to be seen in the context of the rather strong holistic tendency of the biology of the time – did not exert any lasting influence on molecular biology. On the other hand, they have been, and still are, a seminal influence for the later emergence of a holistic biophysics.

Today, molecular biology proposes itself as as the manageable project of refashioning life and redirecting the course of evolution that the Rockefeller Foundation and some of its early pioneers like H.J.Muller and W.Weaver had envisioned.

Because of the enormous technological and social power promised by molecular biology, even the increasing awareness of the bad science on which it is based in many respects, such as the many weak points in genetic and evolution theory28, does not prevent it to carry us into such immature and dangerous projects as genetic engineering biotechnology in agriculture and medicine, and the “Human Genome Project”, whose deeper nature is revealed by the military epithet of a “Manhattan Project of the life sciences”.

The noted quantum chemist, Hans Primas, agrees with this fundamental criticism29,30. He writes that molecular biology, as it exists today, is in fact engineering, not science. It is pragmatic, instrumental knowledge which aims at the power over nature, but not at understanding. It does not constitute a scientific theory of life able to give us orientation to live rationally with nature, but only provides technological control over life. Contemporary molecular biology has become a scientific technology which has lost contact with the epistemological sciences. Aspects of life that cannot be treated or understood from the molecular viewpoint, such as morphology, are glossed over. The assessment Robert Rosen made in 1967 31 is actually still valid: „…it must be pointed out that the older problems [he refers to the questions that preoccupied an older generation of biologists] have merely been displaced and not solved by the recent developments at the molecular level. These problems involve the very core of biological organization and development: homeostasis, ontogenesis, phylogenesis“ .

For Prim, the primary shortcoming of molecular biology is that the holistic character of the physical world now recognized in quantum theory is either not acknowledged by the bioengineers or rejected as irrelevant. He emphasizes that molecular biology, though well grounded in empirical knowledge, has no foundation whatsoever in the principles of quantum theory, contrary to a widely held belief to the opposite. It uses the methods and technologies of quantum mechanics, but its way of thinking is still committed to the classical physics of the 19th century and has not taken notice of the fundamental insights of quantum mechanics on the structure of the material world.

According to Primas, on whose statements the following is mainly based the atomistic-molecular view of matter and the reductionist-mechanist philosophy have no more any scientific foundation, according to the actual understanding of quantum theory. The description of reality by isolated, context-independent, elementary systems such as quarks, electrons, atoms, or molecules is only permissible under certain specific experimental conditions, and these entities cannot in any way be considered as „fundamental building stones“ of reality. Besides the molecular one, there are other, fundamentally different descriptions, complementary to the molecular one, which are quantum-theoretically equivalent and equally well founded. Quantum theory is much richer in possiblities than is admitted in the worldview of molecular biology.

In Primas‘ view, the feature of quantum theory that is most significant for biology is its intrinsic fundamental holism. For quantum mechanics, the scientific theory most widely recognized as fundamental and best confirmed by experiment, material reality forms and unbroken whole that has no parts. These holistic properties of reality are mathematically precisely defined by the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlations which are experimentally well defined.

Primas postulates that, by virtue of this, quantum mechanics constitutes the first and up to now only logically consistent, universally valid, mathematically formulated holistic theory In quantum mechanics, it is never possible to describe the whole by the description of parts and their interrelations.

With this view of quantum mechanics Primas follows Bohr and the school of Heisenbergwhile quark physics as founded by M.Gell-Mann continues to cultivate democritean atomism with their clinging to the concept of elementary particles bootstrap theory of G.Chew, D.Bohm’s „Causal Quantum Theory“ or „Holographic. Similar holistic views of quantum theory are the Theory of Reality“ , and others advocated by H.Stap, A.Goswami , Kafatos & Nadeau, Friedman, D.Peat, F.Capra, H.Atmanspacher, and many others.

This holistic view of quantum theory, although the phenomena on which it is based are not yet completely understood theoretically, cannot be rejected anymore because the strange EPR quantum correlations of non-interacting and spatially separated systems have been amply demonstrated in many experiments

Therefore the world-view of classical physics, atomism and mechanistic reductionism definitely cannot anymore be the basis of our worldview, and of biophysics. Quantum mechanics has established the primacy of the unseparable whole.

Another important epistemological consequence of quantum mechanics, complementarity, is also connected to its holism. As Primas writes, there is no single description, such as the molecular-reductionistic one, which can alone represent the whole reality of the subject of a scientific investigation, or is better or „truer“ than any other. Nature is extremely diverse and stratified; each description comprehends only a minute partial aspect of its unfathomable multiplicity.

Any scientific description of a natural phenomenon is only possible if we renounce the description of its complementary aspects.

Quantum theory can only be applied if we abstract from certain aspects and thereby break the holistic symmetry. However, the kind of abstraction we use is not prescribed by the first principles of the theory, such that quantum mechanics allows, and even requires, many different, but equivalent, complementary descriptions of nature. As an important postulate for future science, Primas therefore emphasizes that we will have to learn to work simultaneously with several complementary descriptions of nature .

In this perspective, the molecular view is legitimate and important and should not be abandoned; molecular biologists can be rightly proud of their successes. It should be cultivated, but not at the expense of other viewpoints. It is its extreme one-eyedness that must be criticised. However, as Primas points out, „biology is more than molecular biology.

He postulates that science must now redirect ist attention to the wholeness of nature, and therefore will have to ask radically new questions. It has to develop a concept of reality which does not exclude any part of it. Those properties which belong to organisms only as wholes must remain within the scope of science. Therefore, it will be necessary to consider the phenomena as well from „bottom-up“, as in mechanistic understanding, as from „top-down“, as in vitalistic and holistic understanding. According to Primas, the notion that the latter is not legitimate or secondary is a prejudice that must be overcome.

From the viewpoint of the quantum-theoretical worldview, both are completely equivalent, but lead to fundamentally different research agendas and insights. Even the criteria according to which the scientist decides what is scientifically defendable and interesting, are completely different from these two viewpoints. Also, according to quantum theory functional and teleological explanations are completely legitimate and equivalent to causal ones; even the primacy of causality has no foundation in the first principles of physics. Primas points out that it is not possible to distinguish between causal and final processes by purely mechanical means and that such a distiction only makes sense for irreversible processes. As to the existence of the hypothetical vitalistic forces, modern physics is well able to integrate new forces into its system.

Thus, matter has become „dematerialized“ by modern quantum theory, and this property of „thinglessness“ in the quantum worldview is closely connected to the property of „interconnectedness“.

The emphasis is no longer on isolated objects, but on relations, exchanges, interdepences, on processes, fields, and wholes.

Quantum theory is a nonlocal theory. It is important to see that we cannot retain the classical world of objects and only add the interconnectedness as a supplementary property of these objects.         They are two of the complimentary descriptions or aspects of reality which Primas has alluded to and cannot be used simultaneously; thus they rather should be considered as different diomensions of reality. The holistic interpretation of quantum theory in fact may also be taken as implying a multidimensional structure of reality.

In this view, there are, besides the world of objects, one or several more fundamental levels of reality where interconnectedness rather than separatedness dominates. Fields certainly belong into this category; however, apart from electromagnetic and other physical fields which are still among the phenomena considered as belonging to the four fundamental forces of the observable world, we must assume the existence of additional field-like levels of reality not directly observable at present, which may be beyond space-time and represent the realm of potentiality, or of the „noumena“, the realm behind the phenomena according to Newton, in contrast to the actuality of the observable.

The Schroedinger wave function of quantum theory actually describes this hidden domain of potentiality, of the non-observable, unmanifested, pre-physical world of non-local correlations and superluminal, instantaneous connections, rather than the world of observable phenomena 48. Only with the act of measurement this infinity of potentialities, described in the Schroedinger equation as a superposition of all possible quantum states, is „collapsed“ into one single actuality. Connected to the concept of potentiality is the concept of „entanglement“ which describes the characteristic of interconnectedness. In the absence of any interaction (such as a measurement), two systems are in an entangled state in which neither system by itself can be said to be in a „pure state“, i.e., can be fully specified without reference to the other.

This hidden domain can be considered as a fundamental dimension of reality, a domain of dynamical connectivity, from which the patterns of the physical world arise. According to some authors, this realm of pre-physicality is not only the basis of the physical world and of matter, but also seems to be connected to, consciousness, which some see as the fundamental field underlying i. In physics, it is treated by the various models of the physical vacuum. Its possible relevance to biophysics as a basis for a true quantum biology 62,63 seems obvious to us, as we will explain later. Therefore we postulate the development of a „vacuum biophysics“ (see last chapter) .

The „hidden domain“ of connectivity has characteristics completely different from those of the classical, macroscopic world of separated objects. For a long time, the quantum description that reveals the properties of phenomena belonging to this domain, or arising from it, was taken to apply only to the microscopic world of atoms and molecules, while the world of macroscopic phenomena of our experience was considered to be purely classical and not to manifest quantum properties. However, today we know that this is not true, and that there are many macroscopic quantum manifestations, although our knowledge about them is still limited64-68. Biological systems obviously possess the characteristics of macroscopic quantum systems.

The Redefinition of Biophysics

From what we have just heard, we can conclude that traditional biophysics, based up to now on classical physics and equilibrium thermodynamics, needs a redefinition in terms of the revolution brought by the last few decades of quantum-mechanical experiments and interpretations. As there is still no agreement on the definition of the field, we are free to attempt such a redefinition. In the following I will try to determine what the postulates for such a new biophysics could be, as it actually is already in development since about ten or fifteen years.

First of all, it indeed will entail a revolution based on physical concepts – however, not of the kind alluded to in the Nature editorial. While the physical view will be fundamental, it will not be that of classical physics, and the goal will not be the reduction of biology to physics but an understanding of the physics of the living, and physics must not replace, but support profound biological understanding. Thus, the new biophysics should be more than just an empirically based bioengineering technology; it will need epistemological and philosophical foundations. Its goal should be to develop an adequate theory of life, and it should balance the mastery of life with the understanding of life.

As a complement to the onesidedness of the molecular approach, the new biophysics will focus on holistic aspects of organisms, and will attempt to provide a vision able to synthesize the wealth of molecular details accumulated by molecular biologists. Its basis must be the insight into the fundamental interconnectedness within the organism as well as between organisms, and that of the organism with the environment.

Therefore it must be inter- or transdisciplinary and truly integrate biological, biochemical and medical expertise into its physical models, but also connect to knowledge from fields such as geophysics, biometeorology, heliobiology etc.

It will be based on quantum theory, and not classical mechanics – therefore it may also be called „quantum biology“ –, and also, instead of equilibrium thermodynamics, it must refer to non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Organisms clearly are open systems far from equilibrium. Other central concepts of the new biophysics, related to the latter, will be coherence and macroscopic quantum states.

I postulate that field thinking and field models will have to be one of the central elements of the new biophysics, as a complement to the molecular view, as a means to sythesize the wealth of its details, and to adequately model thinglessness, interconnectedness and non-locality – therefore bioelectromagnetics will play a central role in the new biophysics. However, recent experiments have shown that the existence of hitherto unknown, non-electromagnetic fields in and between organisms cannot be excluded. Of course, the field aspect of the organism has to be seen in close connection, and constant interaction, with the solid aspect. Attention should also be paid to the field aspect of biochemical processes, for example in collective processes, reactivity and molecular recognition.

I suggest that the existence of a pre-physical, unobservable domain of potentiality in quantum theory, which forms the basis of the fundamental interconnectedness and wholeness of reality and from which arise the patterns of the material world, may provide a new model for understanding the holistic features of organisms, such as morphogenesis and regeneration, and thus provide a foundation for holistic biophysics – therefore I propose that the usefulness of the theories of the physical vacuum for understanding the phenomena of life is investigated – one important aspect of their usefulness may be as a link between the domain of biology and consciousness.

I postulate that the new biophysics needs to extend its interdisciplinarity even beyond natural science. Consciousness cannot be excluded anymore from biophysics, although the difficulties of such an extension should not be underestimated. There is now enough evidence showing that consciousness is a causal factor in biology and not just an inconsequential epiphenomenon. Starting from the analysis of the phenomenology and the experimental evidence for mind-body interaction, field models and vacuum theories may provide the necessary tools for bridging the mind-body gap. However, it is also necessary to acknowledge the limits of the scientific approach, and value the goal of understanding highly enough to include non-observables into our models, if this supports understanding.

Historical Antecedents of Holistic Biophysics

Not only theoretical considerations as those of Primas, but also the history of biology and of biophysics show clearly that the reductionistic concept of molecular biology is not the only possible concept for biological science; there even have been several periods in which holistic approaches have been dominating biology, or at least parts of it69. Even in biophysics proper, there have always been holistic schools of thought, although they usually are not mentioned in contemporary reviews of the field, or not thought of belonging to biophysics.

An early instance of holistic thought in biology is the school of rational or transcendental morphologists of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, such as G.de Cuvier, E.Geoffrey St-Hilaire, and R.Owen, who deduced, from their detailed studies of organismic morphology, the existence of principles or laws of form operating in the biological realm. Similarly, the holistic biology and medicine of the Romantic period, including J.W.Goethe, A. v. Humboldt, C.G.Carus, K.E. von Baer and J. Müller, regarded the ideal form of a species as a transcendental guiding principle in morphogenesis. A strong tradition of antireductionistic physiology starting with F.Magendie was mainly created by Claude Bernard. Bernard’s concept of “internal environment” (“milieu interne”) developed in 1857, stood at the beginning of the research in physiological regulation, to which E.Starling, L.J.Henderson, J.Barcroft, and W.B. Cannon (“homeostasis) have been contributing; other holistic physiologists were J.S.Haldane, H. Selye, R. Dubos and A. Carrel.

In the period of 1900-1950, the main thrust of developmental biology, especially in the work of H.Driesch, H.Spemann, P.A.Weiss, A.Gurwitsch, R.Harrison, C.M.Child, J.v.Uexküll, J.Needham, E.S.Russell, J.H.Woodger, A.Meyer-Abich, and A.Müller, has been holistic and centered around the concept if biological fields 69,73-74.

Very much fallen into oblivion has today the important work done during this century in the German tradition of holistic physiology, pathology and medicine, represented by names like G.v.Bergmann, H.Schade, F.Kraus, F.Buttersack, A.Bier, Th.Brugsch, B.Aschner, L.R.Grote, F.Hoff, R.Rössle, G.Ricker, H.Eppinger, W.Petersen, H.Pischinger, O.Bergsmann. Holistic schools of medical thought have also been active in Britain, the USA, and France, mainly in the interwar period75.

Important contributions to holistic science came from Gestalt theory and other holistic theories in psychology, neurobiology, and psychiatry, as exemplified by W.James, Chr.v. Ehrenfels, M.Wertheimer, W.Köhler, K.Goldstein, K.Lewin, C.v.Monakow, C.S.Sherrington, K.Lashley, G.Murphy, V.v. Weizsäcker, A.Maslow, K.Pribram 74-78.

The work of the Austrian-Canadian biologist L.v.Bertalanffy is particularly significant for the emerging holistic biophysics; Bertalanffy’s “organismic” conception of life, which also was the starting point of his “General System Theory”, actually constitutes a first attempt to create a holistic picture of the organism based on physical laws and detailed biological knowledge, and ist still a valuable guide for our contemporary efforts 79-84. The German school of Beier 85-86 has continued this tradition in biophysics.

An early tradition of holistic biophysics developed from Claude Bernard’s school in France, represented by A.d’Arsonval, W.Kopaczewski, F. Vlès, and G.Lakhovsky.

Russia has its own tradition of holistic biology, biophysics and bioelectromagnetics with the work of V.I.Vernadsky, A.L.Chizhevsky, A.G.Gurwitsch, E.Bauer, and A.S.Presman, among others.

An important contribution to holistic thinking comes from the tradition of mathematical biophysics with its concepts of optimality, and relational and similarity principles, represented by D’Arcy W.Thompson, N.Rashevsky, R.Rosen, and R.Thom.

Holistic concepts in philosophy of relevance to biology and biophysics have been developed by J.Smuts, A.N.Whitehead, O.Spann, A.Meyer-Abich, H.Conrad-Martius, H.Plessner, H.Friedmann, among others.

Last but not least, the contributions of psychosomatic medicine, such as those by V.v.Weizsäcker, F.Alexander, Flanders Dunbar, G.Groddeck, and G.R.Heyer, must be mentioned.

In the time of 1900 to 1950, holistic approaches in biology, usually connected to field concepts (see next chapter), far from being marginal, have formed one of the dominant schools of thought, at least in developmental biolog. For various reasons, the plausibility of this approach has strongly decreased from the 1950‘s. The main reason was the rise of genetics as an alternative program to explain development.

Much of this work is anything but obsolete, but it is now necessary to actualize the fundamental observations and concepts developed by these pioneers of holistic science with the up-to-date knowledge in the respective fields.

Field Concepts as a Necessary Base of Holistic Biophysics

Modern physical field theories, such as those developed by Faraday and Maxwell, have their origin in metaphysical concepts arising from the participatory consciousness of archaic man. Field and particle theories arise from complementary modes of human self- and world-experience rooted in bodily awareness, with the field perception of reality probably being much older than particle theories, which could only arise when the participatory world-view slowly gave way to individual consciousness and the perception of an objective world, by way of an increasing differentiation between inside and outside, I and the world, the subjetive and the objective, and matter and consciousness. This objectivation of the world has reached its climax in the worldview of the classical physics of the late 19th century, with the assumption that all there is to reality is solid particles assembled in various degrees of complexity.

The electromagnetic field theories of Faraday and Maxwell proposed in the second half of the last century have inspired biologists already from 1900 to the development of the first field theories, but it was only with Einstein’s General Relativity, quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, that physics overcame the mechanical world picture and conceived reality as a field phenomenon.

Biology still bases its picture of the organism on the building-stone view of classical physics which physics itself has already given up since a couple of decades. One of the first and most fundamental steps in the development of a holistic biology must therefore be not only to complement the classical view with the field aspect, but even to build its model of the organism on the field picture.

As I have shown elsewhere, the concept of the field has alraedy occupied a central place in the school of “organismic” or “holistic” biologists in the first half of this century69.

Leading biologists such as H.Spemann, R.Harrison, P.A.Weiss, J.Needham, and C.H.Waddington, A.G.Gurwitsch used the hypothesis of a biological, or morphogenetic, field, introduced by Weiss and Gurwitsch in the early 1920’s, as a tool for understanding the phenomena of development, regeneration and morphogenesis and to make predictions for experimental testing. Although their field concepts referred to the model of physical, especially electromagnetic fields, the organicists generally considered the biological field as a purely heuristic concept and left the exact nature of the fields open. The time (and electromagnetic science) was not yet ripe for the notion of real electrical, electromagnetic or otherwise physical, fields of long-range force.

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORIES IN BIOLOGY

At this time, there was not enough experimental evidence for the existence of bioelectromagnetic fields nor for the biological effects of EM fields. Thus, the various electromagnetic (EM) field concepts proposed since the first decades of the 20th for biology, as those by Keller, Burr, Burr & Northrop, Crile, Lund, and Lakhovsky89, were premature. The breakthrough and beginning of modern EM field theories in biology came only in 1970, with A.M.Presman’s report of the pioneering work of Soviet bioelectromagnetics researchers, which also contained a first outline of a holistic EM field theory of the organism and his relationships to the environment90. Since then, there is ample evidence for bioeffects of EM fields and endogenous EM fields. It is now established that organisms react sensitively to the impact of electromagnetic fields, including very weak ones; effects of various types of endogenous physical fierlds on cellular organization and morphogenesis are very likely. We also know that several kinds of electromagnetic fields, including microwaves and optical frequencies (biophotons), are emitted from living beings. There is also evidence that weak endogenous electrical currents are involved in regeneration and growth of new tissue; the role of ionic currents in morphogenesis and development has also been demonstrated. Communication by electromagnetic fields is established for fishes and insects, which suggests this may be a more general phenomenon.

A number of further developments have contributed to the full development of modern biological field theories. They include the work of A.Szent-Györgyi on the excitation-deexcitation dynamics in biochemistry and the role of charge transfer in the organism91-93; the work on open, non-equilibrium systems and the coordinated collective behaviour of particles culminating in Prigogine’s theory of “dissipative systems”; H.Fröhlich’s work on coherence of the EM fields coupled to these particles and connecting them 94-97; the Dicke theory of the coherent emission of coupled multiatomic emitters; the theory of quantum coherence developed by R.J.Glauber 99-101; and several recent developments in quantum optics, such as the work on non-classical light and Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.

MODERN BIOELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORIES

These achievements became important elements in the “biophoton theory” developed by Popp and his group. Like most modern field-theoretical proposals, it tries to reconcile particle and field approaches. Based on the evidence for the coherent emission of ultraweak luminescence by organisms, it conceptualizes organisms as biological lasers of optically coupled emitters and absorbers operating at the laser threshold. The solid part of the organism is coupled with a highly coherent, holographical biophoton field which is proposed to be the basis of communication on all levels of organization; the components of the organism are seen to be connected in such a way by phase relations of the field, that they are instantly informed about each other at all times. The biophoton field is also postulated to be the basis of memory and the regulation of biochemical and morphogenetic processes.

A related approach, bioplasma theory, was developed from early suggestions by Szent-Györgyi, who pointed out that biomolecules in the organism are predominantly present in the excited state, and that the energetics of living systems are based on excitation-deexcitation dynamics which are also the basis of chemical bonding. Biological plasma is described as a „cold“ plasma of highly structured collective excitations produced by the dielectric polarization of biological semiconductors, which functions as a single unit. The collective excitations of the molecules propagate in the form of excitons.The complex aggregates and configurations formed by the plasma particles serve as an energy network in the organism. External and intrinsic radiation is stored in the bioplasma in the form of trapped cavity oscillations which form the biological field; it has a complex broadband holographic wave structure of great stability. The biological effects of external radiation are ascribed to resonance properties of the whole system, and not to any of its parts. Like biophoton theory, the bioplasma concept implies non-equilibrium and electronic population-inversion, and therefore laser-like processes, as postulated by Inyushin in the early 1970‘s.

Pribram’s „holographic theory of perception and memor, first proposed in 1971, has been an important contribution to modern biological field theory. It proposes that information from the sensory input is enfolded by Fourier-like transformations and stored in the brain in the form of holographic interference patterns, i.e., coherent EM fields. For reading it out in remembering, it is unfolded again by inverse Fourier transformation. In 1975 Pribram synthesized his model with the more general „holographic theory of reality“ proposed by Bohm in 197. It suggests that the organization of reality itself may be holographic, the world of objects we perceive (the „explicate order“) being a second-order manifestation of the more fundamental „implicate order“ or „holomovement“ forming the basis of the world’s fundamental unbroken wholeness.

The „holographic concept of reality” proposed by Miller et al is a useful attempt to sketch the outlines of a possible synthesis of field models emphasizing the particle aspect, like bioplasma theory, and those who focus on the connecting and/or underlying fields, like biophoton theory and the holographic theories. At the same time, it tries to elucidate the significance of biolectric phenomena and physico-chemical parameters like the acid-base and electrolytic balances and redox potentials within the bioelectromagnetic fields.

Today, the field view of the organism and its interactions is finding increasing acceptance in biology, biophysics and medicine 119.

Biophysics and Consciousness: On the Possible Role of Fields in Bridging the Mind-Body Gap

The German founders of biophysics in the early 19th century recognized consciousness as the „ultimate problem of biology“, but science at that time was not prepared to include consciousness into biophysics, although the necessity was not denied19. Today, the situation is different. Since around the turn of the century, Freud and his followers have made the problem of consciousness a central topic of a broad research effort whose results widely influenced Western society, but were hardly taken seriously by the natural sciences.

The last few years have changed this: consciousness has ceased to be a „non-subject“ and is now definitely on the scientific agenda127-128. An increassing number of authors are emphasizing the necessity of introducing consciousness into the scientific worldview, and some believe it should even become its very foundation 41,44-46,49,57,131-135. As to the consequences of a „biology without consciousness“, Efron has pointed out the disastrous epistemological confusion the exclusion of consciousness from biology has caused.

Although the highly animated discussion in consciousness research is characterized by widely divergent standpoints, the decades-long dispute about the inclusion of the observer and the possible role of consciousness in quantum mechanicshas certainly been a significant influence. As can be seen from the new discipline of „Quantum Neurodynamics“ , Pribram’s and Bohm’s holographic theories, together with Eccles‘ suggestion that fields analogous to the probability fields of quantum theory could be responsible for the coupling between consciousness processes and neural events141, have also been of considerable influence. Thus, an important segment of the most recent efforts in consciousness research is based on the hypothesis that consciousness may have a field-like nature, and/ or that fields may play a mediating role between consciousness and the biological organism. This hypothesis has already a considerable history and is more widely held than commonly is known.

It was probably W.James who first introduced the concept of a field of consciousness into modern psychology in 1890. C.G.Jung’s “Collective unconscious”, first proposed in 1917, is conceived as a deeper, fundamental field-like unitary psychophysical reality (“unus mundus”) occasionally producing “synchronicity” effects. Gestalt Theory, initated by Chr.v.Ehrenfels and W.Köhler, postulates an isomorphism between psychological and psychophysiological processes, mediated by fields analogous to Maxwell’s electromagnetic fields and not bound to the nervous substrate, whose geometrical structure mirrors that of the perceived stimuli. In the 1930’s K.Lewin proposed in his field theory of social psychology that social interactions are best understood by a field model. In the 1940’s G.Murphy developed a field concept of the organism, of personality, and of communication and suggested the existence of an interpersonal field which he thought to be part of a wider universal field. Murphy also explained Psi effects in groups as a loosening of the usual interpersonal barriers and opening up to the interpersonal field. Paul Schilder demonstrated the existence of a “body-image”, a 3-dimensional picture of the “perceived body”, different from the body of anatomy and physiology, a kind of a constantly reorganized field that is constructed from the visual, tactile, kinesthetic, postural etc. experiences of an individual’s lifetime. In 1964, Aron Gurwitsch proposed a field theory of experiential organization in the tradition of Gestalt theory, Lewin and Husserl’s phenomenology. The Russian mathematician and philosopher, V.V.Nalimov, has recently proposed a theory of the “semantic vacuum”, according to which there is a deeper, unobservable process from which ordinary, reflexive consciousness emerges which he calls the semantic vacuum, in deliberate analogy to the concept of the physical vacuum.

A school of thought that has found wide interest and has led to a new branch of neuropsychology, has its origin in the work of Pribram and Eccles. In the early 70’s K.H.Pribram has proposed that coherent holographic fields mediate between consciousness and neurological processes; J.Eccles has postulated in 1977 that consciousness has an existence independent of the brain, and that the self interacts with the body and the material world using the brain as an instrument. H.Margenau in 1984 suggested mind may be a unique type of non-material field, analogous to quantum probability fields; this suggestion was taken up in 1986 by J.Eccles who proposed that this field may modify the probability of emission of neurotransmitters at the dendritic synapse. This finally led to the formation of the new field of Quantum Neurodynamics, based on the hypothesis that brain processes are to be understood on the basis of quantum field theory and are based on quantum fields, or potentials. Long-time memory is conceived as a structured complex of vacuum states; remembering as the emission of coherent biophoton signals from the vacuum state. The coupling of neurophysiology with the “quantum sea” of the vacuum is assumed to be the basis of brain processes.

Quantum neurodynamics illustrates the many recent efforts to find approaches bridging consciousness as an entity which is not directly measurable, and the solid material aspect of the organism, with the hypothesis of a mediating field domain. Similar efforts have been made in the last few decades in many areas, not least in connection with the scientific investigation of Eastern medical systems, such as acupuncture, of contactless healing and various other phenomena.

 

Observations and Experimental Studies of Interpersonal Fields of Unknown Nature

The existence of electromagnetic fields emitted by living organisms, including humans, is now well established, even if there is not much established knowledge about their biological functions. On the other hand, man has a long history of subjective experience of field-like interpersonal connections which usually are relegated to the realm of imagination by the scientifically minded. More recently, however, a number of scientific experiments have to some extent given evidence for the physical reality of these field observations.

As to the observations, an important example are the studies of nonverbal behaviour that have shown a synchrony of the body motion of speakers and listeners with the speech pattern, which probably serves to establish empathic resonance. A related phenomenon is the well established phenomenon of “emotional contagion”. Psychiatrists and psychotherapists have been familiar since decades with the “praecox feeling”, the field-like aura displayed by their patients announcing impending psychosis or schizophrenic episodes, and have been well aware of the contagious nature of these states. The phenomenon of “transference” between therapist and patient is equally well known and has led a number of authors to the hypothesis of an “interpersonal field”. In “mutual hypnosis” two persons create a common psychic field which in the deeper stages can turn into a shared hallucinatory or dreamlike reality. Families may, according to some psychotherapists, possess a common unconscious and shared emotional field.

A number of recent experimental studies give evidence that such interpersonal field effects may have some physical basis. Studies of empathically bonded pairs by J.Grinberg-Zylberbaum have shown interhemispheric and interpersonal EEG coherence and the appearance of transferred (evoked) potentials in the unstimulated partner after separation by a Faraday cage. The “field-REG experiments” done by the Princeton Engineering Anomalies (PEAR) Laboratory demonstrate anomalous influence of group events with a “high degree of subjective resonance between participants”on the random output of portable random events generators (REG) that suggest the presence of a field within such groups. Experiments on distant mental influence on living systems (DMILS) show that persons are able to exert direct mental influences upon various distant biological systems shielded from all conventional informational and energetic influences.

While these experiments suggest the possible non-electromagnetic nature of the studied fields, the measurements of the “Copper-Wall Project” performed by E.Green demonstrate that in healing sessions, exceptional subjects, such as healers and sensitives, are able to generate anomalous voltage surges in electrical body potential which are transmitted to and measured by electromaters attached to the four highly polished copper walls surrounding them in some distance.

Biological Fields in the Light of Some Proposed Extensions of Electromagnetic Theory

In some of these experiments showing the existence of interpersonal field phenomena (Grinberg-Zylberbaum, DMILS) electromagnetic fields have been excluded; therefore we must use the hypothesis that some kind of probably unknown, non-electromagnetic field(s) may be involved. Recently, a number of authors have suggested that electromagnetic potentials (vector and scalar potentials) may play a role in living system, and a series of preliminary experiments (which still have to be reproduced independently) seems to show biological effects of vector potentials different from those of ordinary electromagnetic fields 147-153. It has been proposed that there may be a whole class of non-electromagnetic fields underlying electromagnetic phenomena, which have been called „subtle energies“ by some authors, following a suggestion by Einstein.

In fact, while the potentials have long been considered mere mathematical conveniences without physical reality, the reevaluation of their significance made possible by the groundbreaking paper by Aharonov & Bohm , is now opening up a new field of electromagnetic research which we suspect may turn out to be highly significant for bioelectromagnetics and biophysics in general. A number of recent attempts to formulate extensions of electromagnetic theory point to the existence of an additional, hitherto unsuspected dimension of electromagnetism, which seems to be able to interact with the very structural fabric of space and time 155,156. Aharonov & Bohm  have shown that in certain cases the potentials act as real physical fields and must even be consdered more fundamental than the electric and magnetic forces; in the experiment they proposed the potentials exert an physical effect on charged particles in a field-free volume but not in the way force-fields do – they only influence the phase, and thus are fields of information.

However, the reason for the now well proven Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect has only become evident in the wake of its analysis and generalization by Wu & Yang. Barrett  has given evidence that in the AB experiment the electromagnetic field, normally of U(1) symmetry, is „conditioned“ into SU(2) form (in other cases even higher symmetries can be obtained) by the geometrical constraints of the experiment, which adds a degree of freedom to the field allowing an interaction with the space-time metric (neutrino network) and its topological structure, and endows it with a gravitation-like essence and form. Barrett also has shown that the AB effect is only one of a whole class of effects where this is the case.

According to Tiller potentials have the important function of mediating between electromagnetic fields and the macroscopic quantum states of solid matter on the one hand, and the physical vacuum on the other hand, because of their property of controlling the phase of electromagnetic fields. He suggests that the „subtle energy“ fields of the vacuum domain, belonging to a higher dimension beyond space-time, organize the structure of space-time, which in turn, by the intermediate of the potentials, generates the corresponding electromagnetic fields. These finally give rise to the observed processes in space and time.

This hypothesis is supported by the work of Barrett on the conditioning of the electromagnetic field. In this process, the phase-controlling property of potentials is central. This is highly significant for biophysics, not only because of the coherence of biolectromagnetic fields; its importance can also be illustrated by the fact that the living organism with its many rhythmical processes basically is a complex system of oscillating fields coupled nonlinearly by their phase-relations.

Apart from potentials, a number of further non-electromagnetic fields have been forwarded in the various proposals for extensions of the Maxwell theory, as possible elements of an intermediate „subtle realm“ between particles and force fields and the vacuum, or as elements or aspects of the vacuum itself, for instance, „torsion fields“and the B(3) „ghost field“ of longitudinal magnetic polarization.

The Concept of Vacuum Biophysics

We are convinced that it is one of the central tasks of biology and biophysics, as it is of physics itself, to investigate the process of becoming and of manifestation, the arising of actuality from potentiality. It is clear that this is not yet completely realized in quantum physics, although the recent discussions about the interpretation of quantum theory and the alternatives to the Copenhagen interpretation have shown that it is groping in this direction. The same tendency can be found in the recent attempts at developing unfied theories of all physical interactions.

In the various unification programs the concept of the physical vacuum occupies a central place. „The vacuum is fast emerging as the central structure of modern physics“ (Saunders & Brown. We postulate that it also merits such a central place in biophysics 62,63,147. It has in fact already been used in a number of recent models, e.g. by Conrad, Grandpierre, Laughlin, Laszlo, Jibu & Yasue, Shacklett, and Tiller. We would not be surprised if it would turn out to be the very foundation a holistic quantum biophysics needs. The holistic quantum logic of biological processes and structures may not be sufficiently understood without the explicit inclusion of the vacuum concept into biophysics. Biophysics should be able to explain how, in the generation and development of organisms, pre-physical potentialities are transformed into physical realities. For practical reasons, it should also be interested in improving our knowledge on the more subtle, early levels of biological manifestation, where we may have access, for instance, to the formation of preconditions for illness. The assumption of a pre-physical dimension of potentiality is a prerequisite for the full understanding of life. To quote the Heisenberg pupil Hans-Peter Dürr: „Living systems prove that actuality (factuality) is not all there is, but potentiality is also important. Like all macroscopic quantum systems, they are emergences of potentialities into factuality“ 178.

We postulate that the concept of the vacuum is the appropriate framework to model the fundamental quantum-mechanical domain of potentiality. The vacuum is the „ground of being“ from which the information for the structured development and regeneration of inorganic as well as living forms arises. All the features of the unbroken wholeness of reality implicit in quantum theory – non-separability, non-locality, fundamental connectedness – which are so fundamental for biological understanding, are an expression of the properties of the vacuum. The vacuum is the origin of microscopic and macroscopic coherence, an essential feature of living organisms. And, finally, the understanding of the vacuum may provide the crucial insights on the role of consciousness in physical reality, and in the various stages in which the creativity of the ground of existence unfolds on its way from pure potentiality and information to physical manifestation.

The concept of of the quantum vacuum may provide an important tool in developing both, a holistic terminology, and a holistic methodology for the integration of biology and physics necessary for the emergence of a holistic biophysics, or quantum biophysics. Especially significant may be its usefulness as a suitable framework for the treatment of organisms as macroscopic quantum systems (cf. the significance of vacuum degeneracy).

However, it must be clarified that we are not only talking about the electromagnetic vacuum of zero-point fluctuations, but of a more inclusive and fundamental unified vacuum of all four interactions.

 

SUPERFLUID VACUUM MODEL OF THE ORGANISM

In biophoton research first considerations on the possible role of the vacuum have been made in the 1980‘s in connection with the stability and optical properties of DNA and the optimal signal/noise ratio in the information transfer by biophotons. The central role that the vacuum plays in the Dicke theory and in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics is well known. In 1985, Popp has suggested that biophoton emission as measured may arise from a non-measurable, virtual, delocalized, highly coherent field within the tissue, denoted by him as the realm of „potential information“ in the organism; he conjectured it may be a kind of vacuum state 179-180.

More recently, Zeiger has developed a „superfluid vacuum model“ for understanding the biophoton emission of seeds and its connection to their viability. According to this model, seed vitality and biophoton emission are two parallel expressions of the same underlying reality: the superfluid Bose-condensate of photons. He proposes that the radiation field coupled to biological systems has to be understood on the basis of a twofold ground state. It consists, on the one hand, of a non-perturbative, collective-coherent state responsible for stability, internal communication and photon storage, which endowes the organism with a quiet background field connecting all its components by long-range phase relations with each other and with the environment. The second ground state, a perturbative, fluctuating-coherent state consisting of the excitations of the collective-coherent state, is responsible for flexibility, adaptation and external communication, and from it the observed biophotons are emitted. The two states are separated by an energy gap which controls the behaviour of the system and is a basic measure for the overall state of the organism. It is a parameter that promises to become an important new tool in biophysics proving additional information on the living system. Zeiger’s model may be a significant step in the biophysical modelling of the process of the emergence of „becoming“ from the potentiality of the „ground of being“.

Thus, if we speak of the electromagnetic field, or biophoton field, of cells, tissues or of the whole organism, as opposed to the biophoton emission measured, we may actually be dealing not with an electromagnetic field in the usual sense, but with a virtual field, or vacuum state. This has actually been proposed by Bearden181-183 and is partially supported by the work of Barrett and others, already mentioned, on one or more deeper level(s) of electromagnetism.

If we define vacuum physics as that branch of physics concerned with the fundamental pre-physical level of potentiality from which matter and fields arise and which contains the information for their dynamic structuring processes, I suggest that the corresponding field of biophysics concerned with the investigation of the biological role of the physical vacuum and of the mediating role of potentials and other nonelectromagnetic fields between the vacuum on the one hand and force fields and solid matter on the other hand, should be called „vacuum biophysics“. It may become an important theoretical element and research subject of the new biophysics.

Under the above assumptions a hierarchy of levels of biological function, or regulation systems, based on fields, may be envisaged as a working hypothesis, where we have, between the solid body on the one hand, and consciousness on the other hand, the intermediate levels of holitic regulation systems and physiological-biochemical regulation, bioenergetic (EM) fields, and finally bioinformation fields.

Conclusion

Can physics deliver another biological revolution ? There is good evidence it indeed can and will, but it is not the further perfection of the reductionist program of molecular-biological control of life devised in the 1930’s that will produce the much needed revolution, but rather the renewal of the alternative tradition of holistic understanding in biophysics whose features are now beginning to emerge more clearly. It will draw on the still valid findings of the various holistic approaches in physics and the biomedical sciences of the first half of the last century which it will actualize by linking them to the many recent advances in physics and molecular biology, and it will incorporate the interaction of consciousness with biological matter as a key element in understanding the phenomena of life. The new holistic biophysics will be based on a field model of the organism and its interactions with other living systems and the environment; besides electromagnetic fields it will also consider the possible role of novel, non-electromagnetic fields and of the physical vacuum in biological processes.

About Mathematical Biology (Robert Rosen)

Part 3: ABOUT GLOBAL SCALING THEORY

Scaling means logarithmic scale-invariance. Scaling is a basic quality of fractal structures and processes. The Global Scaling Theory explains why structures and processes of nature are fractal and the cause of logarithmic scale-invariance.

Scaling in Physics

 In 1967 / 68 Richard P. Feyman and James D. Bjorken discovered the phenomenon of logarithmic scale-invariance (scaling) in high energy physics, concrete in hadron collisions.

 Simon E. Shnoll found scaling in the distributions of macroskopic fluctuations of nuclear decay rates. Since 1967 his team discovers fractal scaling in the fluctuation distributions of different physical and chemical processes, as well as in the distributions of macroskopic fluctuations of thermic noise processes.

 In 1982 – 84, Hartmut Müller discovered scaling further in the distributions of elementary particles, nuclei and atoms dependent on their masses, and in the distributions of asteroids, moons, planets and stars dependent on their orbital properties, sizes and masses

 Scaling in Seismicity

Within the fifties Beno Gutenberg and Charles Richter have shown, that exists a logarithmic invariant (scaling) relationship between the energy (magnitude) and the total number of earthquakes in any given region and time period.

Scaling in Biology

In 1981, Leonid L. Chislenko published his work on logarithmic scale-invariance in the distribution of biological species, dependent on body size and weight of the organisms. By introducing a logarithmic scale for biologically significant parameters, such as mean body weight and size, Chislenko was able to prove that sections of increased specie representation repeat themselves in equal intervals (ca. 0.5 units of the log based 10 scale). See lso the Law of Kleiber

In 1984, Knut Schmidt-Nielsen was able to prove logarithmic scale-invariance in the construction of the organisms and in metabolic processes.

In 1981, Alexey Zhirmunsky and Viktor Kuzmin discovered process-independent logarithmic scale invariance in the development stages in embryo-, morpho- and ontogenesis and in geological history.

Scaling in Neurophysiology

We live in a logarithmic world. All of our senses perceive the logarithm of a signal, not the linear intensity of the signal itself. That is why we measure sound volume in decibels, and consequently in logarithmic units.

Sounds whose frequencies differentiate themselves by double, quadruple or eight-times, we perceive as a, a’ or a’’, the same sound. This property of our sense of hearing makes it possible for us to differentiate harmony from disharmony. The harmonic sound sequence 1/2 (Octave), 2/3 (Fifth), 3/4 (Fourth), 4/5 (Major Third), and so forth is logarithmic, hyperbolic scale-invariant.

Our sense of touch is also calibrated logarithmically. Assuming that one holds in the left hand 100 grams and in the right hand 200 grams; if one then adds 10 grams to the left hand, then 20 grams must be added to the right hand in order to sense the same weight increase. This fact is known in Sensing Physiology as the Weber-Fechner Law (Ernst Heinrich Weber, 1795 – 1878, Gustav Theodor Fechner, 1801 – 1887): The strength of a sensory impression is proportional to the logarithm of strength of the stimulus.

The Weber-Fechner law also touches on our senses of smell and sight. The retina records only the logarithm, not the number of impinging photons. That is why we can see not only in sunlight but also at night. Whereas, the number of impinging photons varies by billionths, the logarithm varies only by twentieths. (ln 1000,000,000 ≈ 20.72)

Our vision is logarithmically calibrated not only in regards our perception of the intensity of light, but also relative to the lights wave length which we perceive as colors.

Our ability to judge lineal distances is based on the possibility of comparison of sizes and the determination of relative measurement scales. The linear perspective assumes a constant size proportion that is defined by size enlargement or reduction factor. This factor is multiplied several times with itself in the perspective. From this an exponential function is defined which argument is a logarithm.

The function of our sense organs is concerned with acoustic or electromagnetic wave processes. The logarithmic scale-invariant perception of the world is a consequence of the logarithmic scale- invariant, construction of the world.

Scaling in Mathematics 

All natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 … can be constructed from prime numbers. Prime numbers are natural numbers that are only divisible by the number 1 and themselves without leaving a remainder; accordingly, the numbers 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31 … are quasi elementary parts of the real number continuum. The distribution of the prime numbers among the natural numbers is irregular to such an extent that formula for this distribution cannot be defined. Of course, prime numbers become found more seldom the further one moves along the number line. Already in 1795, Carl Friedrich Gauß noticed this. He discovered that the set p1(n) of prime numbers up to the number n could be calculated approximate according to the formula p1(n) = n / ln

  1. The larger the value of n, the more precisely is this law fulfilled; and means that the distribution of the set of prime numbers among the natural numbers is scale-invariant

Non-prime numbers can clearly be represented as products of prime numbers. One could also say that non-prime numbers are prime-number clusters. This means that non-prime numbers are composed from several prime numbers. In this interpretation, one can derive the prime-factor density distribution on the number line.

The logarithmic scale-invariance of the distribution of the prime numbers is a fundamental property of the continuum of numbers. Moreover, this is the only non-trivial statement that holds true for all prime numbers.

Logarithmic scale-invariance of the prime-factor density distribution means that one can speak about a standing density-wave in the number continuum. The prime factors, 2 and 3 produce the base-oscillation, and early prime factors produce the spectrum of overtones.

From the Model to the Theory

Oscillations are the most energetically efficient kind of movement. For this reason, all matter, not only each atom, but also the planetary system and our galaxy, oscillate and light is an unfolding oscillation and, naturally, the cells and organs of our bodies also oscillate

Based on their energy efficiency, oscillatory processes determine the organization of matter at all levels – from atoms to galaxies

In his most meaningful work, “World Harmonic”, Johannes Kepler established the bases for harmonic research. Building on the ancient musical ‘World Harmony’ of the Pythagoreans, Kepler developed a cosmology of harmonics.

Global Scaling research continues this tradition.

The Melody of Creation

Scaling arises very simply – as a consequence of natural oscillation processes. Natural oscillations are oscillations of matter that already exist at very low energy levels. Therefore they lose few energy, and likewise fulfill the conservation law of energy.

The energy of an oscillation is dependent on its amplitude as well as on its frequency (events per time unit)

Consequently, the following is valid for natural oscillations: The higher the frequency, the less the amplitude. For natural oscillations, the product of frequency and wave length as well as the product of frequency and amplitude are conserved. They limit the speed of propagation of oscillations in mediums, or the speed of deflection.

A standing wave in a homogeneous space arises only if in the direction of the wave penetration the space is finite and if the half wave length is equal to an integer part of the medium size.

As a consequence we can find for any low enough resonant oscillation mode frequency f0 a higher mode frequency f1 with an integer relationship n = f1 / f0. The frequencies of such resonant oscillation modes generate exponential series

Therefore, the complete resonant oscillation frequency spectrum can be represented as a set of logarithmic fractal spectra (1) with natural n = 1, 2, 3, … In this representation the generation of the complete resonant oscillation frequency spectrum can be understood as an arithmetical task, what can be reduced to the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, that every natural number greater than 1 can be written as a unique product of prime numbers.

In our example, the oscillation period of the 1. mode is three times longer that the period of the 2. mode, nine times longer than the period of the 3. mode and 27 times longer that the period of the 4. mode. From this follows the logarithmic, fractal, construction of the (repeating itself in all scales) oscillation representation. In this connection, one speaks of scale-invariance (Scaling). In nature Scaling is distributed widely – from the elementary particles to the galaxies. It is in this connection that one speaks of Global Scaling.

Natural oscillations of matter produce logarithmic, fractal spectrums of the frequencies, wave- lengths, amplitudes and a logarithmic fractal network of oscillating nodes in space.

In physical mediums, base-tones, upper- or undertones are produced simultaneously, and in this there arise consonances and dissonances. Not only our hearing can distinguish consonance from dissonance; this capability extends to all matter, and has to do with the energy expenditure necessary to produce an overtone.

A musical ‘Fifth’ arises most easily (the least expense of energy per oscillation period), because merely a frequency doubling and trebling is necessary in order to produce an overtone in interval of 3/2 of the base frequency. Somewhat more energy is necessary to produce a musical ‘Fourth’, 4/3, while this additionally requires a quadrupling of the base frequency; and even more energy is necessary for the production of the larger musical ‘third’, 6/5, of the same amplitude, and so forth.

The musical intervals accordingly play an energetic, key-role in the spectrum of the natural- oscillation-modes. In fact, this spectrum is constructed like the spectrum of a melody.

Natural oscillations of matter are probably the most important structure-forming factor in the Universe. For this reason one finds fractal proportions everywhere in nature. The logarithmic, fractal distribution of matter in the universe is a consequence of natural oscillation processes in cosmic, space and time measurement scales. In this connection, one speaks of the “Melody of Creation”.

Leonhard Euler: About Continued Fractions and FRactal Geometry

In the works “About Continued Fractions” (1737) and “About the Oscillations of a String” (1748), Leonhard Euler formulated problems whose solutions would keep the field of mathematics busy for 200 years.9

Euler investigated natural oscillations of an elastic, mass-less string of pearls. In connection with this task, d’Alembert developed his method of integration for a system of linear differential equations. Daniel Bernoulli asserted his known statement that the solution of the problem of the free-oscillating string can be represented as trigonometric sequence, something which started a discussion between Euler, d’Alembert and Bernoulli lasting a decade. Later, Lagrange showed more correctly how one arrives at the solution of the problem of oscillations of a string-of-pearls and the solution of the problem of a homogenous string. The problem-solution was first completely solved by Fourier in 1822

Almost insurmountable problems arose in the meantime with pearls of various mass and irregular distribution. This task led to functions with gaps (or voids). After a letter from Charles Hermite, May 20, 1893, who additionally added, “Reject in nervous horror the lamentable annoyance of the functions without derivative”; T. Stieltjes investigated functions with discontinuities and found an integration method for these functions which led to continued fractions.

Meanwhile, Euler already recognized that complex, oscillating systems can contain such solutions (integral) that themselves are not overall differentiateable, and left behind to the future mathematical world an analytical “monster” – that is, the non-analytic functions (this term was chosen by Euler himself).

Non-analytic functions provided ample and profuse study up to the 20th century, after the identity crises in mathematics, appeared to be conquered.

The crises began, and lasted until about 1925, when Emil Heinrich Bois Reymond, in 1875, reported for the first time about a Weierstrass constructed continuous, but non-differentiable function. The main players were Cantor, Peano, Lebesgue and Hausdorff; and as a result, a new branch of mathematics was born – Fractal Geometry.

About Fractals

Fractal comes from the Latin ‘fractus’ and means “broken-up-in-pieces” and “irregular.” Fractals are consequently distinct, fragmentary, tricky mathematical objects. Mathematics in the 19th Century considered these objects as exceptions and from there, tried to derive fractal-objects from regular, continuous and smooth structures.

The theory of fractal groups made possible in-depth investigations in “non-analytic”, manifold, granular or fragmentary forms. It immediately it becomes apparent that fractal structures are by no means so infrequently encountered in the world. More fractal objects are discovered in nature than ever suspected. Moreover, it suddenly seemed as if the entire natural universe were fractal.

Especially, works of Mandelbrot finally advanced the geometry to the position where fractal objects could be mathematically correctly described: fragmented crystal-lattices, Brownian motion of gas molecules, complex, giant polymer-molecules, irregular star-clusters, cirrus-clouds, the Saturn rings, the distribution of moon-craters, turbulences in fluids, bizarre coast-lines, snake-like river- streams, faults in mountain-chains, development branches of the most varied kinds of plants, surface areas of islands and lakes, mineral-formations, geological sediments, the distribution in space of raw-material-occurrences, and, and, and……

A deciding factor in the accurate treatment of fractal objects was the introduction of real and also irrational dimensions, in contrast with the whole-number dimensions of Euclidean Geometry.

Let’s consider an example: In Euclidean Geometry, a disappearing, small grain-of-sand has dimension 0. A line – dimension 1. But which dimension does sequence of grains-of-sand arranged one after the other?

The Euclidean point of view only knows boundary conditions: Either one proceeds on a wide path – until one cannot recognize anymore grains-of-sand and then assigns to this object the dimension 1, or one recognizes the grains-of-sand as objects of dimension 0. and while it is usually known that 0=0=…+0 = 0, the grains-of-sand, are likewise assigned dimension 0. That through this the essential is lost is obvious.

The first step of an in-depth analysis of this situation was undertaken by Cantor in his letter of June 20th, 1877 to Dedekind, the next was followed by Peano in 1890.

The mathematicians recognized that an accurate understanding of fractal structures could not be reached when one defines ‘dimensions’ as a number of coordinates. Therefore, in 1919 Hausdorff defined a new conception of dimension. The fractal (broken) dimension D completed the topological (whole-number) dimension through logarithmic values.

The fractal dimension of a grain-of-sand sequence of N grains-of-sand of the relative (In comparison to the total length of the sequence) size 1/k, where D = log(N) / log(k). Assuming a sequence of 100 grains-of-sand is 100 mm in length and the size of a grain-of- sand 1 mm. Then D = log (100) / log (100) = 1. However, if the sequence only consists of 50 grains-of-sand, then D = log (50) / log (100) = 0.849485. The fractal dimension D is, accordingly, a measure for the fragmentary nature of an object. The larger the gaps, the further D is from integer number values.

The application of the Hausdorff-Dimension in geometry now makes it possible to deal with not only completely irregular real mathematical objects, but at the same time provides the formula for the creation of home-made fractal creations. The creation of various Mandelbrot- und Julia-groups using the computer gave rise to a popular mathematical sport. The Mandelbrot-group is still today the object of non-resolved theoretical investigations. However, it is important that these through mathematics that their connections become visible, and are being investigated in the most varied of specialist fields.

Nevertheless, the fractal ‘Grain-of-sand’ sequence strongly reminds of Euler’s ‘String-of-Pearls.’ Both of these objects are fractal.

In 1950, the Leningrad mathematicians, F. R. Gantmacher and M.Krein regarded the line-of-deflection of an oscillating string of pearls as a broken line. This initial step even enabled them a fractal view of the problem, without which they were unaware (Mandelbrots Classic “Fractal Objects”, appeared in 1975 and was his first works of which 50 were in the field of Linguistics). They first brought the Fractal visibly into the situation, and to completely solve (and also for the most general case) the 200 year old Euler Problem of the oscillating “Sting-of-Pearls” for variable masses and irregular

In their work, “Oscillation-matrices, Oscillation-nuclei, and Small Oscillations of Mechanical Systems” (Leningrad, 1950, Berlin, 1960), Gantmacher and Krein show that Stieltjes-Continued- Fractions are solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equations for natural oscillating systems. These continued fractions produce fractal spectrums.

In the same year, the comprehensive work of Oskar Perron appeared “The Theory of Continued- Fractions.” The theme was also worked on by N. I. Achieser in his work, “The Classical Moment Problem and Some Associated Questions About the Analysis (Moscow 1961). Terskich generalized the (with regard to the contents) Continued-fraction method on the analyses of Fundamental-oscillating, branching chain-systems (Terskich, V. P., The Continued-fraction Method, Leningrad, 1955). Khintchine resolved the meaning of Continued-fractions in arithmetic and algebra (Khintchine, A. J., Continued fractions. University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1964).

Additional works by Thiele, Markov, Khintchine, Murphy, O’Donohoe, Chovansky, Wall, Bodnar, Kučminskaja, and Skorobogat’ko, etc. helped lead to the final break-through for the continued- fraction method, and in 1981 enabled the development of efficient algorithms for the addition and multiplication of continued-fractions.

Each real number – and also each measurable value – can be clearly represented as a ‘normed’ continued fraction (all partial denominators are 1). Finite, normed continued fractions converge to rational numbers. Infinite continued fractions converge to irrational numbers.

The simplest continued fraction generates the ‘Golden Number’ proportion. All of its elements are Supposedly this is why the ‘Golden Mean’ is so wide-spread in nature. The sequence {1, 1/2, 2/3, 3/5, 5/8, 8/13, 13/21, 21/34, …} produce the sequence of Fibonacci-numbers.

A quite special structure is exhibited by the continued fraction of the Euler-number e= 71828 … This continued fraction contains the sequence of all natural numbers and the sequence of all musical intervals.

The convergent Continued-fraction for e is composed of the reciprocals of the musical intervals (Prime 1/1, Octave 1/2, Fifth 2/3, Fourth 3/4, Major Third 4/5, Minor Third 5/6, ….).

The number 1 – and each other integer number – also can be represented as a continued fraction.

In its continued-fraction representation, every number is an oscillation-attractor. Khinchine could prove that convergent continued-fractions yield the best approximations of the irrational numbers because they themselves converge the most quickly on the eigenvalue of the continued-fraction.

Doctor Out of the Box (In Dutch)

Dit is een Powerpoint-presentatie uit 2013 gemaakt om te laten zien hoe slimme hulpmiddelen zoals semantic mining, sensors en proces-management  kan helpen om de processen in de gezondheidszorg te ondersteunen.

Er wordt gebruik gemaakt van Paths of Change (PoC) van Will McWhinney om het gebied in kaart te brengen. Dit gebeurt stap voor stap waarbij er iedere keer een nieuwe (medische) functie wordt toegevoegd.

Aan het einde van de presentatie worden alle stappen samengevoegd in een Gezondheidsarchitectuur die zowel voor de lichamelijke als de geestelijke gezondheidszorg bruikbaar is.

Paths of Change past op Interpersonal Theory een psychologische theorie die de mens beschouwd als een interne en externe relatie.

Diagnose is een verband tussen waarnemen (Zintuigen (Sensors), Ervaring)  en waarheid (Kennis). Op basis van de diagnose kun je acties ondernemen die allemaal passen op de algemene verbanden (de “paden“) in Paths of Change. De paden worden in het vervolg verder uitgewerkt.

Dit plaatje is bedoeld om de plek van Watson te introduceren. Watson maakt gebruik van Kennisbanken (een verzameling “waarheden”). Watson is toegespitst op de denkwijze van de specialist. De software doet een specialist na en geeft antwoorden op gestelde vragen.

Dit plaatje bevat een samenvatting van de werkwijze van Watson die door IBM DeepQA wordt genoemd. (QA staat voor Questions/Answers).

 

In de Diagnostiek worden de volgende aspecten van de Mens meegenomen.

Het is mogelijk om Watson (of een ander Semantisch Mining-tool) automatisch te koppelen aan een Proces-Bibliotheek waardoor er een Behandelplan kan worden gemaakt.

Aangezien er statistische methoden worden gebruikt ontbreekt vaak een menselijke verklaring van de uitkomst. Als het diagnose-hulpmiddel moet aansluiten bij een menselijke expert is dit van belang.

Het behandelplan kan worden gekoppeld aan een database met behandelaars.

en een netwerk met Ervaringsdeskundigen.

Op basis van (diepte)interviews met Ervaringsdeskundigen kan een levensloop-simulator worden gebouwd.

Een groot aantal (zo niet alle) meetinstrumenten van de arts kan worden vervangen door (draagbare) sensors, waardoor er als dat nodig is real-time kan worden gemeten.

Het plaatje geeft een globaal beeld aan van de ontwikkeling van de technologie de komende tien jaar.

Over Integrale Zorg en de Zelf-Ontplooiende Stad (In Dutch)

Dit document is in 2014 geschreven. Het is eerste instantie gebruikt om een nieuwe (meer sociale) strategie voor de ABN AMRO te ontwikkelen. Het is later gebruikt als discussie-stuk toen er sprake was van het oprichten van een coordinerend Centrum voor Vitaliteit in Leiden.

Dit centrum was bedoeld om lokale centra op te richten waarbij er aandacht werd besteed aan de samenhang tussen de geestelijke, lichamelijke, sociale en economische gezondheid van de mens in alle levensfasen.

Als laatste is een deel gebruikt als discussiestuk voor een Smart City-beleid in Den Haag. Hier werd aangetoond dat Smart City niet alleen een besturingsmodel is maar dat net als bij de Vitaliteit het lichamelijke, het sociale en het creatieve van de mens een rol moet spelen in het “slim” aanwenden van Smart Technologie. Een stad is net als de mens een organisme.

Het document is gebaseerd op de verander-methodiek Paths of Change (PoC) van Will McWhinney. De wereldbeelden van PoC hebben in dit document overal dezelfde kleuren: Blauw/Unity/Regels/Waarheid, Rood/Sensory/Waarnemen, Groen/Sociaal/Waarderen en Geel/Mythic/Verbeelden.

PoC maakt het mogelijk om met behulp van steeds hetzelfde model heel verschillende vraagstukken op te lossen.

1. Inleiding: Op weg naar de participatie maatschappij

In het verleden vond het contact tussen klant en bank meestal plaats in kleine wijkgebonden kantoren. De directeur van een vestiging fungeerde als steun en toeverlaat voor de kleine zakelijke- (MKB) en particuliere klanten. Op deze wijze werden de meeste financiële calamiteiten voorkomen.

Op dit moment heeft de bank de wijk verlaten en wordt de klant geacht gebruik te maken van geldautomaten en het Internet. Om dit waar te kunnen maken zijn de bankproducten gestandaardiseerd waardoor het autorisatieproces vrijwel automatisch en dus context-onafhankelijk plaatsvindt. Bankieren is niet meer een klantgedreven maar een datagedreven proces geworden.

Inmiddels is de overheid bezig om een groot deel van zijn sociale taken met aanmerkelijk minder geld over te dragen aan de stad die ze wijkgebonden maakt. De sociale taken van de overheid moeten dichter bij de burger worden gebracht en worden ondergebracht in een wijkcentrum of een winkelcentrum.

De traditionele kerken in Nederland krimpen omdat hun leden ouder worden en overlijden. Het diaconaat binnen de kerken houdt zich in zijn regio, meestal wijkgebonden, bezig met eenzamen, armen, zieken, werklozen en andere medemensen die een moeilijke tijd in hun leven doormaken. Door de krimpende kerk wordt de onbaatzuchtige hulp aan de medemens steeds minder.

Uit het diaconaat zijn vele organisaties ontstaan die dreven op giften, subsidies en vrijwilligers. Sommige van die organisaties, zoals ziekenhuizen en  de ontwikkelingshulp zijn sterk geprofessionaliseerd en hebben zich van hun wortels losgemaakt. Ze worden nog steeds grotendeels uit het overheidsbudget bekostigd.

De bijdragen uit het overheidsbudget die richting deze organisaties gaan worden minder en moeten volgens de overheid net als vroeger worden gecompenseerd door sociaal ondernemerschap, giften en de inzet van vrijwilligers.

Om hun hoge vaste lasten te kunnen dragen moeten de meeste partners beiden werken waardoor ze weinig tijd over hebben voor kinderen en hun oudere ouders. De zorg voor de kinderen wordt overgelaten aan de kinderopvang en de school.

De zorg voor de ouderen is uitbesteed aan de gezondheidszorg. Ook hier lopen de budgetten terug en moet de burger zich als mantelzorger gaan inzetten voor zijn zieke familie, vrienden en buurtgenoten.

De zowel qua inzet als financiering krimpende sociale hulpverleningssystemen zijn in deze tijd van crisis juist meer nodig dan in de tijd van hoogconjunctuur.

De enige manier om dit probleem op te lossen is door een totaal nieuwe weg in te slaan. Die weg kan gevonden worden door moderne technologie te koppelen met medemenselijkheid.

2. De Mens is een Relatie

We beginnen bij de mens zelf. Een mens wordt gekarakteriseerd door zijn persoonlijkheid. Die persoonlijkheid is een combinatie van drie kenmerken, n.l.

(1) Richting Rotatie: Introvert/naar Binnen gericht, Linksdraaiend (<-) vs Extravert/naar Buiten, Rechtsdraaiend  (->) gericht

(2) Afstand: Geheel/Observator Boven de Wereld vs Deel/Ervaren In de Wereld en

(3) Psychische Functie: De psychische functie wordt beschreven door twee variabelen die Agency (Besturing) en Communion (Verbinding) worden genoemd.

Ze vormen samen vier functies die ieder een andere richting op bewegen (bv. Geest, Naar Boven, Abstractie of Ziel, Naar beneden, Depressie, Aarde) en samen een richtingsvector bepalen die de mens als staande golf door de Tijd/Ruimte stuurt.

De persoonlijkheid van de  mens is een relatie tussen deze twee functies in combinatie met de Draairichting en de Afstand.

De functies worden Geest/Ordenen/Waarheid, Lichaam/Waarnemen/Handelen (Sensory Motor Systeem), Spirit/Verbeelden en  Ziel/Emoties/Waarderen/Samen, genoemd. Een combinatie tussen Verbeelding en Ordenen wordt een ontwerper genoemd.

Als er twee gelijke functies worden gekoppeld is de mens psychopathologisch. Het ordenen van het ordenen wordt bijvoorbeeld Paranoïde genoemd.

John Holland ontdekte dat de persoonlijkheid sterk voorspellend is voor het beroep. Daardoor kunnen we met behulp van bovenstaand persoonlijkheidsinstrumentarium ook veel zeggen over bedrijfsculturen.

Met als mogelijke verklaring dat mensen de geschiedenis maken blijkt het ook mogelijk te zijn om het model van de persoonlijkheid te gebruiken om korte en lange cycli te beschrijven en te voorspellen.

3.  De Mens in Crisis

De Life Event Scale van Holmes bevat de gebeurtenissen die de meeste invloed hebben op de mens. Deze gebeurtenissen kunnen meerdere van de psychische functies raken.

De psychische functies van de mens zijn tegendelen die elkaar aantrekken en afstoten. Het persoonlijkheidssysteem van de mens fluctueert daarom rondom een evenwichtspunt, het set-point genoemd. De krachten die tussen de verschillende onderdelen spelen en daarmee de bandbreedte van de golven zijn per mens verschillend. Sommige mensen (Kinderen, Ouderen, Zieken) zijn kwetsbaar.

Als een gebeurtenis een te hoge schok veroorzaakt reageert de mens in eerste instantie niet (freeze). Daarna volgt ontkenning en agressie (fight). Na een depressie begint men om de nieuwe situatie weer te waarderen, te exploreren en te accepteren.

De traumatische fase kan bij kwetsbare mensen vele jaren duren. In deze periode is men niet in staat tot productieve arbeid. Het is de kunst om extreme gebeurtenissen en de negatieve effecten daarop te voorkomen of te verhelpen. Dit kan gebeuren door therapie en verzekeren.

4. Sociale Netwerken zijn soms Sociaal

Mensen zoeken vergelijkbare mensen op en vergelijkbare mensen hebben vergelijkbare persoonlijkheden.

Aangezien persoonlijkheden erfelijk zijn vindt de meest voor de hand liggende koppeling plaats met familie en andere mensen die sterk (genetisch) op elkaar lijken. Dit wordt een Community of Affinity genoemd. De leden van Facebook vormen een dergelijk netwerk.

Linkedin is een hulpmiddel waar mensen hun interesses en inzichten delen (Community of Interest) en Wikipedia bevat gedeelde kennis (Kenniscentrum).

Ervaring ontstaat als mensen een fout maken en van deze fout leren. Een fout is een afwijking van een verwachtingspatroon. Een succesvolle vorm van ervaringsdelen is de zelfhulp-groep.

De sensory-motor component van de mens is expansief en is het complement (het tegendeel) van de ordelijke kant.

Terwijl de ordenende component steeds comprimeert (analyse) en daarmee de werkelijkheid versimpelt ontstaan er steeds weer nieuwe vormen van praktisch toegepast handelen die de werkelijkheid complexer maken. Netwerken waar ervaring wordt gedeeld worden een Community of Practice genoemd.

Als we naar de persoonlijkheidstheorie kijken zien we dat de deelnemers aan een Community of Affinity en een Community of Practice samenwerken terwijl ze in de andere netwerken als individu optreden.

Het concept van de coöperatie past perfect bij de sociale sociale netwerken.

De Communities of Practice leven niet lang. Het zijn veel meer tijdelijke projectorganisaties die na het behalen van hun doel weer worden ontbonden of worden overgedragen aan een producent.

5. Van Hulp naar Levensloopbegeleiding

Het leven is een introvert (“naar binnen gericht”) proces en begint en eindigt in een staat van volledige afhankelijkheid (Low Agency, High Communion, Wij).

In de eerste fase van de levensloop vindt het proces van socialisatie plaats,  eerst in de context van de ouders en later in de eigen groep (de cultuur).

In de pubertijd neemt de behoefte om zich los te maken van ouders en familie toe (Agency,Ze) en richt men zich vooral op gelijksoortigen (de peer-group).

Aangezien het “erbij horen” de hoogste prioriteit heeft neemt men onnadenkend ook veel negatief gedrag over en zet men zich zeer nadrukkelijk af tegen de gevestigde orde, de volwassenen.

Tijdens de pubertijd vindt de laatste training plaats voor de volgende fase. Als jongeren sterk negatief worden beïnvloed door hun soortgenoten wordt deze fase niet afgerond en worden ze een drop-out die moeilijk aan het werk komt.

De persoonlijkheid trekt zich niets aan van de levensloopfasen. Er zijn mensen die altijd kind of puber blijven of weer puber worden (midlife-crisis).

Aangezien de persoonlijkheid ook bepalend is voor het beroep is het mogelijk om in iedere fase van de levensloop begeleiding te bieden met de juiste leeftijd.

Theoretisch hebben oude mensen in het begin van hun fase nog genoeg energie en de meeste levenswijsheid. In een groot aantal culturen wordt hiervan gebruik gemaakt door het  drie-generatie-systeem te hanteren.

Het principe van het drie-generatie systeem wordt in Nederland gebruikt bij de begeleiding van mensen die socialisatie-problemen hebben (“Op eigen kracht”).

Het huidige schoolsysteem is nog gebaseerd op de tijd van de massaproductie van de Industriële revolutie en lijkt op de fabriek waarvoor de arbeiders en managers geschoold moeten worden om aan de lopende banden hun werk te doen. Deze tijd is definitief voorbij.

In de pubertijd gaat het om doen, ervaren en uitproberen. Kennis verzamelen is dan niet echt aan de orde. Die kennis kan men veel beter verkrijgen door te reflecteren. Reflectie vindt plaats als er iets mis is gegaan.

Aangezien kennis zeer snel verandert is het niet zinvol meer om preventief veel kennis te vergaren. Kennis kan just-in-time worden verkregen als men praktisch in de problemen zit of overzicht nodig heeft. Ze heeft dan ook een veel hogere retentie.

In de nabije toekomst gaan instrumenten of zichzelf bedienen of krijgen een simpel user-interface dat de gebruiker vertelt wat hij moet doen.

In de productieve fase (volwassenheid) wordt de mens bestuurd door en maakt hij gebruik van regelsystemen (“het”). In deze periode wordt hij geacht een buffer op te bouwen voor de tijden dat er niet kan worden geproduceerd. Een volwassen zorgt in eerste instantie van zijn leven voor zijn kinderen (en soms partner) en later voor zijn ouders.

6. Het Begeleidingssysteem

Ondersteuningsgroep

Rondom ieder individu wordt een sociaal netwerk gevormd dat bereid is om elkaar te helpen en indien nodig ook te waarborgen. In het algemeen bestaat dat netwerk uit naaste familieleden en vrienden. Het is de bedoeling dat deze groep zo vroeg als mogelijk is in het leven wordt gevormd en zo lang als mogelijk in stand blijft. Denk daarbij ook aan de oude functies van meter en peter.

Coach

Een Coach is een persoon die over praktische levenswijsheid beschikt. Het is iemand die zijn/haar loopbaanpad heeft verlaten en zich als vrijwilliger aanbiedt aan mensen die steun nodig hebben in het leven. Coaches kunnen door een persoon of door zijn ondersteuningsgroep worden gevraagd om te helpen. Een ondersteuningsgroep is een absolute randvoorwaarde om aan de slag te gaan. Een coach kan gebruik maken van een simulator om mogelijkheden te onderzoeken.

Case Manager

Een case manager is een rol die er voor zorgt dat een dringend probleem wordt opgelost. Case managers kunnen zich in allerlei instanties bevinden en kunnen daardoor fors langs elkaar heen gaan werken. Het is de taak van de coach om de probleemhebber (zijn “maatje”) te helpen om een dergelijke situatie te vermijden of te corrigeren.

Case-Management Systeem

Alle betrokkenen maken gebruik van één Case-Management-Systeem (CMS). Een CMS is een procesmanager die op basis van condities zijn werk kan doen. Met behulp van dit systeem kunnen afspraken worden vastgelegd maar ook andere partijen betrokken en aan hun afspraken worden gehouden.

Zelfhulpgroep

Een zelfhulpgroep is een groep mensen die in vergelijkbare omstandigheden heeft verkeerd en bereid is om anderen te ondersteunen met praktische raadgeving. Mensen kunnen deelnemen aan meerdere groepen.

Case

Een case is een gestandaardiseerd beschrijving van een situatie in combinatie met een niet gestructureerde beschrijving. In het laatste geval lijkt het op een dagboek.

Cases kunnen problematisch zijn en om een oplossing vragen maar ze kunnen ook een beschrijving zijn van een gebeurtenis (bv. een ongeluk, een ziekte, een verhuizing, een aankoop). Cases worden gebruikt om een kwalitatief historisch overzicht te krijgen eventueel aangevuld met kwantitatieve informatie. Cases worden zoveel als mogelijk is automatisch aangemaakt.

Verzorgers

Indien een ondersteuningsgroep onvoldoende tijd en mogelijkheden heeft om de benodigde hulp te bieden kan externe hulp worden opgeroepen. Die wordt toegevoegd aan de groep en communiceert ook met de groep.

Specialisten/Hulpmiddelen

Indien nodig kan een case manager tijdelijk of permanent specialisten of hulpmiddelen toevoegen om de case op te lossen.

Kennissystemen/Deskundigen

Indien nodig kan een case manager tijdelijk of permanent deskundigen en kennissystemen tijdelijk of permanent toevoegen om de case op te lossen.

7. Financiering van de Levensloop

Het lichaam is verbonden met kort cyclische zon- en maanritmen zoals de dag, de maan/maand en het jaar (de seizoenen). Het gedrag is meetbaar (sensors), sterk voorspelbaar en daardoor budgetteerbaar mits er geen sprake is van verslaving, de behoefte van het lichaam om eindeloos te genieten.

Het complement van het lichaam, de geest, zoekt zekerheid en zoekt en formeert voorspelbare lange termijn patronen (soms een onderneming genoemd) die zich tonen in de vele economische cycli (Kitchen, Juglar, Kuznets, Kondratiev, …).

Aangezien de patronen onderhevig zijn aan verstoringen moet men ze niet als een absolute zekerheid gaan hanteren. Cycli herstellen zich altijd weer.

De korte cycli moduleren op lange cycli en hebben een voorspelbare verhouding (één Kondratieff = drie Kuznets= zes Juglars = twaalf Kitchens).

De Kontratiev-cyclus duurt +/- 54 jaar wat betekent dat de gemiddelde mens in zijn leven altijd profiteert van voorspoed en tegenslag. Dit betekent dat men met behulp van een lange termijn planning en een adequaat sociaal netwerk de cycli ongehavend door kan komen.

Sommige mensen hebben last van teveel geluk, teveel ongeluk, teveel passie of teveel wantrouwen om flexibel om te gaan met de toekomst.

In dat geval kunnen er voor deze mensen ondersteunde systemen worden ontworpen die zowel het geluk als het ongeluk delen door elkaar een waarborg te verlenen of elkaar te helpen in het besturen van het levenspad.

8. Smart Computing: De Mens in de Machine

Software gaat steeds meer psychische functies van de mens overnemen waardoor er uiteindelijk volledig autonome systemen zullen komen.

Op dit moment zijn vooral patroonherkenning (Big Data) en sensors gekoppeld aan procesmanagers (‘robots”) bruikbaar.

In de volgende stap kan de mens zich gaan koppelen aan zeer krachtige simulatoren die aan de ene kant de buitenwereld voorspelbaar zullen maken (“Early Warning”) en aan de andere kant een persoonlijke fantasiewereld (“het Holodeck”) kunnen maken waarin de mens eindeloos kan doorbrengen.

In de laatste fase kan de mens zich voorzien van lichaamssensors die het onbewuste zullen gaan ontsluiten.

Producten zullen worden gestandaardiseerd middels onderling gekoppelde product-configurators waarmee de klant kan gaan spelen (of andersom).

9. Van Coöperatie naar Banking Robot

Bankieren is heel oud. In de code van Hammurabi (1700 v Chr) werd er al gesproken over verzekeren. Rond 1200 ontstonden in Italië de handelsbanken.

De Treasury voortgekomen uit het graanpakhuis van Hammurabi is de functie binnen de bank die moet zorgen voor de levensloopbegeleiding van de bank door te zorgen voor een goede balans tussen sparen (productie) en lenen (consumptie) op zowel de korte- als de lange termijn.

Bankieren was tot 1900 uitsluitend voorbehouden aan de welgestelden. Rond die tijd ontstonden er twee nieuwe bankvormen die zich gingen richten op het vergaren van vermogen onder de minder draagkrachtigen (Giro & Postspaarbank) en het besturen van collectieve bedrijven en het dragen van collectieve risico’s (Raiffeisen, de Coöperatie of Onderlinge Waarborg Maatschappij).

De Consumptiebank (Bank van Lening) kreeg een enorme impuls toen de arbeiders in de jaren zestig verplicht werden om een salarisrekening te openen. Vanaf dat moment raakten de Nederlanders hun vrees om te lenen en te spenderen kwijt. Deze ontwikkeling werd natuurlijk sterk geholpen door de opkomende Kondratieff-golf.

Aan het eind van 20e eeuw hebben de banken geprofiteerd van de verder oplopende economie en hebben daarbij vergeten om een geldvoorraad voor de slechte jaren op te bouwen. Dit geldt natuurlijk niet alleen voor de bank zelf maar ook voor zijn klanten.

Rond 2000 op de top van de golf werd door de ontwikkelaars van de handelsbank Binck-Bank, Knab gelanceerd als een nieuwe vorm van klantgericht bankieren (Personal Financial Planning).

Knab probeert om de nieuwe mogelijkheden van de IT-technologie ten volle aan te wenden. Tot op heden slaat deze moderne vorm van bankieren niet erg aan omdat de klant de diensten te duur vind. Het grootste probleem is natuurlijk dat deze bank geen aansluiting krijgt bij de duurzame socialen, de expanderende genieters en de comprimerende zekerheidzoekers.

Het ligt in de lijn der verwachting dat rond de tijd van de Singularity de bank zich zal hebben getransformeerd in een begrijpend pratende alleswetende bankrobot die perfect waakt over de belangen van de klant. De teerling voor een Dr.Watson-bank is deze maand door IBM samen met de DSB-bank in Singapore geworpen.

Het lijkt er op dat deze ontwikkeling wel eens sneller kan gaan dan men denkt omdat IBM wederom een miljard dollar heeft gestoken in de toepassingen van zijn Dr.Watson-technologie. Deze investering zal vooral worden besteed aan het verbeteren van de medische Dr.Watson.

Dr. Watson ook wel Semantic Analytics genoemd kan in korte tijd eindeloos veel kwalitatieve (tekst, plaatjes) en kwantitatieve data tot zich nemen, patronen ontdekken,  logische redeneren en praten.

Om de uitdagingen van de komende cyclus-periode aan te kunnen zullen de banken zich moeten gaan concentreren op het balanceren van hun eigen geldvoorraden en daarmee ook de waardenvoorraden van hun klanten. Dit kan alleen als ze zich gaan bezighouden met de volledige levenscyclus.

Dit betekent dat een bank niet alleen alle soorten dienstverlening moet gaan bieden maar ook alle soorten banken onder één noemer moeten zien te brengen.

In dat kader zal de bank ook weer een sociale kant moeten gaan tonen.

We hebben gezien dat deze kant van het bankwezen zich in het verleden heeft getoond in de coöperatie en de waarborgmaatschappij. Deze banktypen zijn grotendeels verdwenen en hebben zich getransformeerd in een “normale” bank en verzekeraar waarbij de inbreng in het beleid van de klanten niet groot meer is.

Het herstellen van de klantbetrokkenheid (zie Knab) is een “hot issue” en “customer co-creation” staat hoog in de trend top tien.  Daarnaast rijst het aantal nieuw opgerichte kredietunies de pan uit en is de regering al druk bezig om deze vorm van onderlinge solidariteit een wettelijke basis te geven.

Het ligt dan ook voor de hand om onderlinge solidariteit (“de naaste”) weer als uitgangspunt te nemen voor de mensen die dat willen en dat zijn de mensen met een sociale persoonlijkheid.

10. Integrale Gezondheidszorg

We zijn weer terug bij het verdwenen bankkantoor in de wijk. Het stond in een winkelcentrum waar inmiddels door de snelle opkomst van de Internetwinkels alleen nog de lichaamsgerateerde kort cyclische retail aanwezig is.

De kans is groot dat die zich zelfs op den duur terugtrekt als de winkel-logistiek zich volledig heeft aangepast aan het aan huis bezorgen.

Vaak is zo’n winkelcentrum gekoppeld aan een gezondheidscentrum dat zich nu ook druk moet gaan maken over de psycho-sociale zorg. De overheid heeft bedacht dat de huisarts in de wijk in samenwerking met de wijkverpleegkundige moet gaan optreden als personal case-manager.

Opvallend is dat de economische gezondheidszorg (de armenzorg) nog grotendeels een kerkelijke aangelegenheid is. Er zijn vele organisaties die de hulp van levenswijze “maatjes” aanbieden om mensen te helpen ook economisch orde op zaken te stellen.

Wat tot op heden nog volledig ontbreekt is een integrale benadering. De vele professionele hulpverleners (“de sociale kaart”) en vrijwilligers werken notoir langs elkaar heen,  het aantal specialismen is sterk gegroeid waardoor ieder probleemhokje een eigen loket heeft en men kan door de soms zeer complexe vaktaal moeilijk onderling communiceren.

Wat vaak wordt vergeten is dat er naast hulpverleners en vrijwilligers ook nog commerciële partijen zijn die belang hebben bij een gezonde medewerker of klant.

Die belangen worden bij voorbeeld gedragen door Arbo-diensten, Verzekeraars en Banken die schadeclaims moeten afhandelen en natuurlijk ook voorkomen. Een vergaande samenwerking rondom het wijkgebonden integrale gezondheidscentrum ligt voor de hand.

Het is hierbij van belang om te beseffen dat de technologie veel werk uit handen kan nemen zodat de mens zich volledig kan richten op het persoonlijk contact zowel in de vorm van een gesprek als van de zorg zelf (totdat de zorg-robot zich aandient).

11. De Zelf-Ontplooiende Stad

Een stad is een verzameling gebouwen, waarin mensen samenwonen, werken, worden verzorgd of plezier maken. De mensen en de gebouwen zijn verbonden door allerlei soorten netwerken (energie, vervoer, telecommunicatie, sociale netwerken, waardeketens, ..).

De stad kan net als het Integrale Gezondheidscentrum verdeeld worden in vier onderling verbonden onderdelen n.l Besturing, Bedrijvigheid, Sociaal en Cultureel.

Boven de Stad kan een Monitor worden gedefinieerd die erg veel lijkt op het menselijke bewustzijn. De Monitor moet er voor zorgen dat de verschillende onderdelen niet te dominant worden.

De vier onderdelen kunnen weer worden opgesplitst in vergelijkbare onderdelen waardoor er in totaal (1+4) x 12 = 60 onderdelen kunnen worden gedefineerd. Die onderdelen kunnen als nodig is nog veel dieper kunnen worden opgedeeld als we de mens weer opsplitsen in bijv. organen en de organen weer in cellen. Op ieder niveau gelden dezelfde wetten.

LINKS

Over Slimme Software

Over de Stad

Over Paths of Change (PoC)

Over Grammers of Engagement

Over Roeping

Over Verslaving

Over Communities of Practice

Over de Magie van de OnKwetsbaarheid (in Dutch About Anti-fragility

This is the same blog in English.

Deze blog is het gevolg van een  presentatie over Anti-Fragility die ik op 7-9-2016 heb gegeven voor de sofware-architecten van de KNVI (Koninklijke Nederlandse Vereniging van Informatieprofessionals).

De presentatie in 2016 begon met een verhaal over mijn Smart City-project in Den Haag (“Smart Urban Space”). Dit stuk van de presentatie is hier weggelaten op de conclusie na over de Anti-Fragiele Stad. Die conclusie staat in Hfdst. 15.

Het verhaal over de Zelfontplooiende Stad staat hier.

0. Over Anti-Kwetsbaarheid

Nassim Taleb beweert dat er geen woord in het Engels bestaat voor het omgekeerde van Fragility (kwetsbaarheid). Daarom heeft hij het zelf gemaakt (Anti-Fragility, anti-kwetsbaarheid). In het Nederlands bestaat het woord wel alhoewel het net als in het Engels ook een niet-(on/anti)-woord (“een tegendeel”) is.

Het omgekeerde van Fragility is onkwetsbaarheid, een mythisch begrip, waar veel levenden naar op zoek zijn geweest maar dat alleen aan de Goden is (of was?) voorbehouden.

Taleb plaatst Anti-Fragility vooral in het scheppende perspectief. Met Anti-Fragility kun je chaos gebruiken om je eigen orde te scheppen.

Dit document bevat een zoektocht naar Anti-Fragility langs allerlei modellen die stukjes van de puzzel bevatten.

1. Over de Phoenix, het Symbool van Veerkracht

Op het plaatje houden Thoth, de Uitvinder en Ma’at, de Godin van de Balans, de Levensboom (de Ished) in Evenwicht.

De vruchten van de Boom des Levens gaven Eeuwig Leven (en dus Onkwetsbaarheid) en Inzicht in het Grote Plan.

In de top van de Boom die gesitueerd was in Heliopolis  zat de Bennu Vogel, de Magische Phoenix. De Vuurvogel die uit haar eigen Vuur herboren wordt is het Symbool van Nassim Taleb voor Veerkracht, het laatste stadium voor anti-kwetsbaarheid.

De tovenaar Thoht wordt ook wel Djehuti genoemd. Hij is de bestuurder van de Djed, de levenskracht (“het Vuur van de Phoenix”, de Kundalini), waarmee hij het Rad van Avontuur in beweging  zet dat door Ma’at binnen de perken wordt gehouden.

Het mag duidelijk zijn dat Nassim Taleb op zoek is naar de bron van de Levenskracht en de beperkingen van Ma’at (Balans) wil ontlopen.

In moderne terminologie wil Nassim permanent in de “Edge of Chaos” (“de Adjacent Possible“, Kauffman) opereren. De “edge” is het gebied tussen orde en chaos waar de nieuwe ruimte wordt gevormd en de tijd zijn werk nog niet kan doen.

2. Citaten Nassim Taleb

Cursief een aantal citaten van Nassim Taleb om in de stemming te komen:

Our brain is not cut out for nonlinearities. People think that if, say, two variables are causally linked, then a steady input in one variable should always yield a result in the other one. Our emotional apparatus is designed for linear causality.

Wind extinguishes a candle and energizes fire. You want to be the fire and wish for the wind. …The mission is how to domesticate, even dominate, even conquer, the unseen, the opaque, and the inexplicable.

It takes a lot of intellect and confidence to accept that what makes sense doesn’t really make sense.

For a free person, the optimal – most opportunistic – route between two points should never be the shortest one.

Not seeing a tsunami or an economic event coming is excusable; building something fragile to them is not.

The ultimate freedom lies in not having to explain “why” you did something.

The best choice is the one that remains for no good reason while other options have 2 or more reasons.

You get pseudo-order when you seek order; you get a measure of order and control when you embrace randomness.

In fact, every step is a new beginning. 

3. Introductie

Dit document is een persoonlijke zoektocht naar anti-fragility, een concept bedacht door de auteur/wetenschapper/filosoof/geldhandelaar Nassim Taleb. Anti-fragility is het omgekeerde van kwetsbaarbaarheid (fragile).

Taleb is een liefhebber van het omgekeerde en van kunstige metafoor (“The general principle of antifragility, it is much better to do things you cannot explain than explain things you cannot do.”).

Nassim zet zijn lezers graag op het verkeerde been suggererend dat dat het goede been is. Door het omgekeerde te nemen laat hij de grenzen zien van het dagelijkse en opent daardoor een nieuwe wereld die grotendeels onbegrijpelijk is maar wel degelijk mogelijk (“I want to live happily in a world I don’t understand”).

De zoektocht maakt gebruik van wat ik “mapping” noem, het springen (“afbeelden“) van model naar model waarbij het basismodel, Paths of Change,  steeds meer wordt verrijkt met details die zich rondom het kernthema (on-kwetsbaarheid) ophopen.

4. Het Basis-Model, Paths of Change

Paths of Change (PoC) beschrijft veranderprocessen en is ontwikkeld door Will McWhinney.

De methode maakt gebruik van het concept wereldbeeld (worldview), een specifieke kijk op de wereld.

PoC gebruikt vier onafhankelijke  wereldbeelden:

  • Sensory (waar-nemen / handelen/ ervaring/ rood),
  • Unitary (waar-heid /kennis /systeem /blauw ),
  • Mythic (weer (waar?)-geven  / idee/ inzicht/ geel) en
  • Social (waar-deren /waarde /groep / groen).

Een verandering is een cyclisch proces dat minimaal twee wereldbeelden doorloopt. Als voorbeeld, het wetenschappelijke veranderproces, koppelt unitary (waar-heid) aan sensory (waar-nemen) en vice-versa.

PoC is een fractaal-systeem (zelf-referentie, herhaling zelfde model). De basisvorm, de golf, herhaalt zich op ieder schaalniveau. Er zijn vele golven met een verschillende periodiciteit (frequentie).

Cycli van verschillende periodiciteit versterken of beperken elkaar. Omhoog en omlaag van gelijke waarde heffen elkaar op.

Een golf lijkt op een Sinus en bestaat uit een weg omhoog (mythic), de top (unitary), de weg omlaag (sensory) en het dal (social, depressie) waar vandaan de weg omhoog weer start.

De wiskundige Fourier heeft aangetoond dat alle functies kunnen worden beschreven als een verzameling van sinussen en cosinussen. Een cosinus is een vertraagde sinus.

Een Sinusvorm bevat twee tegenstellingen (omkeringen) n.l. richting (omhoog/omlaag) en evenwicht (top/dal).

Richting en (&) evenwicht vormen samen het geheel. Ze worden elkaars complement genoemd. Een systeem dat bestaat uit twee opponenten en complementen wordt een Quaternio genoemd.

Een voorbeeld van de Quaternio in het basismodel van PoC is de link waar-nemen (Sensory) vs weer-geven (Mythic). Weer of waar betekent aandacht. De kruisen in het model gaan over tegenstellingen.

Quaternions hebben een hele rijke historie in de geschiedenis van de wetenschap en zijn door de psycholoog/filosoof Carl Jung weer op de kaart gezet.

Een Quaternio biedt de mogelijkheid om met een concept te spelen door complement en opponent te onderzoeken.

Het is duidelijk dat Taleb een expert is in het spel van omkeren en confronteren. Zijn hoogste doel is om de lezer zodanig in de war te brengen dat hij zelf het Licht ziet.

Er zijn veel  vergelijkbare Quaternio’s (“vierluiken”). Die kunnen worden gebruikt om een toegespitste kijk te introduceren in een discussie. Door ze steeds te relateren (“mappen”) aan het PoC-model kun je een meer-dimensioneel plaatje schetsen.

Bovenstaand Quaternio komt uit de Grid/Group-theorie. Er worden twee variabelen gebruikt die een dualiteit zijn n.l. individu en niet-individu (groep) en vrije keuze (prescribing) en niet-“vrije keuze” (prescribed). Hierdoor vormen ze samen een Quaternio.

PoC is te beschrijven met de variabelen Communion en Agency, waarbij Agency lijkt op de Vrije Keuze-variabele maar dan andersom n.l. het effect van Agency is vrije of niet-vrije keuze en de groep-variabele lijkt op Communion (Samen vs Niet-Samen).

De Grid/Group-theorie is onder meer gebruikt bij het ontwerpen van Panarchy, een theorie over autonome processen. Panarchy wordt in Hfdst. 9 geintroduceerd.

De verbindingen tussen de wereldbeelden kunnen worden benoemd. Plan (Unity) -> Praktijk (Sensory) wordt Maken genoemd en Praktijk->Plan (Theorie, Unity) wordt Analyse genoemd.

Unity comprimeert (M->1) en Sensory expandeert (1->M).

De vier onderdelen van PoC kunnen weer worden ingedeeld volgens hetzelfde model. Dit noemt men zelf-referentie of schaal. In het plaatje wordt de persoonlijkheid opgeblazen tot een stelsel van Communities. Een Community of Practice heet een bedrijf.

De rechtsdraaiende cyclus is de Productie-cyclus. De linksdraaiende cyclus is de Consumptie-cyclus.

De kleuren in de plaatjes geven de relatie aan met PoC.

5. De Definitie van Anti-Fragility

Het concept anti-fragile is bedacht door Nassim Taleb en staat in de titel van zijn boek Antifragile: Things That Gain From Disorder. Anti-fragile is de antithese van fragile (kwetsbaar). Hoe meer wanorde hoe beter het anti-fragiele systeem werkt.

Een fragiel systeem is zwak dus zou je zeggen dat een anti-fragiel systeem sterk is (Robuust). Nassim Taleb gooit er nog een paar scheppen bovenop. Als je anti-fragiel bent ben je blij als er iets goed mis gaat want dan wordt het gewin groter.

Tussen fragiel (kwetsbaar) en anti-fragiel (onkwetsbaar) definieert Taleb de concepten anti-agile (niet aanpasbaar, rigide) en agile (aanpasbaar) met robuust (resilient, veerkrachtig) als midden categorie.

Anti-Fragiel worden is eigenlijk onmenselijk vandaar dat Nassim zoveel referenties geeft naar mythische voorbeelden (Phoenix (Robuust, Veerkracht), Hydra (Anti-Fragiel), een veelkoppig monster, dat meer koppen terugkrijgt als een kop wordt afgehakt).

Anti-fragile: is het vervolg op zijn bestsellers Fooled by Randomness, en The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable.

Black Swans zijn onvoorspelbare gebeurtenissen waar je je volgens Nassim tegen kunt wapenen door het systeem robuust te maken.

Fragiele systemen hebben maar twee standen n.l. (0): Heel (H) en (1): Kapot (K). Organismen zijn veerkrachtige systemen.  Ze hebben 2×2 standen (HH (00 =0), HK (01 = 1), KH (10 =2), KK  (11=3)-> Hh->H , HK, KH, KK->K) en zijn cyclisch (0, 1,2,3.0,1,2,3,0,…).

Anti-Fragiele systemen zijn het product van een evolutionair proces. Evolutionaire systemen hebben 2**2**n standen en tonen zich als een spiraal.

In fact, the most interesting aspect of evolution is that it only works because of its antifragility; it is in love with stressors, randomness, uncertainty, and disorder — while individual organisms are relatively fragile, the gene pool takes advantage of shocks to enhance its fitness.

Onderstaande plaatje toont de Involutie (convergentie van de Evolutie) van de Spiraal van het Universum van de Big Bang tot en met het ontstaan van de Sociale Systemen.

Als een fragiel systeem kapot gaat kan de nieuwe staat iets heel anders doen dan vroeger of helemaal niets doen. In dat geval passen de brokstukken niet meer in elkaar.

Een fragiel systeem kan door een grote verstoring anti-fragiel worden omdat de componenten anders worden geordend en ook zelf worden aangepast.

Een niet-veranderbare (anti-agile, rigide) ecologie weerstaat een verstoring.

Een veerkrachtige (robuuste) ecologie herstelt zich maar verandert niet.

Een veranderbare (agile) kwetsbare (fragile) ecologie valt na een grote verstoring uit elkaar, ordent de brokstukken op een andere manier en blijft hetzelfde doen (“functional redundancy”).

Een onkwetsbare ecologie doet iets nieuws met nieuwe brokstukken. Het is de vraag of nieuw beter is. Het is ieder geval anders.

6. Over Rampen: Black Swans en Dragon Kings

In tegenstelling tot Nassim Taleb is Didier Sonnete van mening dat er naast de Black Swan nog een ander soort ramp bestaat, de Dragon King.

Black Swans ontstaan door Self-Organized Criticality, “de druppel die de emmer doet overlopen”, de eerste steen die een lawine, een kettingreactie, doet ontstaan. Een kettingreactie duidt op een systeem dat te geïntegreerd is. Alles hangt met alles samen.

Het moment waarop de lawine ontstaat is niet met zekerheid te voorspellen maar de verdeling van de grootte van lawines vertoont een z.g. powerlaw-verdeling (de 80/20-regel, Pareto-principe). Een powerlaw-netwerk heeft heel veel kleine knooppunten en een paar grote “hubs”, die als magneet fungeren voor de kleintjes.

Dragon Kings ontstaan omdat er door synchronisatie min of meer gelijke (homogene) sterk gekoppelde (coupling) objecten gaan ontstaan die zich als een geheel volgens een vast ritme gaan gedragen (kuddegedrag).

De kudde drijft het systeem tot enorme hoogte (“een hype”, “bubble”) waarna het in elkaar stort en een tsunami start die veel opgebouwde waarde vernietigd. Dit wordt positieve feedback genoemd.

Synchronisatie forceert homogeniteit. Ongelijke onderdelen gaan in het geheel op elkaar lijken. Voorbeelden zijn verliefdheid, mensenmenigten (“meutes”), vogelzwermen, bacteria, hersenen, files, het weer en economische bubbles.

7. Stroomsystemen en Constructal Law

Het energieverschil, het potentieel, tussen de ritmische input van de zon en de output  van de ritmisch roterende aarde (via reflectie), wordt omgezet in geordende (geconfigureerde) ritmische (cycli) beweging (stroom systemen, bijv. het weer, de waterkringloop in de zee, …).

Het ritme van de zonnecyclus veroorzaakt grootschalige synchronisatie op aarde.

Als het potentieel te laag is komt de beweging tot stilstand (uitputting). Een blokkade van een aantal stroompaden kan een infarct doen ontstaan waardoor de stroom zich ophoopt en blokkeert. Op den duur wordt de blokkade (“doorbraak”) weer opgeheven als de bron maar blijft bestaan.

Een te grote stroomlijning van de rivierdelta veroorzaakt bij een te groot aanbod overstromingen. Hierdoor gaat de stroom anders lopen (bypass). Een rivierdelta is een combinatie van vele stagnaties die plotseling door de grote druk die zich bij het knooppunt ontwikkeld een bypass veroorzaken.

Tussen stagnatie en vrije stroom bevindt zich een persistent model dat een optimalisatie is van vele variabelen (i.h.a de lengte van de stroom). Dit model, de boom,  komt steeds terug.

Constructal Law is een onderdeel van de Thermodynamica. Ze laat zien dat stroomsystemen allemaal hetzelfde fractale “boom”-patroon vertonen op ieder schaal-niveau (hersenen, longen, bloedvaten, boom, rivier, stad,…).

Het model van Paths of Change bestaat eigenlijk uit vier aan elkaar gekoppelde bomen die 90 graden zijn geroteerd.

Unity is de Boom van de Hiearchie, Sensory is de Boom van de Causaliteit, waarbij een oorzaak vele gevolgen kan hebben.  Social zijn de Wortels van de Boom en Mythic is het omgekeerde van Social. Uit het Vele komt de Eenheid voort.

In zijn totaliteit lijkt het op een centrum (de Leegte) waaruit paden voortvloeien die alle kanten op stromen. Dit model is het gevolg van een systeem zonder weerstand.

Hier toont zich de Levensboom van Thoth en Ma’at maar ook de Uhrplant van Goethe die de wetenschap van de Morphologie (de Vormkunde) in gang heeft gezet.

De essentie van Constructal Law is dat de stroomsystemen in de vorm van boomstructuren op den duur alle weerstand verwijderen zodat ze steeds beter kunnen stromen. Die weerstand wordt gevormd door de vormen die “oude” stroomsystemen hebben geproduceerd.

Dit betekent dat de cyclus sneller gaat bewegen, het boom-object kleiner wordt (maar wel deel blijft uitmaken van een groter object (dat weer deel uit maakt van een nog groter object (via de fractale wetten)))  en de vorm van het object meer gestroomlijnd wordt gegeven het medium waarin het zich bevindt (vissen (water), vogels (lucht), zoogdieren (land)).

Volgens de Constructal Law zijn de organismen maar ook de hulpmiddelen van de organismen (vliegtuigen, boten , auto’s,…) allemaal een gevolg van de rotatie (in de rotatie, in de rotatie) die het overschot aan energie van de zon heeft veroorzaakt.

8. Vitaliteit, een voorbeeld van een Spanningsveld

Vitaliteit is een verband tussen diversiteit (veerkracht) en efficiency (orde). Als er teveel is gestroomlijnd wordt het totale gekoppelde systeem gevoelig voor verstoring (fragiel, breekbaar (brittle)).

Door het uitvallen van een elektriciteit-centrale vallen alle centrales uit of door een virus valt een groot deel van de software uit (collapse). Andersom levert een te grote diversiteit een te lage samenhang (connectivity) op en werkt er niets meer samen (stagnatie, chaos).

Vitaliteit is een voorbeeld van een spanningsveld (Efficiency (Alles gelijk) vs Diversiteit). Als je dieper analyseert blijkt dat alle problemen ontstaan door spanningsvelden die niet in het midden, in balans, verkeren omdat ze met grote moeite in balans kunnen komen.

De ene en de andere kant zijn meer waarschijnlijk maar veroorzaken zulke grote problemen dat een ander spanningsveld ze weer oplost.

Aangezien de spanningsvelden samenhangen middels spanningsvelden is de wereld een systeem dat in wankel evenwicht verkeerd en dat uiteindelijk tot een punt in een kruis kan worden teruggebracht. Dat punt is het scharnierpunt waarom alles draait.

9. Panarchy, de Fusie van Pan & Anarchie?

De hoofdstukken 4 t/m 6 laten een aantal samenhangende onafhankelijke variabelen zien die een spanningsveld zijn n.l. (1) Verbondenheid (2) Vitaliteit (3) Orde en (4) Potentieel. Die variabelen komen ook voor in het model achter Panarchy.

Panarchy is een fusie tussen Pan, de God van de Natuur en Anarchie, een  niet van boven gestuurde organisatievorm. Panarchy gaat over Autonome processen in de Natuur.

Panarchy is een cyclisch 4-dimensionaal model (een spanningsveld tussen Vorm & Proces) van de ontwikkelingen (de stromen) die een ecologie doormaakt.

De vorm van de cyclus is het cijfer 8, de Möbius-ring. De ring is een 2-Dimensionele band in een 3-D-ruimte die geen boven- en onderkant heeft maar die suggestie wel wekt.

De ring kan worden onderverdeeld in vier fasen die overeenkomen met de cyclische ontwikkeling van een organisme van geboorte tot dood.

De fasen zijn:

(1) geboorte en groei (opbouwen potentie en verbondenheid, groen/blauw), Vanuit het diepste punt (“de depressie”) ontstaat er weer samenhang. De samenhang produceert en consumeert hulpbronnen waarbij er veel meer wordt geproduceerd dan geconsumeerd. Er is nog genoeg ruimte om te groeien en om voorraden te maken. Vanuit het overschot ontwikkelt zich een besturingssysteem (een elite) die vooral zorgdraagt voor consensus. De onderdelen staan in dienst van elkaar.

(2) conserveren (behoud huidige situatie prioriteit, veel te veel connecties, geen mogelijkheid voor nieuwe paden, systeem wordt broos en breekbaar, er ontstaan  verschillende breuklijnen, diversiteit neemt toe, blauw/geel): Het systeem verbruikt vrijwel al zijn hulpbronnen om zich in stand te houden. Er vindt geen innovatie plaats en het verleden wordt belangrijker als de toekomst.

(3) ineenstorten en uit elkaar vallen  (geel/rood): Uiteindelijk valt het geheel uiteen in brokstukken die niet echt op elkaar aansluiten. Er werkt niets meer samen en het systeem komt tot stilstand.

(4) herordenen en opnieuw beginnen (rood/groen): De brokstukken worden weer aangepast en samengevoegd en een nieuwe cyclus begint.

Iedere faseovergang wordt afgesloten met een fase-specifieke ramp omdat er steeds op een andere manier “door de bocht” wordt gegaan.

Het model van de ecologie herhaalt zich op verschillende schaalniveaus. Stromen op een hoger niveau zijn groter en stromen langzamer.

De verschillende schalen (bijvoorbeeld mens, sociaal netwerk, stad, zie verder Hfdst. 15) hebben relaties die omhoog (revolutie, geel/blauw) en omlaag (herinneren/terugval, blauw/rood) springen.

Onderstaand plaatje toont het Panarchy-model geprojecteerd op het PoC-model.

Een aantal observaties:

(1) De Mobius-Ring toont zich hier ook,

(2) Er is een symmetrie tussen Blauw/Geel en Rood/Groen. Aangezien PoC een Quaternio is, zie je hier dat de opposities via de kruislijnen Groeien en Reorganiseren lopen. Groeien gaat van Dieptepunt naar Top en Reorganiseren gaat van Stijgen naar Dalen. Beiden gaan in tegengestelde richting Neer->Op vs Op->Neer, een Golf.

(3) Er is een symmetrie tussen Blauw/Rood (Analytic Game, Maken/Analyseren) en Geel/Groen (Emergence, Inzicht in Waarde, Waarde van een Inzicht).

Het Analytische Spel (Unity <-> Sensory) is een mensenspel. In een Ecologie wordt dit niet gespeeld. Het spel ontstaat via de terugkoppeling naar een hogere orde. Dat komt omdat we bij het Ontwerpen altijd veel te abstract denken en een aantal stappen terug moeten doen om de realiteit weer te bereiken. Thoht wordt altijd weer teruggefloten door Ma’at.

Taleb: “We have the illusion that the world functions thanks to programmed design, university research, and bureaucratic funding, but there is compelling — very compelling — evidence to show that this is an illusion.  Technology is the result of antifragility, exploited by risk-takers in the form of tinkering and trial and error.  Engineers and tinkerers develop things while history books are written by academics; we will have to refine historical interpretations of growth, innovation, and many such things. … The error of naive rationalism leads to overestimating the role and necessity of … academic knowledge, in human affairs — and degrading the uncodifiable, more complex, intuitive, or experience-based type”.

Het Spel van de “Emergence” (Mythic <-> Social) laat het gebeuren. Er  wordt niet gehandeld. Soms worden ideeen gewaardeerd (“brainstorm”) maar de grote vraag is of die ideeen echte ideeen zijn. In het algemeen zijn ideeen waarnemingen.

Andersom is het altijd goed inzicht te hebben in de waarde die mensen toekennen aan een proces of een calamiteit die het gevolg is van een gebeurtenis (Black Swan, Dragon King). In het laatste geval is er sprake van een hype en dient te worden opgelet dat de “fictieve” waarde niet te hoog wordt ingeschat.

Een Ecologie is een Autonoom (Natuurlijk) Proces en geen Mensenspel. Mensen hebben weinig invloed in de Ecologie behalve dat ze net als de andere organismen gebruik kunnen maken van de Ecologie en hem daarmee ten gronde kunnen richten door alles op te maken.

(4) Er is een “nieuw” type “Path-of-Change” ontstaan, een Ecologie/Ecologie-sprong dat via Revolutie (geel-sprong omhoog-blauw) en Herinner (Remember) van Blauw-sprong-omlaag-Rood loopt.

10. Menselijke uitdagingen

De mens (en zijn soortgenoten, de zoogdieren) heeft in zijn leven altijd te maken met existentiële levensproblemen.

Volgens Plutchik zijn dat er vier:

(1) Identiteit (herkennen, herhalen, accepteren, afstoten, isolatie, deelnemer, samenwerken): Als je niet kunt ontdekken wat hetzelfde is kun je nooit iets herhalen. Een persistente identiteit met bijbehorende kenmerken is een eerste vereiste om te kunnen samenwerken.

(2) Hiërarchie (aanvallen, ontsnappen): Hoe hoger hoe machtiger. Om te kunnen overleven moet het duidelijk zijn wanneer je moet vluchten en wanneer de kans groot is dat je wint.

(3) Tijdelijkheid (voortbestaan, reproductie, overdracht van kennis & ervaring (= inzicht), verschil, samenkomen, vertrekken, leven en dood, vieren, spel): Als er voor alles een einde is moet het mogelijk zijn om te reproduceren zowel lichamelijk als qua cultuur. Het slagen van een reproductie is een moment waarop men viert. Het einde van een existentie is een moment van droefenis. Reproductie herhaalt hetzelfde maar niet helemaal hetzelfde. Er is sprake van een afwijking of van verschil.

(4) Territorium (exploratie, oriëntatie, beschermen, grenzen, voorspelbaarheid, hulpbronnen, overschotten, markten): Een territorium is nodig om rust te hebben om hulpbronnen op te bouwen en te bewaken. Een territorium moet een duidelijke grens hebben en de overschotten en tekorten van een territorium moeten kunnen worden bewaard en verhandeld.

9. Menselijke verhoudingen

Deze problemen kunnen worden afgebeeld naar de vier relationele elementaire sociale relaties van Alan Fiske:

(1) Identiteit->Cummunal Sharing, groen,

(2) Hierarchie->Authority Ranking, blauw,

(3) Tijdelijkheid -> Equality Matching, geel en

(4) Territorium ->Market Pricing, rood.

De sociale relaties kunnen ook worden afgebeeld naar de vier wereldbeelden van PoC.

Die vier relaties van Fiske zijn vooraf gegaan door de agonistische en hedonistische samenleving, waarbij de eerste was gebaseerd op hiërarchie en conflict (territorium, oversprong-gedrag, mannelijk) en de ander op spel/cultuur (tijdelijkheid, vriendschap, vrouwelijk) en samenwerking (identiteit).

11. Menselijke Emoties

Plutchik is vooral bekend geworden door zijn 3D-model van de menselijke emoties. Het model bestaat uit vier primaire emoties met hun tegendeel:

(1) Vertrouwen vs Afkeer, groen,

(2) Angst vs Woede, blauw,

(3) Verrassing vs Waakzaamheid, geel en

(4) Vreugde vs Droefheid, rood.

In het plaatje wordt de intensiteit weergegeven.

Het model van Plutchik is afbeeldbaar op PoC en alle andere modellen die de revue hebben gepasseerd in deze blog. Het model is op vele manieren uitgetest en wordt bijvoorbeeld gebruikt bij het ontwerpen van robots.

12. De Menselijk Maat

Volgens de meettheorie is meten het maken van een afbeelding (f) van de buitenwereld (de meting, waarnemen),  het waarderen van de meting en het plaatsen van de afbeelding in een abstracte relationele wiskundige wereld (het netwerk-model, groen).

De wijze van afbeelden (de analyse, de methode, de functie f) mag geen invloed uitoefenen op het eindresultaat anders wordt het model veranderd (“bias”). Deze invloed, vertaalt in specifieke eisen wordt een schaal genoemd.

Alan Fiske ontdekte dat zijn theorie over de menselijke verhoudingen (zie Hfdst. 9) ook van toepassing is op de verhoudingen tussen de meetschalen. Mensen nemen naast objecten ook menselijke verhoudingen (een ratio) waar.

De vier schalen zijn ontstaan door “symmetry-braking“. Iedere volgende schaal beperkt de vrijheid van handelen op een formele manier.

In Communal Sharing is iedere combinatie van identiteiten toegestaan, terwijl Authority Ranking een bepaalde volgorde van deze entiteiten tolereert. Daarna wordt het verschil van de entiteiten (in de zin van afstand) toegestaan en als laatste mogen de verschillen alleen nog meer een eenheid zijn (meetlat).

De Ratio Schaal (Market Pricing) is vergelijkbaar met de Euclidische Geometrie, een ruimte waarin evenwijdige lijnen elkaar niet snijden. Het is de ruimte waarin we denken te leven als we dicht bij huis blijven. In werkelijkheid, als we vanuit de ruimte naar de aarde kijken zien we dat we op een bol leven en snijden de evenwijdige lijnen elkaar weer wel.

De meest vrije geometrie is de Projectieve Geometrie, die verbonden is met Communal Sharing en de Nominale Schaal. In dit geval bestaat de werkelijkheid alleen maar uit kruisende lijnen (een netwerk), waarbij een punt een kruispunt van twee lijnen is (in de N=2 dimensionale ruimte), een lijn een verbinding van twee punten en de onderliggende werkelijkheid een bol (of een anti-bol, een zadelvlak) is.

De symmetrie tussen punt en lijn wordt dualiteit genoemd en is een algemene eigenschap in alle projectieve ruimtes.

De gekromde ruimte is de ruimte van de relativiteitstheorie van Einstein, waarin er geen vast punt is en alles relatief ten opzichte van elkaar beweegt. Alles draait om alles. Communal Sharing is Agile en is de anti-these van Market Pricing.

De Ratio Schaal en de Euclidische Geometrie hebben vrijwel geen mogelijkheid om te transformeren. Ze zitten vast in hun eigen structuur. De werkelijkheid is lineair en de enige toegestane transformatie is vermenigvuldigen.

Market Pricing, de meest gebruikte sociale relatie op aarde, is daarom de meest rigide (anti-agile) en egoistische organisatievorm die er bestaat.

De Nominale Schaal (Communal Sharing (CS)) is een opsomming (bijv. de Politieke Voorkeur van Mensen).

De onderdelen van de schaal (de voorkeuren) kunnen in iedere willekeurige volgorde worden getoond (permutatie).

De deelnemers van een CS zijn voor elkaar inzetbaar en inhoudelijk vervangbaar (“functional redundant”).

Een CS is agile (flexibel) omdat iedere structuur via andere combinaties mogelijk is. CS is de basisvorm van de community.

Wiskundig staat de nominale schaal voor het behoud van de identiteit ( s1=s2 ⇔ f(s1) = f(s2), de permutatie groep).

In de Ordinale Schaal (Authority Ranking (AR)) zijn de onderdelen geordend  (bijv. kledingmaten).

De basis-relatie is baas-ondergeschikte. Deze relatie is complementair. De baas speelt zijn rol maar de onderschikte ook.

AR is fragiel omdat de rangorde ook een uniek pad van escalatie bepaalt. Je hebt aan een zet voldoende om de rest van de keten te raken. De ramp is voorgebakken in de ordening en kan door een kleine trigger in gang worden gezet (domino).

Wiskundig staat de ordinale schaal voor het behoud van orde (( s1< s2 ⇔ f(s1) < f(s2)). Deze orde wordt beschreven door monotoon stijgende functies.

De Interval Schaal (Equality Matching (EM), vriendschap) gaat over de verschillen tussen de waarden in de Ordinale schaal.

Voorbeelden zijn de temperatuur-schalen van Celcius en Fahrenheit die geen “echte” nul hebben omdat de verschillen ook negatief kunnen zijn (onder nul).

Bij EM streeft men naar evenwicht door verschillen te beperken (balans, reciprociteit). Iedere deelnemer levert een gelijkwaardige bijdrage. Er moet een evenwicht zijn tussen geven en nemen. EM is veerkrachtig.

Wiskundig gaat het hier om het behoud van verschil (s1 − s2 = s3 − s4 ⇔ f(s1) − f(s2) = f(s3) − f(s4)). Dit behoud wordt vertaald in de lineaire functie (f(x)= ax+b, a>0), vermenigvuldigen en optellen.

In de Ratio schaal (Market Pricing (MP)) zijn de verschillen altijd gestandaardiseerd op één waardoor de getallen in de schaal als Eenheid (meter, kilogram, sec,…) worden gebruikt en de waarde nul de laagste waarde is (Kelvin).

In MP is de relatie gebaseerd op een transactie waarin de partijen gelijkwaardige objecten ruilen. De prijs van het object is meestal gebaseerd op geld.

Relaties worden door middel van de transactie afgewikkeld en van te voren door een contract gedefinieerd. Ze zijn meestal kortstondig van aard.

MP is Anti-Agile. Ze is gemaakt om niet te veranderen (gestandaardiseerd).

Wiskundig gaat het om het behoud van ratio/verhouding: s1/s2 = s3/s4 ⇔ f(s1)/f(s2) = f(s3)/ f(s4). De functie f moet daartoe de vorm f(x)=ax aannemen.

13. Opnieuw Over Anti-Fragility

Er is veel reden om aan te nemen dat wat in Panarchy Revolt (Geel-sprong-vertraag-Blauw) wordt genoemd door Nassim Taleb Anti-Fragility (AF) wordt genoemd.

AF is de kunst om een enorme gefrustreerde diversiteit (mythic, geel) op een gezamenlijk doel (unitary, blauw) te richten. Dit gebeurt bij revoluties waarbij de gefrustreerde achtergestelde volksmassa (groen) de positie van de machthebbers (blauw) willen veroveren.

AF veroorzaakt een overgang tussen twee (eco-)systemen waarbij er een nieuwe hogere orde ontstaat.

De nieuwe orde heeft een lager ritme (trager) omdat ze de flexibiliteit van de lagere orde kwijt is geraakt en een grotere reikwijdte heeft.

Door de revolutie is de bureaucratie van de oude structuren opgevuld met de deelnemers die buiten de orde stonden. In wezen verandert er weinig (de ijzeren wet van de oligarchie).

De nieuwe orde heeft een ander concept gevonden voor de diversiteit die onder druk staat. Voorbeeld is de overgang van het eencellige naar het meercellige organisme dat in haar eencellige staat  tegen de stroom in moest gaan om voedsel te verzamelen en nu gewoon wacht tot de bruikbare hulpbronnen langskomen.

Zolang het nieuwe plan, model  alleen maar in de geest aanwezig is is het model schaal-onafhankelijk (“een visie of een filosofie”).

Zodra men het ontwerp gaat maken (Blauw/rood/-> maken) zal men terug moeten vallen op wat er is of nog veel moeten ontwerpen en bouwen (de “utopie”) om de complete ecologie vorm te geven.

Anti-fragility ontstaat als de onbalans in een Equality Matching-structuur (veerkracht) te groot wordt en de structuur weer naar zijn evenwicht wil terugspringen.

In zo’n geval zijn er drie mogelijkheden (1) de onderdelen gaan terug naar de oorspronkelijke AR (blauw) en worden opnieuw geordend (contra-revolutie) (2) de onderdelen gaan MP (standaardisatie, rood) doen en worden vertaald in (een aantal) eenheden of (3) ze verlaten de huidige ecologie en gaan naar een “hoger” liggende ecologie waar ze ook in een nieuwe AR terecht komen.

Het plaatje laat zien dat Veerkracht (Anti-Fragile) en Fragiel een categorie vormen en dat Agile en Anti-Agile een categorie vormen.Hierbij moet je je afvragen of Anti-Fragiel en Veerkracht niet hetzelfde zijn.

De eerste categorie (Fragiel, Anti-Fragiel) zijn een Vorm waarbij Fragiel een fysieke vorm is (een glas, materie, vast, “aarde”) en Anti-Fragiel een Idee (“lucht”, film, software, media).

Agile en Anti-Agile zijn Samenwerkingsvormen die een proces besturen. In het eerste geval (Anti-Agile) is het proces (een stroomlijn) gefixeerd (standaard, aarde/ijs). Het tweede geval (Agile) is heel flexibel (“water”). Alle paden van de bron stromen naar de zee.

14. Nassim Taleb over de Anti-Fragile Mens

In het boek Anti-Fragility staan een groot aantal “heuristieken”.

Een paar voorbeelden:

Be less dependent on external material objects

First remove the downside before you add more things to your life to make it better: Ruim eerst je troep op voordat je aan iets nieuws begint.

Seek out novelty: Try as many things as you can and keep your risk low: Dit is vergelijkbaar met de Bijbelse Spreuk “Onderzoekt alles en behoudt het goede”.

Many Small Risks can give a Big Win; Dit is de z.g. Barbell Strategy.

Get comfortable being uncomfortable:  Stop trying to be a Machine: Comfort is Not the Human Ideal:  Laat je nooit door anderen programmeren met redenen die een risicoloos bestaan garanderen. Uiteindelijk gaat er altijd iets mis of in de buitenwereld of in de binnenwereld en zul je moeten reageren. Als je daarin niet hebt geoefend ben je een willig slachtoffer.

Maintain your mobility;  Zorg  ervoor dat je altijd in beweging blijft en dus niet om wat voor reden ergens vast komt te zitten. Als je niet op tijd kunt vertrekken kun je getroffen worden door een ramp.

If you have more than one Reason to do something, Don’t Do it:  Dit heeft te maken met twijfel, motivatie en vooral ook onduidelijkheid (“elevator pitch”). Als er meerdere redenen zijn zijn er ook meerdere acties die nu nog door elkaar heen zitten.

Stop pretending you know so much about your future and structure yourself to take advantage of opportunities in the future. More Options, Less Plan: De toekomst is niet voorspelbaar dus plannen (voorspelbare acties) gaan altijd ergens mis. Als je dan geen alternatieve paden hebt zit je vast.

Evolution does not need narratives. Taking action now is the best thing to doDe natuur verzint niets. De natuur gebeurt. Er is niets op tegen om zomaar wat te doen en is te kijken wat de uitkomst is. Uitvindingen worden niet bedacht ze zijn vaak een gevolg van een fout of een andere kijk op hetzelfde.

Nimium boni est, cui nihil est mali:  The good is mostly in the absence of the bad: The quickest way to riches is to avoid becoming poor. The most effective way to health is to purge the unhealthy. The easiest way to be happy is to remove unhappiness. The fastest way to wisdom is to not be stupid: Het slechte en het goede hebben hun eigen domein. Ingewikkelde problemen moet je niet oplossen maar ze vermijden.

15. De Anti-Fragile Stad

Met behulp van PoC kunnen meerdere lagen van een Ecologie tegelijkertijd worden gemodelleerd. Bovenstaand plaatje toont een model van de Stad in vier lagen (Openbare Ruimte, Sociale Netwerken (verdeeld in Sub-netwerken), Bedrijfsleven (Waarde-ketens/cycli) en Bestuur. Iedere laag bestaat uit vier stappen waardoor er 16 (4×4) knooppunten zijn.

In bovenstaand plaatje wordt de Anti-Fragiele Stad getoond. Het Bestuur van de Stad is het resultaat van een groei-proces (zie Hfdst. 8) dat ontstaat vanuit het waarderen van de bedrijvigheid door het Sociale Netwerk. Het Bestuur van de Stad stuurt de Innovatie via de Creatieve Sector.

16. De Anti-Fragile Mens

Bovenstaand plaatje is een PoC-afbeelding van het MBTI (Myergs Briggs)-model van de Menselijke Persoonlijkheid. MBTI is een interpretatie van de archetypen van Jung die zijn samengevat in het Quaternio.

Het model bestaat uit drie delen:

(1) Observator: Observator-In-de-wereld= Judging vs Observator-Boven-de-wereld = Perceiving.

De observator is een hogere (of lagere) (fractale) vorm van de Quaternio.

(2) Rotatie: Extravert (Met-de-klok-mee-draaien) vs Introvert (Tegen-de-klok-draaien) en

(3) Een 2-combinatie zonder herhaling van de vier “organen”

(a) Thinking (T, Unity, Denken, Blauw),

(b) Sensing (S, Sensory, Waarnemen/Actie, Rood),

(c) Feeling (F, Social, Emoties, Groen) en

(d) Intuiting (N, Mythic, Verbeelding, Geel).

Je bent Anti-Fragiel als je met de Verbeelding (Inzicht, N) een Sprong maakt naar een Ordening (Thinking, T) die boven de Mens uitstijgt (in het domein van de Observator). Hierbij heb je de keuze om in de Lucht te springen (omdat er niets kan worden gemaakt) of om aan te sluiten met wat nu is. Hierbij moet je vaak weer een paar lagen terug gaan om de aansluiting te vinden.

De kortste weg tussen Waarnemen en Anti-Fragiel is om zowel de Emoties (waarderen) als het Denken (waarheid) te negeren. Het gaat hier om “zien” met de verbeelding (“het derde oog”, inzien).

17. Over de Magier

Thoth and the Human represented by the Ape. The Ape uses the Eye of Horus (the third Eye) to look at Thoth

Het derde oog doet me erg veel denken aan de  Magier (Thoht) die de Veerkracht van  de Creativiteit (Equality Matching, het Verschil, de Creatieve Spanning, de Levenskracht) gebruikt om het Universum een stap verder te brengen waarbij Ma’at er voor zorgt dat die stap een haalbaar stapje is.

Mijn favoriete tovenaar is Don Juan een magier uit de Toltec-traditie die in de boeken van Carlos Castaneda zijn leerling, Carlos, leert om van de Tonal (het bekende, het talige) naar de Nagual (“het onbekende”, de anti-fragiele wereld) te springen. De Nagual is een hoger dimensionaal gebied waar de tovenaar kan toveren wat hij wil.

Hierbij is het opvallend dat veel van de aanbevelingen van Nassim Taleb in de boeken van Carlos Casteneda terug te vinden zijn wanneer Don Juan Carlos uitlegt hoe hij een impeccable  “warrior” kan worden:

The attributes of a warrior are ruthless, cunning, patience and sweetness. The fifth element is not a personal one: timing. With those tools he faces every day life. Ruthless is not cruelty but a lack of self pity. Patience is waiting without rushing. Cunning is to distract the mind from the real issue, so it won’t interfere with the process. Sweetness is simply being nice. Timing is the ability of the warrior to use those four qualities at the right time. The warrior aims to be impeccable in whatever he does, but never takes himself and his actions too seriously, considering them as controlled folly. He acts with sustained effort and unbending intent in order to raise his level of energy.

A warrior lives by acting, not by thinking about acting, nor by thinking about what he will think when he has finished acting.

LINKS

Over de Adaptive Cycle (zie Panarchy)

Een hele uitgebreide Engelse samenvatting van het boek Anti-Fragility

Over Polarity Management

Over het Viervoudige (Quaternio)

Waarom Neurale Netwerken op het Universum lijken

Een lange lijst van vierluiken

About Anti-Fragility (in English)

Over Magie

Over Alchemie

Over de Evolutie van de Schoonheid

Over Ma’at

Over Synchronisatie

Over Don Juan & Tales of Power

Samenvatting boeken Castaneda

Over de Community of Practice (in Dutch)

Deze blog bevat een presentatie over de Community of Practice (CoP). Een CoP is een verzameling mensen die ervaring delen.

Opvallend is dat de zuivere Community of Practice niet voorkomt. Dat komt omdat men Kennis (Theorie) en Ervaring (Praktijk) door elkaar haalt.

De verwarring ontstaat omdat men de theorie als “dwingende” ervaring ziet. De theorie is foutloos. De gebruikers van de theorie maken fouten die worden veroorzaakt door tekortkomingen bij de gebruiker en niet in de theorie.

Doordat de gebruiker volgens de regels werkt en het mislukken van de regels door de gebruiker komt en niet door de regels wordt de theorie niet aangepast en worden de mislukkingen geaccepteerd totdat het systeem zich volledig volgens de regels gedraagt.

Het idee dat de praktijk ondergeschikt is aan de theorie is ontstaan in de Verlichting, een periode die samenvalt met de 18de eeuw.

In die tijd werd de verbeelding (het creatieve) teruggebracht tot de fantasie en werden de emoties (die waarderen) gezien als een geestelijk probleem (“hysterie“). Het enige wat telde was de ratio die werd vertaald in logisch redeneren.

In de verlichting ontstond de conduit-metafoor, een model waarbij communicatie een proces is waarbij conduits (objecten, containers) worden uitgewisseld die door iedereen te begrijpen kennis bevatten.

Dit in tegenstelling tot de toolmaker-metafoor waarin de mens zijn waarheid toont in zijn handelen (“The Truth of the Pudding is in the Eating“, (Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote (1615))).

Er zijn vier uitspraken over Waarheid mogelijk:

(1) De waarheid van een theorie is objectief.

(2) De waarheid van een theorie is gebaseerd op de waarneming van dat wat gebeurt (een feit is een gebeurtenis (een geboorte)).

(3) De waarheid van een theorie is een mening, een waardering: “If we have Analyzed Judgment, we have solved the problem of Truth” (F.P. Ramsey, Fact and Propositions, 1927). Wat (belangrijke) mensen vinden (zoals de Paus of een Hoogleraar) is waar.

(4) De waarheid van een theorie is het gevolg van een persoonlijk inzicht. Vaak het resultaat van een waarom-vraag. Wat ik geloof is waar.

De vier kijken op de waarheid  kunnen worden ondergebracht in een vierluik wat door Jung een Quaternio werd genoemd. Een Quaternio bestaat uit twee tegendelen en twee complementen.

Een Inzicht is het gevolg van een uitzicht, een waarneming die in een waargeving resulteert (Waar -> Weer, Beeld, Idee).

De waarheid is objectief (context-vrij) en subjectief (wat anderen er van vinden, context-afhankelijk).

Ervaring is wat de mens al doende in de werkelijkheid als afwijking van zijn eigen theorie, zijn Verwachting (Overtuiging), meemaakt. Ervaring is een persoonlijke reflectie op het persoonlijk handelen.

Een Community of Practice (CoP) lijkt erg veel op het Middeleeuwse Gilde met als groot verschil dat lokatie geen rol meer speelt zodat een Gilde niet meer bij een Stad hoeft te  horen maar in theorie wereldwijd kan opereren.

Door de enorme schaal die nu optreedt is het vrijwel onmogelijk om een eenduidig definitie voor een gilde te formuleren waardoor er veel communities zijn die min of meer hetzelfde gebied betreffen.

Dit is voor een deel opgelost door de gildes om te zetten in Internationale Standaard/Beroeps Organisaties die zich bezig houden met het ontwikkelen van Normen. Normen zijn theorieen die door een groep mensen worden geaccepteerd.

De belangrijkste factor in een Gilde is het Delen van Fouten waardoor de Theorie van de Gezellen kan worden verbeterd. In de huidige tijd hebben mensen erg veel moeite met het delen van Fouten omdat Fouten maken wordt gezien als Falen.

De werkwijze om een eerste versie van een CoP op te zetten lijkt erg veel op het ontwikkelen van een Expert-Systeem, waarbij de Meesters en Gezellen de Experts zijn en de Fouten (Failures) door de leerlingen worden geleverd.

Aangezien iedereen een leerling is geweest kan iedereen een relatie leggen tussen een veelgemaakte fout en een oplossing van de fout.

In het algemeen maken mensen steeds weer dezelfde fouten als ze met een beroep beginnen behalve als de fout structureel in het ontwerp- en bouwproces is geadresseerd.

Op dit moment bestaan er miljoenen communities die kunnen worden getypeerd door de Menselijke Persoonlijkheid die een combinatie is van Kennis (Wikipedia), Ervaring (Praktijk), Relaties (Sociaal, Facebook) en Creatief (Inzicht, Interesse, Linkedin).

Een Gilde is een productie-systeem. In een product-systeem loopt de Cyclus rechtsom. Linksom gaat het om een consumptie-systeem. Beiden systemen houden elkaar in evenwicht bij het Hart (Communion/Wij).

Wat nu volgt zijn de sheets van de presentatie met toelichting in presentatievorm.

Het laatste plaatje voor de samenvatting laat zien dat er twee manieren zijn om de cyclus te doorlopen n.l. met de klok en tegen de klok. De eerste is de productie-cyclus en de tweede is de consumptie-cyclus.
LINKS
Waarom persoonlijkheden eigenlijk een leersttrategie zijn.
Waarom de theorie altijd klopt en gebruikers die het niet snappen dom zijn.
Over de relatie theorie & praktijk
Over de Community of Practice met betrekking tot Verslaving en Burn-Out
Over Gilden (in de Gezondheidszorg)
Over Schalen (Constructal Law)
Over Schalen (Perspectief)
Over Schaal-vrij (Scale-Free)
Over Onkwetsbaarheid (Anti-Fragility)

About Alchemy and Logic

This blog is about Logic, Alchemy and the relationship between Logic and Alchemy.

Classic Logic is based on the Square of Opposition of Aristotle. This square was discussed for more than 2000 years. Recently scientists detected that the Square is really a Cube. It misses an extra dimension.

The Square describes  the six oppositions (“dual combinations”) of possibility (“some”, Particular Affirmative), necessity (“all”, Universal Affirmative), not-possibility (“not some”, Particular Negative) and not-necessity (“not all”, Universal Negative).

Geometric Logic is a part of Modal Logic which is a part of Logic.

In Geometric Logic the Linguistic Representations of Logic are mapped to the Graphical Representations of Geometry.

Modal Logic works with the notion that propositions can be mapped to sets of possible worlds.

The idea of possible worlds is attributed to the famous mathematician Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716), who spoke of possible worlds as ideas in the mind of God and argued that our actually created world must be the best of all possible worlds. Possible worlds play an important role in the explanation of Quantum Mechanics.

Alchemy is based on the Square of the Four Elements. The Four Elements are oppositions. The oppositions of Alchemy are related to the oppositions of the Square of Opposition of Aristotle in an orthogonal model. They form an arc of 90 degrees, which makes Alchemy the complex part (imaginary) of Logic.

In his work De Arte Combinatoria Leibniz developed a general theory of science that was based on a fusion between Alchemy and Logic.

The four Elements of Leibniz
The Square of Leibniz

In this blog I will explain Alchemy and Logic and show that Alchemy and Geometric Logic share the same geometry, the Hexagon (the Seal of Solomon), which is a 2D-mapping of the Cube of Space of the Sefer Yetsirah.

Leibniz calculating machine
Drawing of Leibniz’s calculating machine, featured as a folding plate in Miscellanea Berolensia ad incrementum scientiarum (1710), the volume in which he first describes his invention.

About Alchemy

When thou hast made the quadrangle round, 
Then is all the secret found. 
George Ripley (d. 1490).

One of the most complicated ancient architectures is the architecture behind Alchemy. The architecture of Alchemy is full of strange concepts and allegories.

Alchemy comes from the Arabic al-khemia meaning the Black Soil of Egypt (or the ((Egyptian) Black Art). Alchemy is the art of transformation.

Alchemy is an ancient science that was practiced all over the world. The most famous teacher was called Hermes Trismegistus in Greece and Thoth in Egypt. The old science of Hermes came back in the Renaissance.

The essence of Alchemy is called REBIS (Res Bina), Double Matter. REBIS is the end product of the alchemical magnum opus or Great Work. It is the Fusion of Spirit and Matter (the Body). Spirit is the Creative Part of the Human.

Double matter is sometimes described as the divine hermaphrodite, a being of both male and female qualities as indicated by the two heads within a single body.

The Great Work is the chemical and personal quest to create Double Matter, the Philosopher’s Stone, Spirit in Matter.

The Stone is the agent of chemical transmutation, and the key ingredient in the creation of the elixir of life, said to heal all diseases, induce longevity and even immortality.

In current Physics  transmutation is proved at room temperature in a proces called Cold Fusion.

In Physics one explanation for the fusion between Quantum Mechanics and Gravity is called the Wheeler Feynman Absorber Theory. In this theory the Future causes the Past and vice-versa. We are always in the Now, the Middle between Past & Future.

The Future and the Past are created by the Intention of the Observer, we call Measurement.

The Philosopher Stone
The Philosopher Stone

The aim of the Great Work is a fusion with the One (the Blazing Star, Saturn, Point) that is divided in the Two (Sun & Moon, Male & Female, Line) and the Four Planets (Square), the 12 (4×4-4) Constellations or more structures based on a power of a power (of a power….)  of 2. The Great Work moves from 2**N, …., Sixteen to Four to Two to One (or from one to two to four) in a Spiraling Spiral Motion.

The Spiraling Spiral in Chartres Cathedral
The Spiraling Spiral in Chartres Cathedral

The One, to which the elements must be reduced, is a little circle in the center of the squared figure (the cross). The cross is the mediator, making peace between the opposition of the planets.

The First Matter is the primordial chaos comparable to what we now call the vacuum, the state of lowest energy. This state contains all possibilities.

It can be looked on as an unorganized state of energy  that is the same for all substances and exists in an invisible state between energy and matter.

The First Matter is the One, the Point in the Middle of the Circle. In current physics a point is called a singularity or a black hole.

Alchemy is about Recombination

Alchemy is about re-combination summarized in the Latin expression Solve (break down in separate elementset Coagula (coming back together (coagulating) in a new, higher form).

Solve and Coagula
Solvite Corpora et Coagulata Spiritus (“dissolve the body and coagulate the spirit”).

Earth (Body) becomes Water (Spirit) by dissolving it in some solvent. Water becomes Air (a moist vapor) by boiling, which further heating turns into Fire (a dry vapor).

Finally Fire becomes Earth by allowing the vapors to condense on a solid material (a stone).

The circulation may repeat if it is done in a reflux condenser, such as the Pelican or kerotakis.

The Pelican is the Symbol of the Heart Chakra the connector between the Upper- and the Lower Triangle of the Body.

Kerotakis
Destillation

According to the early alchemists, the four elements—fire, water, air, and earth—come into existence via the combination of specific qualities, recognized as hot, cold, wet, and dry, being impressed on to the Prime Matter. For example, when hot and dry are impressed on the Prime Matter, we have fire.

(Hot and Cold) and (Wet and Dry) are oppositions. Their fusion is the empty set.

(Hot or Cold) and (Wet or Dry) can be combined -> (Hot, Wet), (Hot, Dry), etc.

The Cold allows substances to get together. The Hot is the power of separation.

Wet things tend to be Flexible (Fluent, Movement, Self, Not-Agency) whereas Dry things are fixed and structured (Agency, Resistance, not-Movement).

When the qualities are changed, the elements themselves are changed. Adding Water to Fire substituting wet for dry; hot and dry becomes hot and wet: steam, or Air.

As you can see in de picture below Hot & Cold and Wet and Dry are Binary Opposites (“lines”) that are voided by the central cross, the point of the Empty Set, The Void (A and not-A -> Empty).

Hot & Dry = Fire, Hot & Wet = Air, Cold & Wet = Water and Cold & Dry = Earth.

There are four types of Trinities the Passion-trinity (Dry, Wet, Warm), the Structure-trinity (Dry, Wet, Cold), the Resistance-trinity  (Warm, Cold, Dry) and the Movement-trinity (Warm, Cold, Wet).

The Square rotates. The wheel of the Square is driven by the four qualities. Wet on the rising side, Hot on the top, Dry on the descending side, and Cold on the bottom.

The start is powerless (Cold). By becoming more flexible (Wet) success and power comes (Heat).  At the top Rigidity (Dry) undermines the system and it falls back to a powerless state.

The Four Triangles
The Four Elements arise out of the Quintessence, The Fifth Element, The Symbol of The Heart Chakra, the Seal of Solomon

The four Elements all share the Triangle of the Holy Trinity. Every Trinity is seen from another perspective.

The two triangels, The Up-triangel and the Down-Triangel, are Opposites that are created out of two triangels that contain two Opposites that are fused. Humans are opposites in opposition.

Humans are FourFold

Humans are part of the Bilateria,  animals with bilateral symmetry.

Humans can be described as a fusion of two mirrored bilateral triangles, the Up-triangel related to the Top of the Body (Mind) and the Bottom-triangel of the lower Body both connected by the Heart. The two triangels and the separate triangels have to be balanced.

The principle of Balancing the two Triangles of Top & Bottom of the Body is represented by the Egyptian Goddess Ma’at who weights the Heart (the connector of Up and Down) of the Dead with her Feather (Nothing).

The Balance of Ma'at
The Balance of Ma’at

As you can see the Square of the Cycle of the Four Elements is visible in the picture below. The total picture shows a Hexagram with a Center (The Cross).

The points that are missing in the Square are the top- and the bottom of the two triangels which are the Whole (Up, Heaven) and the not-Whole, Emptiness, the Bottom (Hell).

The Seal of Solomon
The Seal of Solomon

A hexagon is a 2D-projection of a Cube.

The hexagon of Solomon can be transformed into the Cube of Space of the Sefer Yetsirah.

Cube of Space
Cube of Space

The Cube of Space can be transformed into the Tree of Life. The Tree of Life also called the tree of knowledge or world tree  connects heaven and underworld and all forms of creation and is portrayed in various religions and philosophies all over the world.

The Spiral of Alchemy is about the Chemical Transformation of the Body by the Conceptual Transformation of the Mind.

The Tree of Life shows the levels/scales (three) and possible paths of the Opus Magnum, the alchemical journey.

About Truths for a Fact and Truths for a Reason

People have always believed in the fundamental character of binary oppositions like Hot & Cold and Wet & Dry are used in Alchemy.

In this part we move to the Field of Logic. In this case Hot/Cold and Wet/Dry transform into Necessary /Not-Necessary and Possible/not-Possible.

Chemical Wedding (Union of Opposites)
Chemical Wedding (Marriage of Opposites)

Oppositions can be divided in:

  1. Digital oppositions, contradictories, contain mutually exclusive terms (Gender (Male/Female)).
  2. Analogue oppositions, antonyms  or contraries: contain terms that are ordered on the same dimension (Temperature (Minimum->Cold/maximum->Hot)).

Square of Opposition
Square of Opposition

The doctrine of the square of opposition originated with Aristotle in the fourth century BC and has occurred in logic texts ever since.

The logical square is the result of two questions: Can two things be false together? Can two things be true together?

This gives 4 possibilities: no-no: contradiction (A/O, E/I); no-yes: subcontrariety (I/O); yes-no: contrariety (A/E); yes-yes: subalternation (A/I, E/O) better known as implication (A->B).

The four corners of the square represent the four basic forms of propositions recognized in classical logic:

  1. A propositions, or universal affirmatives take the form: All S are P.
  2. E propositions, or universal negations take the form: No S are P.
  3. I propositions, or particular affirmatives take the form: Some S are P.
  4. O propositions, or particular negations take the form: Some S are not P.

The square of opposition was debated for many reasons for more than two thousand years.

One of the discussions is about the difference between possible and necessary. In the so called Master Argument Diodorus proved that the future is as certain and defined as the past. The essence of logic (necessaty) implies the non-existence of freedom (possibility). X is possible if and only if X is necessary.

The term ‘possible’, in Aristotle’s view, is ambiguous. It has two senses known as one-sided possibility and two-sided possibility (or contingency). Being two-sided possible means being neither impossible nor necessary, and being one-sided possible simply means being not impossible.

Leibniz distinguished between necessary Truths for a Reason, which are true for a reason—i.e, their opposite is a contradiction—and contingent truths, (Truth for a Fact) such as the fact that the president of France is François Hollande. A contingent truth cannot be proved logically or mathematically; it is accidental, or historical (based on facts (events)).

About Geometric Logic and n-dimensional “Squares” of Opposition 

Modal Logic is about the fusion of necessity and possibility, contingency.

Logical Hexagon
Logical Hexagon

In Modal Logic the propositions are modelled in a logical hexagon where:

  1. A is interpreted as necessity: the two propositions must be either simultaneously true or simultaneously false. A is a Proof or Law.
  2. E is interpreted as impossibility. E is an Observation that contradicts the Proof of A.
  3. I is interpreted as possibility:  the truth of the propositions depends on the system of logic being considered . I is an Idea implied by the Proof that Contradicts E.
  4. is interpreted as ‘not necessarily’. O contradicts A.
  5. U is interpreted as non-contingency: neither logically necessary nor logically impossible, its truth or falsity can be established only by sensory observation.
  6. is interpreted as contingency: propositions that are neither true under every possible valuation (i.e. tautologies) nor false under every possible valuation (i.e. contradictions). Their truth depends on the truth of the facts that are part of the proposition. Y is a possible proven theory.

The Logical Hexagon has the same geometry as the Seal of Solomon. It contains the Square of Opposition (A,E,I,O).

The Logical Hexagon can be transformed just like the Seal of Solomon to the Cube of Space now called The Cube of Opposition.

The Logical Hexagon is used in many fields of Sciences like Musical Theory or Scientific Discovery.

The Hexagon of Opposition based on Musical Theory
The Hexagon of Opposition is used in Musical Theory

Every opposite can be defined by a string of zero’s and one’s like 1010. An opposite is 0101. This means that there are 2**4/2 = 4×4/2= 16 / 2 = 8 possible opposites. This is called the Octagon of Opposites.

The Octagon contains six reachable and two unreachable points in the Center (0000, 1111), the Empty Set (the Void, the Hole, Contradiction) or its Opposite (The Whole, Tautology).

Logical Geometry
Logical Geometry

The rhombic dodecahedron RDH with the standard bitstring decoration
Octagon of Opposition

It is clear that it must be possible to create higher dimensional models based on n-based-logics.

When n becomes very big the geometry will tend to a n-Dim circle in which every point is in opposition to the point at the other side.

The big problem with n-based logics is language. We don’t have the names to articulate the many grades of opposition that are possible.

The other problem is that a negation is not a symmetric operation (A = not-not-A) but a rotation with an angle 360/n.

The n-opposite-geometries are highly related to Simple Non-Abelian Groups (SNAGs). They play an important role in biology.

The last step is to transform the static n-opposite geometries by making n very large (infinite) to a dynamic “opposition field”.

Related Models

In current Psychology Hot & Cold are called Communion and Moist & Dry, Agency. Together they create the so called Interpersonal Circumplex.

Interpersonal Circumplex

The four stages of Learning by Jean Piaget.

The mathematical model behind the theory of Piaget is called the Klein Four Group or Identity/Negation/Reciprocity/Correlation-model.

Piaget

INRC-model of Piaget
INRC-model of Piaget

In the Science of Ecology (Panarchy) Agency & Communion are called Connectedness and Potential. The Panarchy model looks like a Mobius Ring.

panarchy model
panarchy model

A model that describes the Four Perspectives on Security:

Quaternity

The Semiotic Square of Greimas:

Semiotic Square
Semiotic Square

The Chinese Sheng-Cycle: The Chinese Five Element Model is comparable to the Western Four Element model. It contains as a Fifth Element, the Whole-Part-relationship (Earth, Observer State). Emptiness (Nothing, the Tao) is represented by the recursive Pentangle inside.

The Sheng Cycle

Tetralemma (Ancient Indian Logic)
Tetralemma (Ancient Indian Logic)

The lesson

When thou hast made the quadrangle round, then is all the secret found“.

When You have moved once through the Cycle you have seen Everything there is to See. The only way to move out of the Cycle is to jump into the wHole in the Middle.

The secret: It is impossible to move though the center because the paths that go through the center are a contradiction or a tautology (I am what I am, JHWH).

We have to move with the Cycle (making the rectangle round (a circle)), around the Singularity (the Hole of the Whole), going Up and going Down all the time.

The only way to solve this problem is to join the opposites by accepting only one thruth-value, by:

  1. Accepting everything (Wu Wei),
  2. Denying everything (Stoics) or
  3. Diminishing the amount of dimensions (“becoming Simple”, “like Children”) by moving up in abstraction (Hot & Cold -> Temperature -> Everything is Energy) to the level of zero dimensions, a point, becoming One with the First Matter (Tao, Vacuum, The Kingdom).

“If we then become children, would we thus enter the kingdom?” Jesus said unto them, “When ye make the two one, and when you make the inside like unto the outside and the outside like unto the inside, and that which is above like unto that which is below, and when ye make the male and the female one and the same, so that the male no longer be male nor the female female; then will ye enter into the kingdom.” (Gospel of Thomas, Logion 22).

LINKS

About the History of Cycles (in Dutch)

About the Geometry of Negation

About the Logic of Music

About Wu Wei

About Modal Logic

About the Cube of Opposition

About Logical Geometry

About the Square of Religion

Semiotics for Beginners

About Holonomic Alchemy

About Paths of Change

About the Sheng Cycle

How to use the Square of Opposition as a Research Tool

About the Cube of Space of  Sefer Yetzirah

About Truth of Reason and Truth of Fact

Why Humans are Toolmakers

About Chemical Transformation (Cold Fusion)

About the Ars Generalis Ultima of Ramon Lull (1305)

About the Six Domains of  the Polynomic System of Value

About the Logic of Creation

About Leibniz Calculating Machine

About Zero Dimension 

Why Innovation is Re-Combination

How to Balance the Seal of Solomon

About Interpersonal Theory 

About Panarchy

About the Hexagon of Opposition

About n-based logics

About Flow-Systems

Anti-Fragility and the Square of Opposites

An Introduction to Hexagonal Geometry