the Future of Engineering (Version 1.5)

This a highly dynamic blog .Everyday I will add new parts so when you want to follow my progress come back as often as you like

.In version 1.3 I swrite about the Ancient Science of Egypt in Part 6 .

In version 1.4  I write about the role of consciousness in Design in Part 7.

In Version 1.5 I write in Part 8 about Holes.

When you want to discuss the issue of the Future of Engineering join the Linkedin Group with the same name.After  a few lines my English Text starts->

.De inspiratie om te gaan schrijven ontstond toen ik door Harm Rozie in contact werd gebracht met ingenieurs die bezig waren met het verbeteren van hun vakgebied onder de noemer (First Time Right).

De reden is dat de meeste technologieprojecten die vaak meer dan een miljard kosten mislukken en dat het er op lijkt dat de aannemers erg veel baat hebben van dit mislukken omdat dan alles nog een keer of meer moet.

-> Part 1: Collin.Managing Complex Projects

The amount of failing complex technology-projects is increasing.

I got in contact with a group of people who were trying to solve this poblem. One of them is Theo Lohman. He developed a method called Collin (Collective Intelligence) .The Model of Collin

Kent Palmer has been busy in the US to solve the same problems in a completely different way. Kent is building a new engineering theory he calls Schema Theory.

Theo and others have  developed Relatics . Relatics is a tool to support the making of project-documentation.

You can link documents to a common project-datamodel. The idea behind Relatics is that big projects fail because the participants loose oversight. This can be prohibited  by making standardized documentation.

Relatics is a manual tool. You have to make the projectmodel and the  links to the content/documentation by hand.

We have developed a tool that makes a semantic-network  out of the content of a project using text-mining. This tool can also be used to make a semantic network out of of any software-code.

Leo Ruijven, wrote a dissertation about Collin (and more) called : A unified framework improving interoperability and symbiosis in the field of Systems Engineering.

Afbeelding2

Part 2. Paths of Change (PoC)

I found out that Collin has a lot to do with Paths of Change (Poc) of Will Mcwhinney. The main reason is that PoC contains a general framework that has been used for many ages in many cultures.

PoC is a Meta-Theory (or better a Meta-Praxis) that explains many theories (and philosophies).PoC uses the concept of Worldview, a Sensory definition of a unique perspective at the world you live in. “look/view” is not the right word because one of the worldviews is called  Sensory.Poc has a lot in common with the Archetypes of Jung (Sensing, Thinking (Unity, Models, Rules), Feeling (Social, Emotions) and Intuiting (Mythic, Imagination).PoC is a fractal framework which means that Poc can be applied to  Itself.Poc is also a clyclic framework which means that the views of the Paths of Change are connected in a cycle (and a meta-cycle (etc.) that moves With (Introvert) and   Against the cClock (Extravert) .Poc also contains a center. (the cross) that can be seen as a Projection of Consciousness seen as the Observer.

Below a view on a Chinese model called the Five Elements Map. The four corners of PoC and the center of the Cross add up to Five Perspectives. The Four + one center Elements come back in many Cultures and in Old and Recent Science.

As you can see the two directions of the movement are called destructive (Against the Clock, Consuming) and generative/ Productive. The two movements connect and create a Moebius Ring (the number 8).

5elements

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 Garl Jung called the framework behind his Archetypes a Quaternion, a 4×4-square that contains complementary (“dual”) concepts (Senses/Facts vs Imagination), (Object/Unity) vs/Subject (Social).

The Quaternion has a lot in common with the Chinese  Lo Shu Magic square which is the “generator” of the ancient Chinese Cyclic Models.

The Lo Shu Square on the back of a small turtle surrounded by the signs of the Chinese zodiac

Jung got a lot of his ideas out of a very long discussion about the dreams of Wolfgang Pauli, one of the creators of Quantum Mechanics.

A Quaternion is a square. A square can be divided by a line into two Triangels. The mathematical Triangle has a lot to do with the Spiritual triangel, the trinity . The Triangel is also a basic building block in Geometry.

The work of Kent Palmer is called Schema Theory.

Schema Theory uses Mathematics  as a foundation and shows that the history of mathematics follows the history of Engineering. Both make use of the same ideas/concepts.

To me this is fine because  I am a trained mathematician.

The nice thing with mathematics is that most mathematicians are also philosopher because both need the same concepts to explain what they are looking for or have found.

Kent Palmer uses the concept of the Schema as a central frame to explain what is or was happening in Engineering . A Schema is a 2-dimensional frame.

Part 3: Kent Palmer About Naming SYstems

My Father was born in the center of the Netherlands called “de Veluwe”. His family spoke a different dialect as my mothers family.

Later I met other people with diffrent dialects. I even found out that Science and Banking use their own dialect.

A Dialect is a unique way in which people speak a language that is often highly related to a shared language.

There are many ways to group dialects (Location, Social Class, Profession,.History, culture ..). Dialects can be highly confusing that’s why standardizing terminology is needed when you want to make enduring relationships. 

Bahktin, a Russian Philosopher spent his whole life researching literature. Bahktin developed the concept of the Chronotope : “the intrinsic connectedness of temporal and spatial relationships that are artistically expressed in literature”. Bahktin found many cycles (the Wheel of Life) that are explained by Paths of Change.

ferris wheel under blue sky

In 176 At ABN (a big bank) I was asked to take care of the Data and the Terminology of the bank (Data-Management). We used a special database called a Dictionary to store all the definitions of the data and their technical implementations in database, software and manual processes. The model of the Dictonary was called a Meta-Model.

After some time we found out that the meta-model was a self-reference (a fractal) and it all came back to my favorite subject I found when I was trained as a programmer.

To teach us we  were given highly difficult problems we had to solve in a very short time using a highly limited computer (1969 CRI Leiden). I found out that the best solutions were always fractal.

Later the specifications of the software and the coding  were stored in the same dictionary now called a repository.

Later I got into contact with many scientists that were highly interested in data and the meaning (semantics) of data.

In my fathers dialect  a  Plank was called a schap. In English Schap is called scape . A plank is a horizontal frame that is used to carry objects.

A LandScape is A portion of land or territory which the eye can comprehend in a single view, including all the objects it contains.

A Horizontal Frame can be seen from a Stake. A stake (“paal”) is a pointed foundation hit in the ground.When you climb  the Stake you can see the Horizon. When you climb you use a scale.The Horizon is a Horizon-tal Line.calm water with sun and orange skyPerspective (looking thhrough a hole) was invented by Painters in the Renaissance and was transformed into Projective Geometry that was transformed into the Model of Curved Space/Time that was used by Einstein when he developed Special Relativity Theory.Parallel lines cross at infinity which is the Horizon.Vriendschap is called Friendship in English. A Ship is a Scape. a horizontal frame floating on Water.

A Scape, a view or picture of a scene, has various synonyms: context, situation, environment, ecosystem, medium, milieu,or Gestalt.

In the linked document called Naming Systems Kent Palmer writes bout Meta-Systems, Meta-Systems float above normal Systems.

Meta  means about the thing itself. It’s seeing the thing from a higher perspective. When you want to get oversight you have to go UP until you see the Horizon. UP is called Abstracting.

An Abstracted System is always simpler than the System itself. This means that Abstracting is leaving “things out”.

When the process of leaving things out is chaotic you will leave the relation between the Meta-System and the System it is about.

If this is the case the total development-process is in a mess. To save the project or sometimes even the company you have to find all the content produced and reconstruct the genesis of the project to pick up the pieces.

When ABN and AMRO (another big Bank) were fused I was made responsible for this process. To fuse the two banks we needed new technology (called everse-engineering) to get the meaning out of all the stored content in many sometimes very old libraries called archives.

We even needed tools to extract the meaning out of operational software without source and object in in the state of a load module.To save the bank we even had to look worldwide for solutions and got into contact with institutions (NASA) that finally pointed back to Scientists in the Netherlands.

This started an ongoing research-relationship until today in which we develop new tools to handle the new content (pictures, movies, ,,)  available and try to reach a higher level of understanding.

An important point to note is that software-engineers especially in highly complex businesses have perhaps solved more problems than the engineers that started the field of system-engineering.  I am sure that Kent Palmer is aware of this point.

Part 4:  Kent Palmer About Meta-Systems

Kent Palmer wrote a document: The Advance of the Systems Engineering Discipline through an understanding of Meta-systems theory.

To write This part I have copied ltext out of the document but have also added pieces of my own thinking/out of my own practice.

Paths of Change (PoC) contains connected Steps that are defined by a World-View. A World is a long period of time. The steps always end at the same step. That is why PoC is called a Cycle.

A world-view is about looking in a special way or at a special direction at a scape.

As we already saw we are looking Up into the sky when we are abstracting. When we have abstracted (made things simpler) we have developed a theory.

When we apply/use the theory we are practising. Practice is about going Down until we are standing with our feed on the ground (earth).

We can also look backwards (the Beginning, Creation, History) or forwards (Future, Horizon).

Systems Engineering can be viewed as a practical discipline and Systems Theory as an academic pursuit.

A dual is a mirror of paired concepts. Theory and practice are duals.Their mirror is the reverse of a  process we call abstracting.

A Mata-System is a dual of a System but it is not necessary that the reverse-process is a mirror.

A System has an environment or ecosystem (” or a Scape) that surrounds it and which it is embedded in. This use of “meta” means beyond (or part of or connected to )  rather than above.

In this case systems can even live (or interact) in their-Scape.

Systems (in terms of theories) can even be tested in their Meta System without going from theory to practice.Perhaps practice does not need theory or practice is ahead of theory.

The only thing we have to detect is the stake we have climbed to see the horizon of the system or what is behind its horizon.

Systems Theory should learn from Systems Engineering. But there are equally many places where the reverse is true.

Systems Theory has no practical side that allows it to generate problems for the academics to solve. But on the other hand Systems Engineering lacks the theoretical foundation that will allow it to ground its practice.

It can appropriate Systems Theory but really it needs not just a Systems Theory but also the inverse of that, a Meta-systems Theory. It will take both of these to ground a robust Systems Engineering practice.

Part 5: Kent Palmer: Emergent Design: Explorations in Systems Phenomenology in Relation to Ontology, Hermeneutics and the Meta-Dialectics of Design

This is a highly complex document with a lot of discussion about subjects most engineers don’t know about. I have taken out of this document what I can use to make a point. I understand that a part of the language is too difficult.Text between “is a citation

Systems Engineering is focused on creating systems as artifacts that are used and operated, which, in turn, change the environment for newer systems that will take their place in the future“.

“These systems are created by a lengthy and involved development process that includes: Requirements Development, Architectural and Sub-system Design, Implementation, Verification, Validation, Integration, and Operation”.

Schemas are templates of pre-understanding of spacetime envelopes that we project onto our experience in order to differentiate objects of different scales in terms of their dimensionality”.

Kent Palmer is desperately trying to find a level of abstraction (a place high in  Sky) to make a distinction between all the ways objects (humans but also animals or perhaps machines) that look or are aware have an understanding of the environment they exist in.

He believes that we live in space/time which is the result of a very long  process of thinking about perspective in painting which is looking through a very small hole at a scape.

In the scape we look at objects he calls envelopes (something filled with something else). In spacetime objects have a location that possibly moves in space and a form that also moves and changes in time. humans make pictures/movies/content of the movement share/ communicate about the content and remember/imagine and make models of the content.

Space/time is a highly dynamic environment.What we make or have made is sometimes stable for some time but the process of making (“engineering”) disappears and is sometimes reconstructed (archeology“) with a lot of imagination involved.

sand desert statue pyramid
Spynx

A schema looks like a method but he calls it a template of pre-understanding.

The richness of nature comes from the variety of schematic organizations (“a ants nest”) that are being projected by different species, while the artificial creation of our human centered environments tends to blot them out and replace them with our own schematizations exclusively, which leads to a lessening of the variety of schematizations that can be realized in the overall natural environment“.

Are Ants engineers?

It looks like organisms that are very different from the human and that don’t use language are able to ceate arifacts that are highly comparable to what human engineers are making. Until now we don’t know how they are doing this.

animal world apiary beehive bees

Kent Palmer makes a difference  between ants and humans by using the concept  of a  Shared  experience. of a lifeworld. This concept was created by Edmund Hussler around 1936.”The ‘lifeworld is a grand theatre of objects variously arranged in space and time relative to perceiving subjects”.A “ifeworld means a person’s subjective construction of reality, which he or she forms under the condition of his or her life circumstances“.

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Part 6:  About the Age of Reason and the Power of the Imagination.
Kent Palmer writes about the many  strange coincidences that happened when he was looking for patterns that could help him to extend General Systems theory.The same happened to me. It all happened when I got into an unexpected Jump Of my Kundalini.

kundalini tyoga.jpeg

This happens when (the 7th)and the down chakra (called Trumpets in the Bible) fuse.This   started a strange process of synchronicity that brought me a lot of information about the theory behind ancient knowledge.THis ancient knowledge returned to the West (Italy) at the Renaissance when the archives of the center of knowledge of the ancient world in Heliopolis (Egypt)(later  Alexandria) were found in Byzantium. Heliopolis was a Scientific center of the World a long time ago and attracted “scientists” sometimes called Magicians  (see Magi) that advised the Rulers of the World that wanted to prevent the world for a new disaster comparable to the Great Flood.The most important knowledge to protect  was  the control of the power of the Mind by the Imagination.To block this power a counter-movement was organized out of Venice, the financial center of the world. The managers of this movement started to promote Reason as a powerful force.They decided to use Newton as as an Example of  a briljant Scientist and started to block the thinking of Leibniz that had a lot to do with Alchemy, the Science of Ancient Egypt.

So ABove So Below: The fractal pattern of the Moebius Ring repeats itself, The Cup of the Heart is a Dual Trumpet called  Chakra in India.

This al started the Age of Reason, The Enlightment, in which the Imagination was transformed into the confusing Fantasy and the warm Emotions of the Heart became a blockage for Cold scientific thinking.

Part 7:  About Consciousness

What is Shinto? Shinto is the Religion of Japan. In Shinto “gods” are called kami. Kami is, in essence, one of those spiritual concepts that can be found everywhere and in everything. It is a mystical property established because there is no direct difference between the material world and spiritual existence.  In shinto even machines have a spirit.

woman wearing red and white dress walking near a shinto shrine

In classical Roman religion, a genius loci (plural genii locorum) was the protective spirit of a place.

In almost every ancient religion Spirits were related to special places or special people (“saints”).

When you visit such a place many people feel the power of the place.Ancient Religious Places like the Cathedrals of the Middle Ages reused the power of the ancient places.

A good example is  Chartres which was a holy place of the Druids.

BlackMadonna

The Black Virgin of Chartres Cathedral.

The book the Third Reich of Dreams shows that people know what will happen in the Future. 

After Hitler came to power in 1933, Charlotte Beradt, a Berlin-based journalist, began to awaken night after night bathed in perspiration, teeth clenched in terror.

On one of these nights, after dreaming of being hunted “from pillar to post” by storm troopers, a new thought arrived: what if she wasn’t the only one?

What if the things that appeared in her nightmares were also being visited upon other people?

This startling thought set in motion the seeds of a research project. Beradt quietly began to query people about their dream-life. 

She found out that many people dreamed the same dreams and dreamed the concentration camps of the NAZIS long before they were invented.

When people are brought under hypnosis they can be brought back to the past (into their past lifes) and into the Future. The experiments of Helen Wambach showed that people are able to predict a shared future with a high accuracy. 

The best explanation for the fusion of Quantum Mechanics and Relativity Theory is the so called Wheeler Feynman Aborber Theory. This theory shows that it is possible to influence history in the future.

John Wheeler believes that the Universe is a Self-Observing system. Wheeler suggested that reality is created by observers and that: “no phenomenon is a real phenomenon until it is an observed phenomenon.” .

When I was a young child I found out that I was able to Read people.

When you read people you are able to see what is in their mind. 

When I was much older I met highly experienced Advisors that took a training in reading.

We experimented  with collective reading and proved that we could read an organization.

Will McWhinney organized workshops in New Mexico near Taos. We were introduced to many “new” techniques that were developed.

They were called Organizational Dreaming (OD) and Organizational Sculptures (OC).

In OD people agreed to solve a problem by sharing their dreams.

In OS one person used other people to build a balanced structure (“a sculpture”) that represented his problems/ questions.

After a signal of the sculptor everybody makes a next step en tells the “scluptor” what came up in his or her mind.

This gave remarkable results.

Much later OC came back in the Netherlands as Opstellingen (Constellations).

aerial photography of rock formation  [/New Mexico

The concept Paranormal indicate that science does not believe what abnormal people are capable of.

Is the design of a system known before it was made?

Is it possible to ask the domus of a city if it wants engineers to develop a new part or let designers destroy an old part?

Do you believe we did this with the City of Athens?

Acropolis

IPart 8: Is it possible to make a Whole with only Holes?

What is nothing?

How to combine combinations.

A formula that contains variables contains holes to fill.

A Tunnel is a Hole to Connect.

image0.jpg

Does emptyness contain matter?.

The Empty Set is a set with zero members. If we are able to remove members out of a set we will get sets with negative numbers of members. These are sets that are missing something (“longing” sets”).

About Conway Games and Surreal Numbers.

Conway’s game of life

A Highly Composite Number (HCN) is a positive integer with more divisors than any smaller positive integer. A HCN is a social number.

HCN were invented by Ramanujan a mathematical genius found in India who got his inspirations from Lakshmi the Goddess of Namagiri.

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a6/Raja_Ravi_Varma%2C_Goddess_Lakshmi%2C_1896.jpg

The HCN are the numbers that define Harmonics . HArmonics shows that the Universe is a Wave that produces Overtones.

LINKS

RAY TOMES’ – CYCLES IN THE UNIVERSE

ABout Ratio and Magnitude,

About the Battle between Leibniz & Newton

About the Renaissance

About Alchemy

About Heliopolis

About Good Vibrations

The Secret Doctrine by P. Blavatsky

About The Science of the Tatvas

About the Foundations of Medicine

Medicine is the science and practice of establishing the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. Medicine is about the quality of life.

This blog is about the foundations of medicine.

Current  Medical Science is realizing the vision of  the Rockefeller Foundation to take over control of evolution to create a Super Human. Most people are not aware of the dact that this was the vision of Nazi-Germany.

The history of western medicine starts with the creation of the Hospital by the Church of Rome.  When the Church lost its wealth, the responsibility for the poor sick in  the hospitals was given  to the Merchants of the big Cities who started to make money out of Medicine.

The hospital at that time looked like a church.

Research in medicine started when it was allowed to open the body and examine all the parts. Chinese medicine became holistic because it was not only forbidden to open the bdy but also to touch the body only at the pulse.

The practical treatment of disease was given to the (Guild of) the barbers who even made use of acupuncture. Later the apothecary took over a part of the job because of their knowledge of herbs and medicine preparation.

In the 18 th century medicine started to treat mental health and created a split between brain and body. Currently we know that mental problems can be caused by bodily problems and that the inagination is capable to imagine an illness.

Because of Quantum Mechanics we now know that our material reality is a product of our mental imagination. This is called the Placebo-effect.

Western Medicine took a big step when new tools where invented to support diagnosis. Many doctors started to specialize in a  pavillion part of a new type of hospital. Later the many pavillions where joined into a big building that had to move up to use the available space. When Medicine went up it became an abstract theory without a relation to life.

We are now moving to Smart Medicine. In smart Medicine data about the body  is sensed with specialized sensors. The collective data is analyzed  with advanced statistical methods to find general patterns.

The new Hospital is a Call centre and we are treated at Home by a programmedHuman a Robot Nurse.

The personal data is correlated with the collective patterns to find personal patterns and personalized solutions. Until now these solutions are of a chemical nature (“pills”). In the future the new “pills” will be “waves”.

To interpret the collective patterns we need a shared foundation. This foundation is now mostly based on chemical theories with life as an interaction (“reaction-chain”)  between molecules as parts with the computer-program DNA in the center.

A body is a complex Chemical Factory. the Mind is a Computer (“Operating System”). The Brain (‘Up”) controls the Body (“Down”).

In the future Quantum Mechanics will be the new foundation. The  standing wave pattern of the Body, the Biofield, will show the instabilities of the body . This field will be stabilized (“healed”) with complementary wave patterns. Medicine will be based on =resonance.

Quantum Mechanics also explains Homeopathie.

In the future we will see a move from (bio)Bio-Chemistry to (bio)Physics.

This  blog contains parts of two documents of the website of Marco Bischof.  Marco is one of the leading scholars in the field of  holistic medicine in the German speaking world. Both documents written by Marco are about Biophysics.

The most important Part (2) of this blog   is about the (Bio)Field.

It is possible to read Part 2 without reading Part 1.

Part 3 is about a possible mathematical foundation of Medicine called Global Scaling. Clobal Scaling is based on waves, fractals and continued fractions that explain harmonics.

Part 1 About the History of Biophysics.

From 1950 to 1970 biophysics developed faster than in the 100 years before. While in 1944, when the first volume of Otto Glasser’s „Medical Physics“was published, in the USA the number of workers in the field counted not more than 200, in 1950, when volume II appeared, about 200 institutes or departments were devoted to biophysics. At the same time the scope of the field also greatly expanded. Glasser’s handbook still remains one of the most complete treatments of the full range of biophysical investigations;

However, in the same period of the 1950’s molecular biology experienced its breakthrough with Watson and Crick’s 1953 model of DNA. The first phase of its development (1930-1950) which included the acceptance of the existence of macromolecules, the use of x-ray diffraction analysis (started by Bernal in 1934) for determining molecular structures and the development of extraction methods that avoided degrading of molecules, was characterized by a relatively broad definition of the subject.

The term „molecular biology“ was first used by Warren Weaver in 1938 to describe a grant programme by the Rockefeller Foundation promoting „experimental“ or „physiochemical“ biology. He claimed this was a new branch of science in which modern tools were „reaching deeper and deeper into the living organism“. The program was supported by such people as W.T.Astbury, who was the first to describe himself as a molecular biologist,

Schroedinger’s little book What is life ? (1944), in which he took up Delbrueck’s idea that the gene could be a molecular structure (Schroedinger called it an „aperiodic crystal“), played an important role in the beginnings of molecular biology. The book inspired many physicists after the war to go into biology.

Delbrueck’s idea originally came from Niels Bohr: it concerned the question if not maybe certain aspects of the life of a cell, such as self-replication, could only be explained by a new kind of natural law still to be discovered,

THis natural law was transformed in the principle of autocatalysis detected by Stuart Kauffman. In autocatalysis structures are recreated to become self-reproducing structures (autopiesis).

in a similar way as classical physics had been replaced by the quantum physical worldview. The inspired search for such new natural laws was one of the main motivations of many of the newly converted molecular biologists Gunter Stent, Maurice Wilkins, and Francis Crick all have confessed to having been greatly influenced by Schroedinger’s book. Most of them participated in the 1st phage meeting at Woods Hole where a proper school of molecular biology was created in 1945.

However, this romantic, even somewhat vitalistic program of the very beginnings of molecular biology was soon turned almost into its opposite, the still ongoing, gigantic enterprise of analyzing systematically a broad range of molecular details. Maybe it was inevitable.

When in 1937 the eminent biologist Barbara McClintock met Max Delbrueck, maybe the single most influential figure of the founders of molecular biology, she considered his approach to be fundamentally flawed. „He has never developed a feeling for the organism“, she said.

The second phase of molecular biology (1950 onwards) clearly is characterized by a narrowing down of the subject to the investigation of biological „specificity“ (molecular „information“), involving the study of proteins and nucleic acids in view to understand genetical structures and mechanisms.

This trend was not without influence on the development of biophysics proper, as is reflected in the Study Program in Biophysical Science, Boulder, Colorado, 20 July-16 August 1958, organized by the Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry Study Section of the U.S.National Institutes of Health. Its objective was to „encourage the further blending of concepts and methods of physical science with those of life science in the investigation of biological problems“, in other words, to further physicalize biology. Its approach was that of molecular biology.

Basically, molecular biology and mainstream biophysics as they have developed since the 1950’s because of their extreme emphasis on molecular and physicochemical aspects of physiology have to be considered as being in the tradition of physiological chemistry rather than physiological physics. They are based rather on the kind of work exemplified by Höber’s „Physical Chemistry of Cells and Tissues“ (1945)[14], and later, Setlow and Pollard’s „Molecular Biophysics“ (1962)[15], and represent a late triumph of the reductionist program of the Berlin school of 1847.

However, this approach has long remained foreign to the practice of physiological science. As Cranefield wrote: „there is ample indication that during the last few decades physiologists in all countries have not considered the elucidation of molecular mechanisms, the dissolving of physiology into biophysics and biochemistry as their immediate goal. (…) As for the theoretical bias of modern physiology, it is still common to define physiology as the physics and chemistry of life and to assume that the mechanistic stand is correct.

Nevertheless, a position sometimes called organicism holds a very wide popularity today: the position that is identified with the frequent use of such concepts as homeostasis, integration, adaptation, organization, and whole organism.

These biological concepts are essentially neutral but to some they carry a flavor of vitalism“. This alternative current of physiological and biological thinking which can refer to Claude Bernard who rejected German reductionism, represented by such names as A.G.Gurwitsch, E.S.Russell, E.Rignano, P.Weiss, J.Needham, D’Arcy Thompson, J.S.Haldane, J.Barcroft, W.H.Cannon, C.H.Waddington, A.Meyer-Abich and L. von Bertalanffy, has only quite recently fallen into disregard.

Correspondingly, there is also in biophysics another tendency which has developed since the 1920’s and has not always been eclipsed by the dominating school to the degree it seems to be today.

In Germany, it has been represented by the work of Walter Beier and his school at the Institute of Biophysics of the University of Jena (German Democratic Republic). Applying the findings of the school of the Austro-Canadian biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy to biophysics, Beier has developed a systemic, comprehensive approach which always aims at the wholeness of the system considered. In this approach a system is not viewed as a conglomerate of parts and it does not investigate isolated phenomena, but rather the wide field of interactions. Biological processes on each systemic level, i.e., molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and organismic, are considered in the context of the higher level in which they are embedded. Besides systems theory, Beier’s approach is based on the irreversible (non-equilibrium) thermodynamics of open systems (while earlier biophysics uses equilibrium thermodynamics), information theory, cybernetics, and uses tools such as factorial analysis. He also follows Rashevsky who introduced relational and similarity considerations and optimization principles into biophysics.

THE SITUATION TODAY As we have seen, today in biophysics such a holistic approach is not widespread. The textbooks rather reflect the fragmentation of contemporary science with its excessive analysis, lack of synthesis and of a viable theory of life.

Biology has lost the wholeness of life, if not life itself, from its view. In spite of the programmatic postulate which has accompanied it since 1847, biophysics still has not developed into a theoretical biology. Beier is one of the few biophysicist aware of the central importance of theoretical biophysics as a complex, interdisciplinary branch of science, and has also shown a practicable way to develop theoretical models. His approach, developed in the 1960’s and 1970’s, can now be used as a starting point for the development of a modern, holistic, and organicist (non-reductionist) biophysics which should place much emphasis on investigating the holistic functions of organisms, such as self-regulation in growth and healing, morphogenesis etc.

Besides the conceptual tools that Beier has brought into play, such a new approach in biophysics must call upon many new developments in science, such as nonlinear electrodynamics, deterministic chaos, cavity quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the vacuum.

Full use of the consequences of quantum physics, such as the Heisenberg indeterminacy, the holistic principle inherent in the quantum picture, and non-locality, has not yet been made.

Dürr also points to the fact that in molecular biology and chemistry the phase relationships of the electrons are not taken into account (only the intensities) and that the phase structure of the wave formed by the superposition of the partial waves of the millions of electrons in the DNA double helix molecule, may contain, in holographically coded form, additional important information.

A most fundamental element of such a new approach in biophysics will probably be a shift from the molecular to the field aspect of living matter, as proposed by Welch and by Popp, among others, which seems to be the only viable way to synthetize the myriads of molecular details science has amassed, into a holistic model of the organism.

One of the most important goals of applied biophysics in the near future must be the development of non-invasive methods to assess the functional state of whole and intact organisms, and that of the organism’s subsystems in the context of the whole organism.

This goal may be realized by measuring the electromagnetic field produced by the living organism; any interpretation that leads to useful results has to be based on a model of the organism making regulation processes accessible at the field level.

BIOPHYSICS: THE PHYSICS OF BIOLOGY OR THE „BIOLOGY OF PHYSICS“ ?

Any discussion of the future of biophysics inevitably leads to the fundamental question of the relationship between physics and biology. It seems clear that, besides drawing upon new developments in physics, a new biophysics also must become more biological again.

Any program of reducing biology to physics and chemistry has to consider that the actual physical laws have been obtained from the investigation of non-living phenomena, easier to investigate by the physical approach because they are less complex.

Maybe the reason for the failure of biophysics to develop a theory of life is just this reductionistic approach postulating that life processes should be explained by the already known physicochemical laws of non-living nature.

Not a few scientists of past decades, most notably J.S.Haldane and Adolf Meyer-Abich, as well as contemporary ones (e.g., Dale A.Miller[24], Gunter Albrecht-Buehler) have postulated that the principles governing life are more fundamental than those of non-living matter, and therefore biology should replace physics as the paradigmatic „leitwissenschaft“ (leading science).

Without subscribing to any vitalistic notions,takes a similar stance and shows a way which may lead beyond the ages-old controversy. He postulates that physics has to change and enlarge in order to describe biological phenomena; he rejects a reduction of biology to contemporary physics, but does not exclude one to a future, enlarged physics. According to Beier, to achieve a mathematization of biology, the biophysicist should not simply copy physics. „

Biophysics has to contribute to the establishment of purely biological postulates and principles without reducing these to physics. We can consider this method as an enlargement of physics. Physics in a sense ‘incorporates’ biology, via biophysics. Such a procedure can be taken by the materialist as well as by the vitalist from their respective standpoints to be a justification of their views. This again shows clearly the uselessness of a mechanist-vitalist controversy“. Rashevsky wrote that according to the Goedel theorem there must be physical phenomena which cannot be deducted from the laws of physics, even when they do not contradict those laws, and it cannot be decided if biology does not belong to this class of phenomena. Rashevsky and his school based their work on the presumption that biological phenomena are governed by such non-deductable principles.

To identify and formulate these more fundamental laws of life of which the known physical laws may turn out to be special cases, in the same way as the laws of classical Newtonian physics turned out to be special, restricted cases of the laws of quantum physics, should be the most noble goal of a new biophysics. Biophysics is predestined to take on this task. These laws have to be formulated in a mathematical way, but not necessarily metrically, as Rashevsky has shown.

PART 2: FIELD CONCEPTS AND THE EMERGENCE OF A HOLISTIC BIOPHYSICS

Due to recent advances in several disciplines, the basic features of a holistic biophysics are now emerging. It is proposed that the postulates for such a field must include that it will be based on the intrinsic holism of quantum theory and the properties of macroscopic quantum effects, that it should include the principles of nonlocality, nonseparability, and interconnectedness, that it will be based on a field picture of reality and the organism, and finally must include consciousness.

This blog attempts to show why field models are appropriate tools for the holistic modeling of the organism, proposes a hierarchy of regulation systems based on fields, gives a review of field models proposed in biology, biophysics, consciousness research and social science, and discusses the possible role of fields in bridging the mind-body gap.

Finally, a discussion of the perspectives that may be opened up for biophysics by some recently proposed extensions of electromagnetic theory leads the author to suggest a role for the physical vacuum in the organism.

Introduction

“Can Physics deliver another biological revolution ?” asked an editorial in the journal Nature of January 19991. However, the so-called “new physics-biology agenda” which several U.S. universities, foundations and government agencies intend to fund heavily, is actually a very old agenda going back to the 1930’s, namely that of molecular biology, which now in a gigantic effort of total genetic mapping, called by some “the New Manhattan Project of Biology”, strives to bring the molecular biology project of total technological control over life to a final fulfillment.

Is this the kind of “new biophysics” we want to be supported with all that money and effort ? I am certainly not alone in asking this question, and with the growing dissatisfaction about the reductionist, molecular-genetic approach to biology the number of those who develop and support an entirely different kind of biophysics is increasing.

A look into the history of biology and biophysics shows that there always have been alternative traditions to the molecular-reductionistic approach now dominant in these fields.

In biology, during some periods, e.g., in the first half of this century – holistic or organismic approaches have been far from marginal, in some disciplines, such as developmental biology, even constituting the dominant trend. Biophysics itself, although a relatively young field of science, has already experienced several changes in emphasis in the course of its history. The German founders of biophysics at the beginning of the 19th century, people like H.Helmholtz, E.Du Bois-Reymond, E.Brücke, C.Ludwig, E.H.Weber and G.T.Fechner, usually are depicted by historians of science as staunch reductionists and opponents of vitalistic and idealist ideas in biology. However,  in reality they were not in such a sharp opposition to the romantic Naturphilosophie spirit of the time, and nearer to the antireductionistic approach of Claude Bernard, than is generally assumed. Likewise, in the 1930s when molecular biology started its rise that has made it the dominant approach in biology and biophysics, there were a number of other viable biological programs, some of them holistic, that could have been chosen for promotion by the Rockefeller Foundation.

The reason why the officers and scientific advisers of the Foundation chose to promote the molecular vision of life was that they sought to develop, under the influence of Jacques Loeb’s engineering standpoint aimed at controlling life, a mechanistic biology as a central element of a new science of man whose final goal was social engineering.

Originally, the Rockefeller Foundation had intended to promote its goal of social control by eugenics, supporting several research projects concerned with eugenic selection. When eugenics lost its scientific validity amd social acceptance, the molecular biology program of creating a new biology grounded in the physical sciences and able to rigorously explain and eventually control the fundamental mechanisms governing human behaviour, promised a surer, if slower, way toward social control by eugenic selection based on the more readily accepted principles of genetics and protein science. Even within the scientific developments that stood at the origin of molecular biology, before it definitely took the reductionist turn leading to the present situation, at least one also forms an important element in the foundation of a modern holistic approach in biophysics: the quantum philosophy of Bohr, Schroedinger, Jordan and Delbrück.

Biophysics and the Quantum Revolution

The philosophical contribution to the rise of molecular biology originated in Niels Bohr’s speech „On Light and Life“ at the International Congress on Light Therapy at Copenhagen, August 15, 1932 23 where he postulated that a new physics was required for interpreting life; life was not reducible to atomic physics. A few of the key figures in molecular biology, mainly M.Delbrück and E.Schrödinger, were strongly influenced by Bohr’s views 24, which Schrödinger took up in his book „What is Life ?“ 25. The book inspired many young physicists traumatized by the wartime use of physical expertise, to go into biology and had a strong influence on the development of molecular biology 26.

However, the book certainly was more influential by interpreting the genetic viewpoint of H.J.Muller, T.H.Morgan and M.Delbrück in physicist’s terms and by backing it with the prestige of physics than by convincing biophysicists of the Bohr-Schrödinger hope of discovering new physical laws through biophysical investigation of biological phenomena27.

These ideas – which have to be seen in the context of the rather strong holistic tendency of the biology of the time – did not exert any lasting influence on molecular biology. On the other hand, they have been, and still are, a seminal influence for the later emergence of a holistic biophysics.

Today, molecular biology proposes itself as as the manageable project of refashioning life and redirecting the course of evolution that the Rockefeller Foundation and some of its early pioneers like H.J.Muller and W.Weaver had envisioned.

Because of the enormous technological and social power promised by molecular biology, even the increasing awareness of the bad science on which it is based in many respects, such as the many weak points in genetic and evolution theory28, does not prevent it to carry us into such immature and dangerous projects as genetic engineering biotechnology in agriculture and medicine, and the “Human Genome Project”, whose deeper nature is revealed by the military epithet of a “Manhattan Project of the life sciences”.

The noted quantum chemist, Hans Primas, agrees with this fundamental criticism29,30. He writes that molecular biology, as it exists today, is in fact engineering, not science. It is pragmatic, instrumental knowledge which aims at the power over nature, but not at understanding. It does not constitute a scientific theory of life able to give us orientation to live rationally with nature, but only provides technological control over life. Contemporary molecular biology has become a scientific technology which has lost contact with the epistemological sciences. Aspects of life that cannot be treated or understood from the molecular viewpoint, such as morphology, are glossed over. The assessment Robert Rosen made in 1967 31 is actually still valid: „…it must be pointed out that the older problems [he refers to the questions that preoccupied an older generation of biologists] have merely been displaced and not solved by the recent developments at the molecular level. These problems involve the very core of biological organization and development: homeostasis, ontogenesis, phylogenesis“ .

For Prim, the primary shortcoming of molecular biology is that the holistic character of the physical world now recognized in quantum theory is either not acknowledged by the bioengineers or rejected as irrelevant. He emphasizes that molecular biology, though well grounded in empirical knowledge, has no foundation whatsoever in the principles of quantum theory, contrary to a widely held belief to the opposite. It uses the methods and technologies of quantum mechanics, but its way of thinking is still committed to the classical physics of the 19th century and has not taken notice of the fundamental insights of quantum mechanics on the structure of the material world.

According to Primas, on whose statements the following is mainly based the atomistic-molecular view of matter and the reductionist-mechanist philosophy have no more any scientific foundation, according to the actual understanding of quantum theory. The description of reality by isolated, context-independent, elementary systems such as quarks, electrons, atoms, or molecules is only permissible under certain specific experimental conditions, and these entities cannot in any way be considered as „fundamental building stones“ of reality. Besides the molecular one, there are other, fundamentally different descriptions, complementary to the molecular one, which are quantum-theoretically equivalent and equally well founded. Quantum theory is much richer in possiblities than is admitted in the worldview of molecular biology.

In Primas‘ view, the feature of quantum theory that is most significant for biology is its intrinsic fundamental holism. For quantum mechanics, the scientific theory most widely recognized as fundamental and best confirmed by experiment, material reality forms and unbroken whole that has no parts. These holistic properties of reality are mathematically precisely defined by the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlations which are experimentally well defined.

Primas postulates that, by virtue of this, quantum mechanics constitutes the first and up to now only logically consistent, universally valid, mathematically formulated holistic theory In quantum mechanics, it is never possible to describe the whole by the description of parts and their interrelations.

With this view of quantum mechanics Primas follows Bohr and the school of Heisenbergwhile quark physics as founded by M.Gell-Mann continues to cultivate democritean atomism with their clinging to the concept of elementary particles bootstrap theory of G.Chew, D.Bohm’s „Causal Quantum Theory“ or „Holographic. Similar holistic views of quantum theory are the Theory of Reality“ , and others advocated by H.Stap, A.Goswami , Kafatos & Nadeau, Friedman, D.Peat, F.Capra, H.Atmanspacher, and many others.

This holistic view of quantum theory, although the phenomena on which it is based are not yet completely understood theoretically, cannot be rejected anymore because the strange EPR quantum correlations of non-interacting and spatially separated systems have been amply demonstrated in many experiments

Therefore the world-view of classical physics, atomism and mechanistic reductionism definitely cannot anymore be the basis of our worldview, and of biophysics. Quantum mechanics has established the primacy of the unseparable whole.

Another important epistemological consequence of quantum mechanics, complementarity, is also connected to its holism. As Primas writes, there is no single description, such as the molecular-reductionistic one, which can alone represent the whole reality of the subject of a scientific investigation, or is better or „truer“ than any other. Nature is extremely diverse and stratified; each description comprehends only a minute partial aspect of its unfathomable multiplicity.

Any scientific description of a natural phenomenon is only possible if we renounce the description of its complementary aspects.

Quantum theory can only be applied if we abstract from certain aspects and thereby break the holistic symmetry. However, the kind of abstraction we use is not prescribed by the first principles of the theory, such that quantum mechanics allows, and even requires, many different, but equivalent, complementary descriptions of nature. As an important postulate for future science, Primas therefore emphasizes that we will have to learn to work simultaneously with several complementary descriptions of nature .

In this perspective, the molecular view is legitimate and important and should not be abandoned; molecular biologists can be rightly proud of their successes. It should be cultivated, but not at the expense of other viewpoints. It is its extreme one-eyedness that must be criticised. However, as Primas points out, „biology is more than molecular biology.

He postulates that science must now redirect ist attention to the wholeness of nature, and therefore will have to ask radically new questions. It has to develop a concept of reality which does not exclude any part of it. Those properties which belong to organisms only as wholes must remain within the scope of science. Therefore, it will be necessary to consider the phenomena as well from „bottom-up“, as in mechanistic understanding, as from „top-down“, as in vitalistic and holistic understanding. According to Primas, the notion that the latter is not legitimate or secondary is a prejudice that must be overcome.

From the viewpoint of the quantum-theoretical worldview, both are completely equivalent, but lead to fundamentally different research agendas and insights. Even the criteria according to which the scientist decides what is scientifically defendable and interesting, are completely different from these two viewpoints. Also, according to quantum theory functional and teleological explanations are completely legitimate and equivalent to causal ones; even the primacy of causality has no foundation in the first principles of physics. Primas points out that it is not possible to distinguish between causal and final processes by purely mechanical means and that such a distiction only makes sense for irreversible processes. As to the existence of the hypothetical vitalistic forces, modern physics is well able to integrate new forces into its system.

Thus, matter has become „dematerialized“ by modern quantum theory, and this property of „thinglessness“ in the quantum worldview is closely connected to the property of „interconnectedness“.

The emphasis is no longer on isolated objects, but on relations, exchanges, interdepences, on processes, fields, and wholes.

Quantum theory is a nonlocal theory. It is important to see that we cannot retain the classical world of objects and only add the interconnectedness as a supplementary property of these objects.         They are two of the complimentary descriptions or aspects of reality which Primas has alluded to and cannot be used simultaneously; thus they rather should be considered as different diomensions of reality. The holistic interpretation of quantum theory in fact may also be taken as implying a multidimensional structure of reality.

In this view, there are, besides the world of objects, one or several more fundamental levels of reality where interconnectedness rather than separatedness dominates. Fields certainly belong into this category; however, apart from electromagnetic and other physical fields which are still among the phenomena considered as belonging to the four fundamental forces of the observable world, we must assume the existence of additional field-like levels of reality not directly observable at present, which may be beyond space-time and represent the realm of potentiality, or of the „noumena“, the realm behind the phenomena according to Newton, in contrast to the actuality of the observable.

The Schroedinger wave function of quantum theory actually describes this hidden domain of potentiality, of the non-observable, unmanifested, pre-physical world of non-local correlations and superluminal, instantaneous connections, rather than the world of observable phenomena 48. Only with the act of measurement this infinity of potentialities, described in the Schroedinger equation as a superposition of all possible quantum states, is „collapsed“ into one single actuality. Connected to the concept of potentiality is the concept of „entanglement“ which describes the characteristic of interconnectedness. In the absence of any interaction (such as a measurement), two systems are in an entangled state in which neither system by itself can be said to be in a „pure state“, i.e., can be fully specified without reference to the other.

This hidden domain can be considered as a fundamental dimension of reality, a domain of dynamical connectivity, from which the patterns of the physical world arise. According to some authors, this realm of pre-physicality is not only the basis of the physical world and of matter, but also seems to be connected to, consciousness, which some see as the fundamental field underlying i. In physics, it is treated by the various models of the physical vacuum. Its possible relevance to biophysics as a basis for a true quantum biology 62,63 seems obvious to us, as we will explain later. Therefore we postulate the development of a „vacuum biophysics“ (see last chapter) .

The „hidden domain“ of connectivity has characteristics completely different from those of the classical, macroscopic world of separated objects. For a long time, the quantum description that reveals the properties of phenomena belonging to this domain, or arising from it, was taken to apply only to the microscopic world of atoms and molecules, while the world of macroscopic phenomena of our experience was considered to be purely classical and not to manifest quantum properties. However, today we know that this is not true, and that there are many macroscopic quantum manifestations, although our knowledge about them is still limited64-68. Biological systems obviously possess the characteristics of macroscopic quantum systems.

The Redefinition of Biophysics

From what we have just heard, we can conclude that traditional biophysics, based up to now on classical physics and equilibrium thermodynamics, needs a redefinition in terms of the revolution brought by the last few decades of quantum-mechanical experiments and interpretations. As there is still no agreement on the definition of the field, we are free to attempt such a redefinition. In the following I will try to determine what the postulates for such a new biophysics could be, as it actually is already in development since about ten or fifteen years.

First of all, it indeed will entail a revolution based on physical concepts – however, not of the kind alluded to in the Nature editorial. While the physical view will be fundamental, it will not be that of classical physics, and the goal will not be the reduction of biology to physics but an understanding of the physics of the living, and physics must not replace, but support profound biological understanding. Thus, the new biophysics should be more than just an empirically based bioengineering technology; it will need epistemological and philosophical foundations. Its goal should be to develop an adequate theory of life, and it should balance the mastery of life with the understanding of life.

As a complement to the onesidedness of the molecular approach, the new biophysics will focus on holistic aspects of organisms, and will attempt to provide a vision able to synthesize the wealth of molecular details accumulated by molecular biologists. Its basis must be the insight into the fundamental interconnectedness within the organism as well as between organisms, and that of the organism with the environment.

Therefore it must be inter- or transdisciplinary and truly integrate biological, biochemical and medical expertise into its physical models, but also connect to knowledge from fields such as geophysics, biometeorology, heliobiology etc.

It will be based on quantum theory, and not classical mechanics – therefore it may also be called „quantum biology“ –, and also, instead of equilibrium thermodynamics, it must refer to non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Organisms clearly are open systems far from equilibrium. Other central concepts of the new biophysics, related to the latter, will be coherence and macroscopic quantum states.

I postulate that field thinking and field models will have to be one of the central elements of the new biophysics, as a complement to the molecular view, as a means to sythesize the wealth of its details, and to adequately model thinglessness, interconnectedness and non-locality – therefore bioelectromagnetics will play a central role in the new biophysics. However, recent experiments have shown that the existence of hitherto unknown, non-electromagnetic fields in and between organisms cannot be excluded. Of course, the field aspect of the organism has to be seen in close connection, and constant interaction, with the solid aspect. Attention should also be paid to the field aspect of biochemical processes, for example in collective processes, reactivity and molecular recognition.

I suggest that the existence of a pre-physical, unobservable domain of potentiality in quantum theory, which forms the basis of the fundamental interconnectedness and wholeness of reality and from which arise the patterns of the material world, may provide a new model for understanding the holistic features of organisms, such as morphogenesis and regeneration, and thus provide a foundation for holistic biophysics – therefore I propose that the usefulness of the theories of the physical vacuum for understanding the phenomena of life is investigated – one important aspect of their usefulness may be as a link between the domain of biology and consciousness.

I postulate that the new biophysics needs to extend its interdisciplinarity even beyond natural science. Consciousness cannot be excluded anymore from biophysics, although the difficulties of such an extension should not be underestimated. There is now enough evidence showing that consciousness is a causal factor in biology and not just an inconsequential epiphenomenon. Starting from the analysis of the phenomenology and the experimental evidence for mind-body interaction, field models and vacuum theories may provide the necessary tools for bridging the mind-body gap. However, it is also necessary to acknowledge the limits of the scientific approach, and value the goal of understanding highly enough to include non-observables into our models, if this supports understanding.

Historical Antecedents of Holistic Biophysics

Not only theoretical considerations as those of Primas, but also the history of biology and of biophysics show clearly that the reductionistic concept of molecular biology is not the only possible concept for biological science; there even have been several periods in which holistic approaches have been dominating biology, or at least parts of it69. Even in biophysics proper, there have always been holistic schools of thought, although they usually are not mentioned in contemporary reviews of the field, or not thought of belonging to biophysics.

An early instance of holistic thought in biology is the school of rational or transcendental morphologists of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, such as G.de Cuvier, E.Geoffrey St-Hilaire, and R.Owen, who deduced, from their detailed studies of organismic morphology, the existence of principles or laws of form operating in the biological realm. Similarly, the holistic biology and medicine of the Romantic period, including J.W.Goethe, A. v. Humboldt, C.G.Carus, K.E. von Baer and J. Müller, regarded the ideal form of a species as a transcendental guiding principle in morphogenesis. A strong tradition of antireductionistic physiology starting with F.Magendie was mainly created by Claude Bernard. Bernard’s concept of “internal environment” (“milieu interne”) developed in 1857, stood at the beginning of the research in physiological regulation, to which E.Starling, L.J.Henderson, J.Barcroft, and W.B. Cannon (“homeostasis) have been contributing; other holistic physiologists were J.S.Haldane, H. Selye, R. Dubos and A. Carrel.

In the period of 1900-1950, the main thrust of developmental biology, especially in the work of H.Driesch, H.Spemann, P.A.Weiss, A.Gurwitsch, R.Harrison, C.M.Child, J.v.Uexküll, J.Needham, E.S.Russell, J.H.Woodger, A.Meyer-Abich, and A.Müller, has been holistic and centered around the concept if biological fields 69,73-74.

Very much fallen into oblivion has today the important work done during this century in the German tradition of holistic physiology, pathology and medicine, represented by names like G.v.Bergmann, H.Schade, F.Kraus, F.Buttersack, A.Bier, Th.Brugsch, B.Aschner, L.R.Grote, F.Hoff, R.Rössle, G.Ricker, H.Eppinger, W.Petersen, H.Pischinger, O.Bergsmann. Holistic schools of medical thought have also been active in Britain, the USA, and France, mainly in the interwar period75.

Important contributions to holistic science came from Gestalt theory and other holistic theories in psychology, neurobiology, and psychiatry, as exemplified by W.James, Chr.v. Ehrenfels, M.Wertheimer, W.Köhler, K.Goldstein, K.Lewin, C.v.Monakow, C.S.Sherrington, K.Lashley, G.Murphy, V.v. Weizsäcker, A.Maslow, K.Pribram 74-78.

The work of the Austrian-Canadian biologist L.v.Bertalanffy is particularly significant for the emerging holistic biophysics; Bertalanffy’s “organismic” conception of life, which also was the starting point of his “General System Theory”, actually constitutes a first attempt to create a holistic picture of the organism based on physical laws and detailed biological knowledge, and ist still a valuable guide for our contemporary efforts 79-84. The German school of Beier 85-86 has continued this tradition in biophysics.

An early tradition of holistic biophysics developed from Claude Bernard’s school in France, represented by A.d’Arsonval, W.Kopaczewski, F. Vlès, and G.Lakhovsky.

Russia has its own tradition of holistic biology, biophysics and bioelectromagnetics with the work of V.I.Vernadsky, A.L.Chizhevsky, A.G.Gurwitsch, E.Bauer, and A.S.Presman, among others.

An important contribution to holistic thinking comes from the tradition of mathematical biophysics with its concepts of optimality, and relational and similarity principles, represented by D’Arcy W.Thompson, N.Rashevsky, R.Rosen, and R.Thom.

Holistic concepts in philosophy of relevance to biology and biophysics have been developed by J.Smuts, A.N.Whitehead, O.Spann, A.Meyer-Abich, H.Conrad-Martius, H.Plessner, H.Friedmann, among others.

Last but not least, the contributions of psychosomatic medicine, such as those by V.v.Weizsäcker, F.Alexander, Flanders Dunbar, G.Groddeck, and G.R.Heyer, must be mentioned.

In the time of 1900 to 1950, holistic approaches in biology, usually connected to field concepts (see next chapter), far from being marginal, have formed one of the dominant schools of thought, at least in developmental biolog. For various reasons, the plausibility of this approach has strongly decreased from the 1950‘s. The main reason was the rise of genetics as an alternative program to explain development.

Much of this work is anything but obsolete, but it is now necessary to actualize the fundamental observations and concepts developed by these pioneers of holistic science with the up-to-date knowledge in the respective fields.

Field Concepts as a Necessary Base of Holistic Biophysics

Modern physical field theories, such as those developed by Faraday and Maxwell, have their origin in metaphysical concepts arising from the participatory consciousness of archaic man. Field and particle theories arise from complementary modes of human self- and world-experience rooted in bodily awareness, with the field perception of reality probably being much older than particle theories, which could only arise when the participatory world-view slowly gave way to individual consciousness and the perception of an objective world, by way of an increasing differentiation between inside and outside, I and the world, the subjetive and the objective, and matter and consciousness. This objectivation of the world has reached its climax in the worldview of the classical physics of the late 19th century, with the assumption that all there is to reality is solid particles assembled in various degrees of complexity.

The electromagnetic field theories of Faraday and Maxwell proposed in the second half of the last century have inspired biologists already from 1900 to the development of the first field theories, but it was only with Einstein’s General Relativity, quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, that physics overcame the mechanical world picture and conceived reality as a field phenomenon.

Biology still bases its picture of the organism on the building-stone view of classical physics which physics itself has already given up since a couple of decades. One of the first and most fundamental steps in the development of a holistic biology must therefore be not only to complement the classical view with the field aspect, but even to build its model of the organism on the field picture.

As I have shown elsewhere, the concept of the field has alraedy occupied a central place in the school of “organismic” or “holistic” biologists in the first half of this century69.

Leading biologists such as H.Spemann, R.Harrison, P.A.Weiss, J.Needham, and C.H.Waddington, A.G.Gurwitsch used the hypothesis of a biological, or morphogenetic, field, introduced by Weiss and Gurwitsch in the early 1920’s, as a tool for understanding the phenomena of development, regeneration and morphogenesis and to make predictions for experimental testing. Although their field concepts referred to the model of physical, especially electromagnetic fields, the organicists generally considered the biological field as a purely heuristic concept and left the exact nature of the fields open. The time (and electromagnetic science) was not yet ripe for the notion of real electrical, electromagnetic or otherwise physical, fields of long-range force.

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORIES IN BIOLOGY

At this time, there was not enough experimental evidence for the existence of bioelectromagnetic fields nor for the biological effects of EM fields. Thus, the various electromagnetic (EM) field concepts proposed since the first decades of the 20th for biology, as those by Keller, Burr, Burr & Northrop, Crile, Lund, and Lakhovsky89, were premature. The breakthrough and beginning of modern EM field theories in biology came only in 1970, with A.M.Presman’s report of the pioneering work of Soviet bioelectromagnetics researchers, which also contained a first outline of a holistic EM field theory of the organism and his relationships to the environment90. Since then, there is ample evidence for bioeffects of EM fields and endogenous EM fields. It is now established that organisms react sensitively to the impact of electromagnetic fields, including very weak ones; effects of various types of endogenous physical fierlds on cellular organization and morphogenesis are very likely. We also know that several kinds of electromagnetic fields, including microwaves and optical frequencies (biophotons), are emitted from living beings. There is also evidence that weak endogenous electrical currents are involved in regeneration and growth of new tissue; the role of ionic currents in morphogenesis and development has also been demonstrated. Communication by electromagnetic fields is established for fishes and insects, which suggests this may be a more general phenomenon.

A number of further developments have contributed to the full development of modern biological field theories. They include the work of A.Szent-Györgyi on the excitation-deexcitation dynamics in biochemistry and the role of charge transfer in the organism91-93; the work on open, non-equilibrium systems and the coordinated collective behaviour of particles culminating in Prigogine’s theory of “dissipative systems”; H.Fröhlich’s work on coherence of the EM fields coupled to these particles and connecting them 94-97; the Dicke theory of the coherent emission of coupled multiatomic emitters; the theory of quantum coherence developed by R.J.Glauber 99-101; and several recent developments in quantum optics, such as the work on non-classical light and Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.

MODERN BIOELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORIES

These achievements became important elements in the “biophoton theory” developed by Popp and his group. Like most modern field-theoretical proposals, it tries to reconcile particle and field approaches. Based on the evidence for the coherent emission of ultraweak luminescence by organisms, it conceptualizes organisms as biological lasers of optically coupled emitters and absorbers operating at the laser threshold. The solid part of the organism is coupled with a highly coherent, holographical biophoton field which is proposed to be the basis of communication on all levels of organization; the components of the organism are seen to be connected in such a way by phase relations of the field, that they are instantly informed about each other at all times. The biophoton field is also postulated to be the basis of memory and the regulation of biochemical and morphogenetic processes.

A related approach, bioplasma theory, was developed from early suggestions by Szent-Györgyi, who pointed out that biomolecules in the organism are predominantly present in the excited state, and that the energetics of living systems are based on excitation-deexcitation dynamics which are also the basis of chemical bonding. Biological plasma is described as a „cold“ plasma of highly structured collective excitations produced by the dielectric polarization of biological semiconductors, which functions as a single unit. The collective excitations of the molecules propagate in the form of excitons.The complex aggregates and configurations formed by the plasma particles serve as an energy network in the organism. External and intrinsic radiation is stored in the bioplasma in the form of trapped cavity oscillations which form the biological field; it has a complex broadband holographic wave structure of great stability. The biological effects of external radiation are ascribed to resonance properties of the whole system, and not to any of its parts. Like biophoton theory, the bioplasma concept implies non-equilibrium and electronic population-inversion, and therefore laser-like processes, as postulated by Inyushin in the early 1970‘s.

Pribram’s „holographic theory of perception and memor, first proposed in 1971, has been an important contribution to modern biological field theory. It proposes that information from the sensory input is enfolded by Fourier-like transformations and stored in the brain in the form of holographic interference patterns, i.e., coherent EM fields. For reading it out in remembering, it is unfolded again by inverse Fourier transformation. In 1975 Pribram synthesized his model with the more general „holographic theory of reality“ proposed by Bohm in 197. It suggests that the organization of reality itself may be holographic, the world of objects we perceive (the „explicate order“) being a second-order manifestation of the more fundamental „implicate order“ or „holomovement“ forming the basis of the world’s fundamental unbroken wholeness.

The „holographic concept of reality” proposed by Miller et al is a useful attempt to sketch the outlines of a possible synthesis of field models emphasizing the particle aspect, like bioplasma theory, and those who focus on the connecting and/or underlying fields, like biophoton theory and the holographic theories. At the same time, it tries to elucidate the significance of biolectric phenomena and physico-chemical parameters like the acid-base and electrolytic balances and redox potentials within the bioelectromagnetic fields.

Today, the field view of the organism and its interactions is finding increasing acceptance in biology, biophysics and medicine 119.

Biophysics and Consciousness: On the Possible Role of Fields in Bridging the Mind-Body Gap

The German founders of biophysics in the early 19th century recognized consciousness as the „ultimate problem of biology“, but science at that time was not prepared to include consciousness into biophysics, although the necessity was not denied19. Today, the situation is different. Since around the turn of the century, Freud and his followers have made the problem of consciousness a central topic of a broad research effort whose results widely influenced Western society, but were hardly taken seriously by the natural sciences.

The last few years have changed this: consciousness has ceased to be a „non-subject“ and is now definitely on the scientific agenda127-128. An increassing number of authors are emphasizing the necessity of introducing consciousness into the scientific worldview, and some believe it should even become its very foundation 41,44-46,49,57,131-135. As to the consequences of a „biology without consciousness“, Efron has pointed out the disastrous epistemological confusion the exclusion of consciousness from biology has caused.

Although the highly animated discussion in consciousness research is characterized by widely divergent standpoints, the decades-long dispute about the inclusion of the observer and the possible role of consciousness in quantum mechanicshas certainly been a significant influence. As can be seen from the new discipline of „Quantum Neurodynamics“ , Pribram’s and Bohm’s holographic theories, together with Eccles‘ suggestion that fields analogous to the probability fields of quantum theory could be responsible for the coupling between consciousness processes and neural events141, have also been of considerable influence. Thus, an important segment of the most recent efforts in consciousness research is based on the hypothesis that consciousness may have a field-like nature, and/ or that fields may play a mediating role between consciousness and the biological organism. This hypothesis has already a considerable history and is more widely held than commonly is known.

It was probably W.James who first introduced the concept of a field of consciousness into modern psychology in 1890. C.G.Jung’s “Collective unconscious”, first proposed in 1917, is conceived as a deeper, fundamental field-like unitary psychophysical reality (“unus mundus”) occasionally producing “synchronicity” effects. Gestalt Theory, initated by Chr.v.Ehrenfels and W.Köhler, postulates an isomorphism between psychological and psychophysiological processes, mediated by fields analogous to Maxwell’s electromagnetic fields and not bound to the nervous substrate, whose geometrical structure mirrors that of the perceived stimuli. In the 1930’s K.Lewin proposed in his field theory of social psychology that social interactions are best understood by a field model. In the 1940’s G.Murphy developed a field concept of the organism, of personality, and of communication and suggested the existence of an interpersonal field which he thought to be part of a wider universal field. Murphy also explained Psi effects in groups as a loosening of the usual interpersonal barriers and opening up to the interpersonal field. Paul Schilder demonstrated the existence of a “body-image”, a 3-dimensional picture of the “perceived body”, different from the body of anatomy and physiology, a kind of a constantly reorganized field that is constructed from the visual, tactile, kinesthetic, postural etc. experiences of an individual’s lifetime. In 1964, Aron Gurwitsch proposed a field theory of experiential organization in the tradition of Gestalt theory, Lewin and Husserl’s phenomenology. The Russian mathematician and philosopher, V.V.Nalimov, has recently proposed a theory of the “semantic vacuum”, according to which there is a deeper, unobservable process from which ordinary, reflexive consciousness emerges which he calls the semantic vacuum, in deliberate analogy to the concept of the physical vacuum.

A school of thought that has found wide interest and has led to a new branch of neuropsychology, has its origin in the work of Pribram and Eccles. In the early 70’s K.H.Pribram has proposed that coherent holographic fields mediate between consciousness and neurological processes; J.Eccles has postulated in 1977 that consciousness has an existence independent of the brain, and that the self interacts with the body and the material world using the brain as an instrument. H.Margenau in 1984 suggested mind may be a unique type of non-material field, analogous to quantum probability fields; this suggestion was taken up in 1986 by J.Eccles who proposed that this field may modify the probability of emission of neurotransmitters at the dendritic synapse. This finally led to the formation of the new field of Quantum Neurodynamics, based on the hypothesis that brain processes are to be understood on the basis of quantum field theory and are based on quantum fields, or potentials. Long-time memory is conceived as a structured complex of vacuum states; remembering as the emission of coherent biophoton signals from the vacuum state. The coupling of neurophysiology with the “quantum sea” of the vacuum is assumed to be the basis of brain processes.

Quantum neurodynamics illustrates the many recent efforts to find approaches bridging consciousness as an entity which is not directly measurable, and the solid material aspect of the organism, with the hypothesis of a mediating field domain. Similar efforts have been made in the last few decades in many areas, not least in connection with the scientific investigation of Eastern medical systems, such as acupuncture, of contactless healing and various other phenomena.

 

Observations and Experimental Studies of Interpersonal Fields of Unknown Nature

The existence of electromagnetic fields emitted by living organisms, including humans, is now well established, even if there is not much established knowledge about their biological functions. On the other hand, man has a long history of subjective experience of field-like interpersonal connections which usually are relegated to the realm of imagination by the scientifically minded. More recently, however, a number of scientific experiments have to some extent given evidence for the physical reality of these field observations.

As to the observations, an important example are the studies of nonverbal behaviour that have shown a synchrony of the body motion of speakers and listeners with the speech pattern, which probably serves to establish empathic resonance. A related phenomenon is the well established phenomenon of “emotional contagion”. Psychiatrists and psychotherapists have been familiar since decades with the “praecox feeling”, the field-like aura displayed by their patients announcing impending psychosis or schizophrenic episodes, and have been well aware of the contagious nature of these states. The phenomenon of “transference” between therapist and patient is equally well known and has led a number of authors to the hypothesis of an “interpersonal field”. In “mutual hypnosis” two persons create a common psychic field which in the deeper stages can turn into a shared hallucinatory or dreamlike reality. Families may, according to some psychotherapists, possess a common unconscious and shared emotional field.

A number of recent experimental studies give evidence that such interpersonal field effects may have some physical basis. Studies of empathically bonded pairs by J.Grinberg-Zylberbaum have shown interhemispheric and interpersonal EEG coherence and the appearance of transferred (evoked) potentials in the unstimulated partner after separation by a Faraday cage. The “field-REG experiments” done by the Princeton Engineering Anomalies (PEAR) Laboratory demonstrate anomalous influence of group events with a “high degree of subjective resonance between participants”on the random output of portable random events generators (REG) that suggest the presence of a field within such groups. Experiments on distant mental influence on living systems (DMILS) show that persons are able to exert direct mental influences upon various distant biological systems shielded from all conventional informational and energetic influences.

While these experiments suggest the possible non-electromagnetic nature of the studied fields, the measurements of the “Copper-Wall Project” performed by E.Green demonstrate that in healing sessions, exceptional subjects, such as healers and sensitives, are able to generate anomalous voltage surges in electrical body potential which are transmitted to and measured by electromaters attached to the four highly polished copper walls surrounding them in some distance.

Biological Fields in the Light of Some Proposed Extensions of Electromagnetic Theory

In some of these experiments showing the existence of interpersonal field phenomena (Grinberg-Zylberbaum, DMILS) electromagnetic fields have been excluded; therefore we must use the hypothesis that some kind of probably unknown, non-electromagnetic field(s) may be involved. Recently, a number of authors have suggested that electromagnetic potentials (vector and scalar potentials) may play a role in living system, and a series of preliminary experiments (which still have to be reproduced independently) seems to show biological effects of vector potentials different from those of ordinary electromagnetic fields 147-153. It has been proposed that there may be a whole class of non-electromagnetic fields underlying electromagnetic phenomena, which have been called „subtle energies“ by some authors, following a suggestion by Einstein.

In fact, while the potentials have long been considered mere mathematical conveniences without physical reality, the reevaluation of their significance made possible by the groundbreaking paper by Aharonov & Bohm , is now opening up a new field of electromagnetic research which we suspect may turn out to be highly significant for bioelectromagnetics and biophysics in general. A number of recent attempts to formulate extensions of electromagnetic theory point to the existence of an additional, hitherto unsuspected dimension of electromagnetism, which seems to be able to interact with the very structural fabric of space and time 155,156. Aharonov & Bohm  have shown that in certain cases the potentials act as real physical fields and must even be consdered more fundamental than the electric and magnetic forces; in the experiment they proposed the potentials exert an physical effect on charged particles in a field-free volume but not in the way force-fields do – they only influence the phase, and thus are fields of information.

However, the reason for the now well proven Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect has only become evident in the wake of its analysis and generalization by Wu & Yang. Barrett  has given evidence that in the AB experiment the electromagnetic field, normally of U(1) symmetry, is „conditioned“ into SU(2) form (in other cases even higher symmetries can be obtained) by the geometrical constraints of the experiment, which adds a degree of freedom to the field allowing an interaction with the space-time metric (neutrino network) and its topological structure, and endows it with a gravitation-like essence and form. Barrett also has shown that the AB effect is only one of a whole class of effects where this is the case.

According to Tiller potentials have the important function of mediating between electromagnetic fields and the macroscopic quantum states of solid matter on the one hand, and the physical vacuum on the other hand, because of their property of controlling the phase of electromagnetic fields. He suggests that the „subtle energy“ fields of the vacuum domain, belonging to a higher dimension beyond space-time, organize the structure of space-time, which in turn, by the intermediate of the potentials, generates the corresponding electromagnetic fields. These finally give rise to the observed processes in space and time.

This hypothesis is supported by the work of Barrett on the conditioning of the electromagnetic field. In this process, the phase-controlling property of potentials is central. This is highly significant for biophysics, not only because of the coherence of biolectromagnetic fields; its importance can also be illustrated by the fact that the living organism with its many rhythmical processes basically is a complex system of oscillating fields coupled nonlinearly by their phase-relations.

Apart from potentials, a number of further non-electromagnetic fields have been forwarded in the various proposals for extensions of the Maxwell theory, as possible elements of an intermediate „subtle realm“ between particles and force fields and the vacuum, or as elements or aspects of the vacuum itself, for instance, „torsion fields“and the B(3) „ghost field“ of longitudinal magnetic polarization.

The Concept of Vacuum Biophysics

We are convinced that it is one of the central tasks of biology and biophysics, as it is of physics itself, to investigate the process of becoming and of manifestation, the arising of actuality from potentiality. It is clear that this is not yet completely realized in quantum physics, although the recent discussions about the interpretation of quantum theory and the alternatives to the Copenhagen interpretation have shown that it is groping in this direction. The same tendency can be found in the recent attempts at developing unfied theories of all physical interactions.

In the various unification programs the concept of the physical vacuum occupies a central place. „The vacuum is fast emerging as the central structure of modern physics“ (Saunders & Brown. We postulate that it also merits such a central place in biophysics 62,63,147. It has in fact already been used in a number of recent models, e.g. by Conrad, Grandpierre, Laughlin, Laszlo, Jibu & Yasue, Shacklett, and Tiller. We would not be surprised if it would turn out to be the very foundation a holistic quantum biophysics needs. The holistic quantum logic of biological processes and structures may not be sufficiently understood without the explicit inclusion of the vacuum concept into biophysics. Biophysics should be able to explain how, in the generation and development of organisms, pre-physical potentialities are transformed into physical realities. For practical reasons, it should also be interested in improving our knowledge on the more subtle, early levels of biological manifestation, where we may have access, for instance, to the formation of preconditions for illness. The assumption of a pre-physical dimension of potentiality is a prerequisite for the full understanding of life. To quote the Heisenberg pupil Hans-Peter Dürr: „Living systems prove that actuality (factuality) is not all there is, but potentiality is also important. Like all macroscopic quantum systems, they are emergences of potentialities into factuality“ 178.

We postulate that the concept of the vacuum is the appropriate framework to model the fundamental quantum-mechanical domain of potentiality. The vacuum is the „ground of being“ from which the information for the structured development and regeneration of inorganic as well as living forms arises. All the features of the unbroken wholeness of reality implicit in quantum theory – non-separability, non-locality, fundamental connectedness – which are so fundamental for biological understanding, are an expression of the properties of the vacuum. The vacuum is the origin of microscopic and macroscopic coherence, an essential feature of living organisms. And, finally, the understanding of the vacuum may provide the crucial insights on the role of consciousness in physical reality, and in the various stages in which the creativity of the ground of existence unfolds on its way from pure potentiality and information to physical manifestation.

The concept of of the quantum vacuum may provide an important tool in developing both, a holistic terminology, and a holistic methodology for the integration of biology and physics necessary for the emergence of a holistic biophysics, or quantum biophysics. Especially significant may be its usefulness as a suitable framework for the treatment of organisms as macroscopic quantum systems (cf. the significance of vacuum degeneracy).

However, it must be clarified that we are not only talking about the electromagnetic vacuum of zero-point fluctuations, but of a more inclusive and fundamental unified vacuum of all four interactions.

 

SUPERFLUID VACUUM MODEL OF THE ORGANISM

In biophoton research first considerations on the possible role of the vacuum have been made in the 1980‘s in connection with the stability and optical properties of DNA and the optimal signal/noise ratio in the information transfer by biophotons. The central role that the vacuum plays in the Dicke theory and in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics is well known. In 1985, Popp has suggested that biophoton emission as measured may arise from a non-measurable, virtual, delocalized, highly coherent field within the tissue, denoted by him as the realm of „potential information“ in the organism; he conjectured it may be a kind of vacuum state 179-180.

More recently, Zeiger has developed a „superfluid vacuum model“ for understanding the biophoton emission of seeds and its connection to their viability. According to this model, seed vitality and biophoton emission are two parallel expressions of the same underlying reality: the superfluid Bose-condensate of photons. He proposes that the radiation field coupled to biological systems has to be understood on the basis of a twofold ground state. It consists, on the one hand, of a non-perturbative, collective-coherent state responsible for stability, internal communication and photon storage, which endowes the organism with a quiet background field connecting all its components by long-range phase relations with each other and with the environment. The second ground state, a perturbative, fluctuating-coherent state consisting of the excitations of the collective-coherent state, is responsible for flexibility, adaptation and external communication, and from it the observed biophotons are emitted. The two states are separated by an energy gap which controls the behaviour of the system and is a basic measure for the overall state of the organism. It is a parameter that promises to become an important new tool in biophysics proving additional information on the living system. Zeiger’s model may be a significant step in the biophysical modelling of the process of the emergence of „becoming“ from the potentiality of the „ground of being“.

Thus, if we speak of the electromagnetic field, or biophoton field, of cells, tissues or of the whole organism, as opposed to the biophoton emission measured, we may actually be dealing not with an electromagnetic field in the usual sense, but with a virtual field, or vacuum state. This has actually been proposed by Bearden181-183 and is partially supported by the work of Barrett and others, already mentioned, on one or more deeper level(s) of electromagnetism.

If we define vacuum physics as that branch of physics concerned with the fundamental pre-physical level of potentiality from which matter and fields arise and which contains the information for their dynamic structuring processes, I suggest that the corresponding field of biophysics concerned with the investigation of the biological role of the physical vacuum and of the mediating role of potentials and other nonelectromagnetic fields between the vacuum on the one hand and force fields and solid matter on the other hand, should be called „vacuum biophysics“. It may become an important theoretical element and research subject of the new biophysics.

Under the above assumptions a hierarchy of levels of biological function, or regulation systems, based on fields, may be envisaged as a working hypothesis, where we have, between the solid body on the one hand, and consciousness on the other hand, the intermediate levels of holitic regulation systems and physiological-biochemical regulation, bioenergetic (EM) fields, and finally bioinformation fields.

Conclusion

Can physics deliver another biological revolution ? There is good evidence it indeed can and will, but it is not the further perfection of the reductionist program of molecular-biological control of life devised in the 1930’s that will produce the much needed revolution, but rather the renewal of the alternative tradition of holistic understanding in biophysics whose features are now beginning to emerge more clearly. It will draw on the still valid findings of the various holistic approaches in physics and the biomedical sciences of the first half of the last century which it will actualize by linking them to the many recent advances in physics and molecular biology, and it will incorporate the interaction of consciousness with biological matter as a key element in understanding the phenomena of life. The new holistic biophysics will be based on a field model of the organism and its interactions with other living systems and the environment; besides electromagnetic fields it will also consider the possible role of novel, non-electromagnetic fields and of the physical vacuum in biological processes.

About Mathematical Biology (Robert Rosen)

Part 3: ABOUT GLOBAL SCALING THEORY

Scaling means logarithmic scale-invariance. Scaling is a basic quality of fractal structures and processes. The Global Scaling Theory explains why structures and processes of nature are fractal and the cause of logarithmic scale-invariance.

Scaling in Physics

 In 1967 / 68 Richard P. Feyman and James D. Bjorken discovered the phenomenon of logarithmic scale-invariance (scaling) in high energy physics, concrete in hadron collisions.

 Simon E. Shnoll found scaling in the distributions of macroskopic fluctuations of nuclear decay rates. Since 1967 his team discovers fractal scaling in the fluctuation distributions of different physical and chemical processes, as well as in the distributions of macroskopic fluctuations of thermic noise processes.

 In 1982 – 84, Hartmut Müller discovered scaling further in the distributions of elementary particles, nuclei and atoms dependent on their masses, and in the distributions of asteroids, moons, planets and stars dependent on their orbital properties, sizes and masses

 Scaling in Seismicity

Within the fifties Beno Gutenberg and Charles Richter have shown, that exists a logarithmic invariant (scaling) relationship between the energy (magnitude) and the total number of earthquakes in any given region and time period.

Scaling in Biology

In 1981, Leonid L. Chislenko published his work on logarithmic scale-invariance in the distribution of biological species, dependent on body size and weight of the organisms. By introducing a logarithmic scale for biologically significant parameters, such as mean body weight and size, Chislenko was able to prove that sections of increased specie representation repeat themselves in equal intervals (ca. 0.5 units of the log based 10 scale). See lso the Law of Kleiber

In 1984, Knut Schmidt-Nielsen was able to prove logarithmic scale-invariance in the construction of the organisms and in metabolic processes.

In 1981, Alexey Zhirmunsky and Viktor Kuzmin discovered process-independent logarithmic scale invariance in the development stages in embryo-, morpho- and ontogenesis and in geological history.

Scaling in Neurophysiology

We live in a logarithmic world. All of our senses perceive the logarithm of a signal, not the linear intensity of the signal itself. That is why we measure sound volume in decibels, and consequently in logarithmic units.

Sounds whose frequencies differentiate themselves by double, quadruple or eight-times, we perceive as a, a’ or a’’, the same sound. This property of our sense of hearing makes it possible for us to differentiate harmony from disharmony. The harmonic sound sequence 1/2 (Octave), 2/3 (Fifth), 3/4 (Fourth), 4/5 (Major Third), and so forth is logarithmic, hyperbolic scale-invariant.

Our sense of touch is also calibrated logarithmically. Assuming that one holds in the left hand 100 grams and in the right hand 200 grams; if one then adds 10 grams to the left hand, then 20 grams must be added to the right hand in order to sense the same weight increase. This fact is known in Sensing Physiology as the Weber-Fechner Law (Ernst Heinrich Weber, 1795 – 1878, Gustav Theodor Fechner, 1801 – 1887): The strength of a sensory impression is proportional to the logarithm of strength of the stimulus.

The Weber-Fechner law also touches on our senses of smell and sight. The retina records only the logarithm, not the number of impinging photons. That is why we can see not only in sunlight but also at night. Whereas, the number of impinging photons varies by billionths, the logarithm varies only by twentieths. (ln 1000,000,000 ≈ 20.72)

Our vision is logarithmically calibrated not only in regards our perception of the intensity of light, but also relative to the lights wave length which we perceive as colors.

Our ability to judge lineal distances is based on the possibility of comparison of sizes and the determination of relative measurement scales. The linear perspective assumes a constant size proportion that is defined by size enlargement or reduction factor. This factor is multiplied several times with itself in the perspective. From this an exponential function is defined which argument is a logarithm.

The function of our sense organs is concerned with acoustic or electromagnetic wave processes. The logarithmic scale-invariant perception of the world is a consequence of the logarithmic scale- invariant, construction of the world.

Scaling in Mathematics 

All natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 … can be constructed from prime numbers. Prime numbers are natural numbers that are only divisible by the number 1 and themselves without leaving a remainder; accordingly, the numbers 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31 … are quasi elementary parts of the real number continuum. The distribution of the prime numbers among the natural numbers is irregular to such an extent that formula for this distribution cannot be defined. Of course, prime numbers become found more seldom the further one moves along the number line. Already in 1795, Carl Friedrich Gauß noticed this. He discovered that the set p1(n) of prime numbers up to the number n could be calculated approximate according to the formula p1(n) = n / ln

  1. The larger the value of n, the more precisely is this law fulfilled; and means that the distribution of the set of prime numbers among the natural numbers is scale-invariant

Non-prime numbers can clearly be represented as products of prime numbers. One could also say that non-prime numbers are prime-number clusters. This means that non-prime numbers are composed from several prime numbers. In this interpretation, one can derive the prime-factor density distribution on the number line.

The logarithmic scale-invariance of the distribution of the prime numbers is a fundamental property of the continuum of numbers. Moreover, this is the only non-trivial statement that holds true for all prime numbers.

Logarithmic scale-invariance of the prime-factor density distribution means that one can speak about a standing density-wave in the number continuum. The prime factors, 2 and 3 produce the base-oscillation, and early prime factors produce the spectrum of overtones.

From the Model to the Theory

Oscillations are the most energetically efficient kind of movement. For this reason, all matter, not only each atom, but also the planetary system and our galaxy, oscillate and light is an unfolding oscillation and, naturally, the cells and organs of our bodies also oscillate

Based on their energy efficiency, oscillatory processes determine the organization of matter at all levels – from atoms to galaxies

In his most meaningful work, “World Harmonic”, Johannes Kepler established the bases for harmonic research. Building on the ancient musical ‘World Harmony’ of the Pythagoreans, Kepler developed a cosmology of harmonics.

Global Scaling research continues this tradition.

The Melody of Creation

Scaling arises very simply – as a consequence of natural oscillation processes. Natural oscillations are oscillations of matter that already exist at very low energy levels. Therefore they lose few energy, and likewise fulfill the conservation law of energy.

The energy of an oscillation is dependent on its amplitude as well as on its frequency (events per time unit)

Consequently, the following is valid for natural oscillations: The higher the frequency, the less the amplitude. For natural oscillations, the product of frequency and wave length as well as the product of frequency and amplitude are conserved. They limit the speed of propagation of oscillations in mediums, or the speed of deflection.

A standing wave in a homogeneous space arises only if in the direction of the wave penetration the space is finite and if the half wave length is equal to an integer part of the medium size.

As a consequence we can find for any low enough resonant oscillation mode frequency f0 a higher mode frequency f1 with an integer relationship n = f1 / f0. The frequencies of such resonant oscillation modes generate exponential series

Therefore, the complete resonant oscillation frequency spectrum can be represented as a set of logarithmic fractal spectra (1) with natural n = 1, 2, 3, … In this representation the generation of the complete resonant oscillation frequency spectrum can be understood as an arithmetical task, what can be reduced to the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, that every natural number greater than 1 can be written as a unique product of prime numbers.

In our example, the oscillation period of the 1. mode is three times longer that the period of the 2. mode, nine times longer than the period of the 3. mode and 27 times longer that the period of the 4. mode. From this follows the logarithmic, fractal, construction of the (repeating itself in all scales) oscillation representation. In this connection, one speaks of scale-invariance (Scaling). In nature Scaling is distributed widely – from the elementary particles to the galaxies. It is in this connection that one speaks of Global Scaling.

Natural oscillations of matter produce logarithmic, fractal spectrums of the frequencies, wave- lengths, amplitudes and a logarithmic fractal network of oscillating nodes in space.

In physical mediums, base-tones, upper- or undertones are produced simultaneously, and in this there arise consonances and dissonances. Not only our hearing can distinguish consonance from dissonance; this capability extends to all matter, and has to do with the energy expenditure necessary to produce an overtone.

A musical ‘Fifth’ arises most easily (the least expense of energy per oscillation period), because merely a frequency doubling and trebling is necessary in order to produce an overtone in interval of 3/2 of the base frequency. Somewhat more energy is necessary to produce a musical ‘Fourth’, 4/3, while this additionally requires a quadrupling of the base frequency; and even more energy is necessary for the production of the larger musical ‘third’, 6/5, of the same amplitude, and so forth.

The musical intervals accordingly play an energetic, key-role in the spectrum of the natural- oscillation-modes. In fact, this spectrum is constructed like the spectrum of a melody.

Natural oscillations of matter are probably the most important structure-forming factor in the Universe. For this reason one finds fractal proportions everywhere in nature. The logarithmic, fractal distribution of matter in the universe is a consequence of natural oscillation processes in cosmic, space and time measurement scales. In this connection, one speaks of the “Melody of Creation”.

Leonhard Euler: About Continued Fractions and FRactal Geometry

In the works “About Continued Fractions” (1737) and “About the Oscillations of a String” (1748), Leonhard Euler formulated problems whose solutions would keep the field of mathematics busy for 200 years.9

Euler investigated natural oscillations of an elastic, mass-less string of pearls. In connection with this task, d’Alembert developed his method of integration for a system of linear differential equations. Daniel Bernoulli asserted his known statement that the solution of the problem of the free-oscillating string can be represented as trigonometric sequence, something which started a discussion between Euler, d’Alembert and Bernoulli lasting a decade. Later, Lagrange showed more correctly how one arrives at the solution of the problem of oscillations of a string-of-pearls and the solution of the problem of a homogenous string. The problem-solution was first completely solved by Fourier in 1822

Almost insurmountable problems arose in the meantime with pearls of various mass and irregular distribution. This task led to functions with gaps (or voids). After a letter from Charles Hermite, May 20, 1893, who additionally added, “Reject in nervous horror the lamentable annoyance of the functions without derivative”; T. Stieltjes investigated functions with discontinuities and found an integration method for these functions which led to continued fractions.

Meanwhile, Euler already recognized that complex, oscillating systems can contain such solutions (integral) that themselves are not overall differentiateable, and left behind to the future mathematical world an analytical “monster” – that is, the non-analytic functions (this term was chosen by Euler himself).

Non-analytic functions provided ample and profuse study up to the 20th century, after the identity crises in mathematics, appeared to be conquered.

The crises began, and lasted until about 1925, when Emil Heinrich Bois Reymond, in 1875, reported for the first time about a Weierstrass constructed continuous, but non-differentiable function. The main players were Cantor, Peano, Lebesgue and Hausdorff; and as a result, a new branch of mathematics was born – Fractal Geometry.

About Fractals

Fractal comes from the Latin ‘fractus’ and means “broken-up-in-pieces” and “irregular.” Fractals are consequently distinct, fragmentary, tricky mathematical objects. Mathematics in the 19th Century considered these objects as exceptions and from there, tried to derive fractal-objects from regular, continuous and smooth structures.

The theory of fractal groups made possible in-depth investigations in “non-analytic”, manifold, granular or fragmentary forms. It immediately it becomes apparent that fractal structures are by no means so infrequently encountered in the world. More fractal objects are discovered in nature than ever suspected. Moreover, it suddenly seemed as if the entire natural universe were fractal.

Especially, works of Mandelbrot finally advanced the geometry to the position where fractal objects could be mathematically correctly described: fragmented crystal-lattices, Brownian motion of gas molecules, complex, giant polymer-molecules, irregular star-clusters, cirrus-clouds, the Saturn rings, the distribution of moon-craters, turbulences in fluids, bizarre coast-lines, snake-like river- streams, faults in mountain-chains, development branches of the most varied kinds of plants, surface areas of islands and lakes, mineral-formations, geological sediments, the distribution in space of raw-material-occurrences, and, and, and……

A deciding factor in the accurate treatment of fractal objects was the introduction of real and also irrational dimensions, in contrast with the whole-number dimensions of Euclidean Geometry.

Let’s consider an example: In Euclidean Geometry, a disappearing, small grain-of-sand has dimension 0. A line – dimension 1. But which dimension does sequence of grains-of-sand arranged one after the other?

The Euclidean point of view only knows boundary conditions: Either one proceeds on a wide path – until one cannot recognize anymore grains-of-sand and then assigns to this object the dimension 1, or one recognizes the grains-of-sand as objects of dimension 0. and while it is usually known that 0=0=…+0 = 0, the grains-of-sand, are likewise assigned dimension 0. That through this the essential is lost is obvious.

The first step of an in-depth analysis of this situation was undertaken by Cantor in his letter of June 20th, 1877 to Dedekind, the next was followed by Peano in 1890.

The mathematicians recognized that an accurate understanding of fractal structures could not be reached when one defines ‘dimensions’ as a number of coordinates. Therefore, in 1919 Hausdorff defined a new conception of dimension. The fractal (broken) dimension D completed the topological (whole-number) dimension through logarithmic values.

The fractal dimension of a grain-of-sand sequence of N grains-of-sand of the relative (In comparison to the total length of the sequence) size 1/k, where D = log(N) / log(k). Assuming a sequence of 100 grains-of-sand is 100 mm in length and the size of a grain-of- sand 1 mm. Then D = log (100) / log (100) = 1. However, if the sequence only consists of 50 grains-of-sand, then D = log (50) / log (100) = 0.849485. The fractal dimension D is, accordingly, a measure for the fragmentary nature of an object. The larger the gaps, the further D is from integer number values.

The application of the Hausdorff-Dimension in geometry now makes it possible to deal with not only completely irregular real mathematical objects, but at the same time provides the formula for the creation of home-made fractal creations. The creation of various Mandelbrot- und Julia-groups using the computer gave rise to a popular mathematical sport. The Mandelbrot-group is still today the object of non-resolved theoretical investigations. However, it is important that these through mathematics that their connections become visible, and are being investigated in the most varied of specialist fields.

Nevertheless, the fractal ‘Grain-of-sand’ sequence strongly reminds of Euler’s ‘String-of-Pearls.’ Both of these objects are fractal.

In 1950, the Leningrad mathematicians, F. R. Gantmacher and M.Krein regarded the line-of-deflection of an oscillating string of pearls as a broken line. This initial step even enabled them a fractal view of the problem, without which they were unaware (Mandelbrots Classic “Fractal Objects”, appeared in 1975 and was his first works of which 50 were in the field of Linguistics). They first brought the Fractal visibly into the situation, and to completely solve (and also for the most general case) the 200 year old Euler Problem of the oscillating “Sting-of-Pearls” for variable masses and irregular

In their work, “Oscillation-matrices, Oscillation-nuclei, and Small Oscillations of Mechanical Systems” (Leningrad, 1950, Berlin, 1960), Gantmacher and Krein show that Stieltjes-Continued- Fractions are solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equations for natural oscillating systems. These continued fractions produce fractal spectrums.

In the same year, the comprehensive work of Oskar Perron appeared “The Theory of Continued- Fractions.” The theme was also worked on by N. I. Achieser in his work, “The Classical Moment Problem and Some Associated Questions About the Analysis (Moscow 1961). Terskich generalized the (with regard to the contents) Continued-fraction method on the analyses of Fundamental-oscillating, branching chain-systems (Terskich, V. P., The Continued-fraction Method, Leningrad, 1955). Khintchine resolved the meaning of Continued-fractions in arithmetic and algebra (Khintchine, A. J., Continued fractions. University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1964).

Additional works by Thiele, Markov, Khintchine, Murphy, O’Donohoe, Chovansky, Wall, Bodnar, Kučminskaja, and Skorobogat’ko, etc. helped lead to the final break-through for the continued- fraction method, and in 1981 enabled the development of efficient algorithms for the addition and multiplication of continued-fractions.

Each real number – and also each measurable value – can be clearly represented as a ‘normed’ continued fraction (all partial denominators are 1). Finite, normed continued fractions converge to rational numbers. Infinite continued fractions converge to irrational numbers.

The simplest continued fraction generates the ‘Golden Number’ proportion. All of its elements are Supposedly this is why the ‘Golden Mean’ is so wide-spread in nature. The sequence {1, 1/2, 2/3, 3/5, 5/8, 8/13, 13/21, 21/34, …} produce the sequence of Fibonacci-numbers.

A quite special structure is exhibited by the continued fraction of the Euler-number e= 71828 … This continued fraction contains the sequence of all natural numbers and the sequence of all musical intervals.

The convergent Continued-fraction for e is composed of the reciprocals of the musical intervals (Prime 1/1, Octave 1/2, Fifth 2/3, Fourth 3/4, Major Third 4/5, Minor Third 5/6, ….).

The number 1 – and each other integer number – also can be represented as a continued fraction.

In its continued-fraction representation, every number is an oscillation-attractor. Khinchine could prove that convergent continued-fractions yield the best approximations of the irrational numbers because they themselves converge the most quickly on the eigenvalue of the continued-fraction.

Doctor Out of the Box (In Dutch)

Dit is een Powerpoint-presentatie uit 2013 gemaakt om te laten zien hoe slimme hulpmiddelen zoals semantic mining, sensors en proces-management  kan helpen om de processen in de gezondheidszorg te ondersteunen.

Er wordt gebruik gemaakt van Paths of Change (PoC) van Will McWhinney om het gebied in kaart te brengen. Dit gebeurt stap voor stap waarbij er iedere keer een nieuwe (medische) functie wordt toegevoegd.

Aan het einde van de presentatie worden alle stappen samengevoegd in een Gezondheidsarchitectuur die zowel voor de lichamelijke als de geestelijke gezondheidszorg bruikbaar is.

Paths of Change past op Interpersonal Theory een psychologische theorie die de mens beschouwd als een interne en externe relatie.

Diagnose is een verband tussen waarnemen (Zintuigen (Sensors), Ervaring)  en waarheid (Kennis). Op basis van de diagnose kun je acties ondernemen die allemaal passen op de algemene verbanden (de “paden“) in Paths of Change. De paden worden in het vervolg verder uitgewerkt.

Dit plaatje is bedoeld om de plek van Watson te introduceren. Watson maakt gebruik van Kennisbanken (een verzameling “waarheden”). Watson is toegespitst op de denkwijze van de specialist. De software doet een specialist na en geeft antwoorden op gestelde vragen.

Dit plaatje bevat een samenvatting van de werkwijze van Watson die door IBM DeepQA wordt genoemd. (QA staat voor Questions/Answers).

 

In de Diagnostiek worden de volgende aspecten van de Mens meegenomen.

Het is mogelijk om Watson (of een ander Semantisch Mining-tool) automatisch te koppelen aan een Proces-Bibliotheek waardoor er een Behandelplan kan worden gemaakt.

Aangezien er statistische methoden worden gebruikt ontbreekt vaak een menselijke verklaring van de uitkomst. Als het diagnose-hulpmiddel moet aansluiten bij een menselijke expert is dit van belang.

Het behandelplan kan worden gekoppeld aan een database met behandelaars.

en een netwerk met Ervaringsdeskundigen.

Op basis van (diepte)interviews met Ervaringsdeskundigen kan een levensloop-simulator worden gebouwd.

Een groot aantal (zo niet alle) meetinstrumenten van de arts kan worden vervangen door (draagbare) sensors, waardoor er als dat nodig is real-time kan worden gemeten.

Het plaatje geeft een globaal beeld aan van de ontwikkeling van de technologie de komende tien jaar.

Over Integrale Zorg en de Zelf-Ontplooiende Stad (In Dutch)

Dit document is in 2014 geschreven. Het is eerste instantie gebruikt om een nieuwe (meer sociale) strategie voor de ABN AMRO te ontwikkelen. Het is later gebruikt als discussie-stuk toen er sprake was van het oprichten van een coordinerend Centrum voor Vitaliteit in Leiden.

Dit centrum was bedoeld om lokale centra op te richten waarbij er aandacht werd besteed aan de samenhang tussen de geestelijke, lichamelijke, sociale en economische gezondheid van de mens in alle levensfasen.

Als laatste is een deel gebruikt als discussiestuk voor een Smart City-beleid in Den Haag. Hier werd aangetoond dat Smart City niet alleen een besturingsmodel is maar dat net als bij de Vitaliteit het lichamelijke, het sociale en het creatieve van de mens een rol moet spelen in het “slim” aanwenden van Smart Technologie. Een stad is net als de mens een organisme.

Het document is gebaseerd op de verander-methodiek Paths of Change (PoC) van Will McWhinney. De wereldbeelden van PoC hebben in dit document overal dezelfde kleuren: Blauw/Unity/Regels/Waarheid, Rood/Sensory/Waarnemen, Groen/Sociaal/Waarderen en Geel/Mythic/Verbeelden.

PoC maakt het mogelijk om met behulp van steeds hetzelfde model heel verschillende vraagstukken op te lossen.

1. Inleiding: Op weg naar de participatie maatschappij

In het verleden vond het contact tussen klant en bank meestal plaats in kleine wijkgebonden kantoren. De directeur van een vestiging fungeerde als steun en toeverlaat voor de kleine zakelijke- (MKB) en particuliere klanten. Op deze wijze werden de meeste financiële calamiteiten voorkomen.

Op dit moment heeft de bank de wijk verlaten en wordt de klant geacht gebruik te maken van geldautomaten en het Internet. Om dit waar te kunnen maken zijn de bankproducten gestandaardiseerd waardoor het autorisatieproces vrijwel automatisch en dus context-onafhankelijk plaatsvindt. Bankieren is niet meer een klantgedreven maar een datagedreven proces geworden.

Inmiddels is de overheid bezig om een groot deel van zijn sociale taken met aanmerkelijk minder geld over te dragen aan de stad die ze wijkgebonden maakt. De sociale taken van de overheid moeten dichter bij de burger worden gebracht en worden ondergebracht in een wijkcentrum of een winkelcentrum.

De traditionele kerken in Nederland krimpen omdat hun leden ouder worden en overlijden. Het diaconaat binnen de kerken houdt zich in zijn regio, meestal wijkgebonden, bezig met eenzamen, armen, zieken, werklozen en andere medemensen die een moeilijke tijd in hun leven doormaken. Door de krimpende kerk wordt de onbaatzuchtige hulp aan de medemens steeds minder.

Uit het diaconaat zijn vele organisaties ontstaan die dreven op giften, subsidies en vrijwilligers. Sommige van die organisaties, zoals ziekenhuizen en  de ontwikkelingshulp zijn sterk geprofessionaliseerd en hebben zich van hun wortels losgemaakt. Ze worden nog steeds grotendeels uit het overheidsbudget bekostigd.

De bijdragen uit het overheidsbudget die richting deze organisaties gaan worden minder en moeten volgens de overheid net als vroeger worden gecompenseerd door sociaal ondernemerschap, giften en de inzet van vrijwilligers.

Om hun hoge vaste lasten te kunnen dragen moeten de meeste partners beiden werken waardoor ze weinig tijd over hebben voor kinderen en hun oudere ouders. De zorg voor de kinderen wordt overgelaten aan de kinderopvang en de school.

De zorg voor de ouderen is uitbesteed aan de gezondheidszorg. Ook hier lopen de budgetten terug en moet de burger zich als mantelzorger gaan inzetten voor zijn zieke familie, vrienden en buurtgenoten.

De zowel qua inzet als financiering krimpende sociale hulpverleningssystemen zijn in deze tijd van crisis juist meer nodig dan in de tijd van hoogconjunctuur.

De enige manier om dit probleem op te lossen is door een totaal nieuwe weg in te slaan. Die weg kan gevonden worden door moderne technologie te koppelen met medemenselijkheid.

2. De Mens is een Relatie

We beginnen bij de mens zelf. Een mens wordt gekarakteriseerd door zijn persoonlijkheid. Die persoonlijkheid is een combinatie van drie kenmerken, n.l.

(1) Richting Rotatie: Introvert/naar Binnen gericht, Linksdraaiend (<-) vs Extravert/naar Buiten, Rechtsdraaiend  (->) gericht

(2) Afstand: Geheel/Observator Boven de Wereld vs Deel/Ervaren In de Wereld en

(3) Psychische Functie: De psychische functie wordt beschreven door twee variabelen die Agency (Besturing) en Communion (Verbinding) worden genoemd.

Ze vormen samen vier functies die ieder een andere richting op bewegen (bv. Geest, Naar Boven, Abstractie of Ziel, Naar beneden, Depressie, Aarde) en samen een richtingsvector bepalen die de mens als staande golf door de Tijd/Ruimte stuurt.

De persoonlijkheid van de  mens is een relatie tussen deze twee functies in combinatie met de Draairichting en de Afstand.

De functies worden Geest/Ordenen/Waarheid, Lichaam/Waarnemen/Handelen (Sensory Motor Systeem), Spirit/Verbeelden en  Ziel/Emoties/Waarderen/Samen, genoemd. Een combinatie tussen Verbeelding en Ordenen wordt een ontwerper genoemd.

Als er twee gelijke functies worden gekoppeld is de mens psychopathologisch. Het ordenen van het ordenen wordt bijvoorbeeld Paranoïde genoemd.

John Holland ontdekte dat de persoonlijkheid sterk voorspellend is voor het beroep. Daardoor kunnen we met behulp van bovenstaand persoonlijkheidsinstrumentarium ook veel zeggen over bedrijfsculturen.

Met als mogelijke verklaring dat mensen de geschiedenis maken blijkt het ook mogelijk te zijn om het model van de persoonlijkheid te gebruiken om korte en lange cycli te beschrijven en te voorspellen.

3.  De Mens in Crisis

De Life Event Scale van Holmes bevat de gebeurtenissen die de meeste invloed hebben op de mens. Deze gebeurtenissen kunnen meerdere van de psychische functies raken.

De psychische functies van de mens zijn tegendelen die elkaar aantrekken en afstoten. Het persoonlijkheidssysteem van de mens fluctueert daarom rondom een evenwichtspunt, het set-point genoemd. De krachten die tussen de verschillende onderdelen spelen en daarmee de bandbreedte van de golven zijn per mens verschillend. Sommige mensen (Kinderen, Ouderen, Zieken) zijn kwetsbaar.

Als een gebeurtenis een te hoge schok veroorzaakt reageert de mens in eerste instantie niet (freeze). Daarna volgt ontkenning en agressie (fight). Na een depressie begint men om de nieuwe situatie weer te waarderen, te exploreren en te accepteren.

De traumatische fase kan bij kwetsbare mensen vele jaren duren. In deze periode is men niet in staat tot productieve arbeid. Het is de kunst om extreme gebeurtenissen en de negatieve effecten daarop te voorkomen of te verhelpen. Dit kan gebeuren door therapie en verzekeren.

4. Sociale Netwerken zijn soms Sociaal

Mensen zoeken vergelijkbare mensen op en vergelijkbare mensen hebben vergelijkbare persoonlijkheden.

Aangezien persoonlijkheden erfelijk zijn vindt de meest voor de hand liggende koppeling plaats met familie en andere mensen die sterk (genetisch) op elkaar lijken. Dit wordt een Community of Affinity genoemd. De leden van Facebook vormen een dergelijk netwerk.

Linkedin is een hulpmiddel waar mensen hun interesses en inzichten delen (Community of Interest) en Wikipedia bevat gedeelde kennis (Kenniscentrum).

Ervaring ontstaat als mensen een fout maken en van deze fout leren. Een fout is een afwijking van een verwachtingspatroon. Een succesvolle vorm van ervaringsdelen is de zelfhulp-groep.

De sensory-motor component van de mens is expansief en is het complement (het tegendeel) van de ordelijke kant.

Terwijl de ordenende component steeds comprimeert (analyse) en daarmee de werkelijkheid versimpelt ontstaan er steeds weer nieuwe vormen van praktisch toegepast handelen die de werkelijkheid complexer maken. Netwerken waar ervaring wordt gedeeld worden een Community of Practice genoemd.

Als we naar de persoonlijkheidstheorie kijken zien we dat de deelnemers aan een Community of Affinity en een Community of Practice samenwerken terwijl ze in de andere netwerken als individu optreden.

Het concept van de coöperatie past perfect bij de sociale sociale netwerken.

De Communities of Practice leven niet lang. Het zijn veel meer tijdelijke projectorganisaties die na het behalen van hun doel weer worden ontbonden of worden overgedragen aan een producent.

5. Van Hulp naar Levensloopbegeleiding

Het leven is een introvert (“naar binnen gericht”) proces en begint en eindigt in een staat van volledige afhankelijkheid (Low Agency, High Communion, Wij).

In de eerste fase van de levensloop vindt het proces van socialisatie plaats,  eerst in de context van de ouders en later in de eigen groep (de cultuur).

In de pubertijd neemt de behoefte om zich los te maken van ouders en familie toe (Agency,Ze) en richt men zich vooral op gelijksoortigen (de peer-group).

Aangezien het “erbij horen” de hoogste prioriteit heeft neemt men onnadenkend ook veel negatief gedrag over en zet men zich zeer nadrukkelijk af tegen de gevestigde orde, de volwassenen.

Tijdens de pubertijd vindt de laatste training plaats voor de volgende fase. Als jongeren sterk negatief worden beïnvloed door hun soortgenoten wordt deze fase niet afgerond en worden ze een drop-out die moeilijk aan het werk komt.

De persoonlijkheid trekt zich niets aan van de levensloopfasen. Er zijn mensen die altijd kind of puber blijven of weer puber worden (midlife-crisis).

Aangezien de persoonlijkheid ook bepalend is voor het beroep is het mogelijk om in iedere fase van de levensloop begeleiding te bieden met de juiste leeftijd.

Theoretisch hebben oude mensen in het begin van hun fase nog genoeg energie en de meeste levenswijsheid. In een groot aantal culturen wordt hiervan gebruik gemaakt door het  drie-generatie-systeem te hanteren.

Het principe van het drie-generatie systeem wordt in Nederland gebruikt bij de begeleiding van mensen die socialisatie-problemen hebben (“Op eigen kracht”).

Het huidige schoolsysteem is nog gebaseerd op de tijd van de massaproductie van de Industriële revolutie en lijkt op de fabriek waarvoor de arbeiders en managers geschoold moeten worden om aan de lopende banden hun werk te doen. Deze tijd is definitief voorbij.

In de pubertijd gaat het om doen, ervaren en uitproberen. Kennis verzamelen is dan niet echt aan de orde. Die kennis kan men veel beter verkrijgen door te reflecteren. Reflectie vindt plaats als er iets mis is gegaan.

Aangezien kennis zeer snel verandert is het niet zinvol meer om preventief veel kennis te vergaren. Kennis kan just-in-time worden verkregen als men praktisch in de problemen zit of overzicht nodig heeft. Ze heeft dan ook een veel hogere retentie.

In de nabije toekomst gaan instrumenten of zichzelf bedienen of krijgen een simpel user-interface dat de gebruiker vertelt wat hij moet doen.

In de productieve fase (volwassenheid) wordt de mens bestuurd door en maakt hij gebruik van regelsystemen (“het”). In deze periode wordt hij geacht een buffer op te bouwen voor de tijden dat er niet kan worden geproduceerd. Een volwassen zorgt in eerste instantie van zijn leven voor zijn kinderen (en soms partner) en later voor zijn ouders.

6. Het Begeleidingssysteem

Ondersteuningsgroep

Rondom ieder individu wordt een sociaal netwerk gevormd dat bereid is om elkaar te helpen en indien nodig ook te waarborgen. In het algemeen bestaat dat netwerk uit naaste familieleden en vrienden. Het is de bedoeling dat deze groep zo vroeg als mogelijk is in het leven wordt gevormd en zo lang als mogelijk in stand blijft. Denk daarbij ook aan de oude functies van meter en peter.

Coach

Een Coach is een persoon die over praktische levenswijsheid beschikt. Het is iemand die zijn/haar loopbaanpad heeft verlaten en zich als vrijwilliger aanbiedt aan mensen die steun nodig hebben in het leven. Coaches kunnen door een persoon of door zijn ondersteuningsgroep worden gevraagd om te helpen. Een ondersteuningsgroep is een absolute randvoorwaarde om aan de slag te gaan. Een coach kan gebruik maken van een simulator om mogelijkheden te onderzoeken.

Case Manager

Een case manager is een rol die er voor zorgt dat een dringend probleem wordt opgelost. Case managers kunnen zich in allerlei instanties bevinden en kunnen daardoor fors langs elkaar heen gaan werken. Het is de taak van de coach om de probleemhebber (zijn “maatje”) te helpen om een dergelijke situatie te vermijden of te corrigeren.

Case-Management Systeem

Alle betrokkenen maken gebruik van één Case-Management-Systeem (CMS). Een CMS is een procesmanager die op basis van condities zijn werk kan doen. Met behulp van dit systeem kunnen afspraken worden vastgelegd maar ook andere partijen betrokken en aan hun afspraken worden gehouden.

Zelfhulpgroep

Een zelfhulpgroep is een groep mensen die in vergelijkbare omstandigheden heeft verkeerd en bereid is om anderen te ondersteunen met praktische raadgeving. Mensen kunnen deelnemen aan meerdere groepen.

Case

Een case is een gestandaardiseerd beschrijving van een situatie in combinatie met een niet gestructureerde beschrijving. In het laatste geval lijkt het op een dagboek.

Cases kunnen problematisch zijn en om een oplossing vragen maar ze kunnen ook een beschrijving zijn van een gebeurtenis (bv. een ongeluk, een ziekte, een verhuizing, een aankoop). Cases worden gebruikt om een kwalitatief historisch overzicht te krijgen eventueel aangevuld met kwantitatieve informatie. Cases worden zoveel als mogelijk is automatisch aangemaakt.

Verzorgers

Indien een ondersteuningsgroep onvoldoende tijd en mogelijkheden heeft om de benodigde hulp te bieden kan externe hulp worden opgeroepen. Die wordt toegevoegd aan de groep en communiceert ook met de groep.

Specialisten/Hulpmiddelen

Indien nodig kan een case manager tijdelijk of permanent specialisten of hulpmiddelen toevoegen om de case op te lossen.

Kennissystemen/Deskundigen

Indien nodig kan een case manager tijdelijk of permanent deskundigen en kennissystemen tijdelijk of permanent toevoegen om de case op te lossen.

7. Financiering van de Levensloop

Het lichaam is verbonden met kort cyclische zon- en maanritmen zoals de dag, de maan/maand en het jaar (de seizoenen). Het gedrag is meetbaar (sensors), sterk voorspelbaar en daardoor budgetteerbaar mits er geen sprake is van verslaving, de behoefte van het lichaam om eindeloos te genieten.

Het complement van het lichaam, de geest, zoekt zekerheid en zoekt en formeert voorspelbare lange termijn patronen (soms een onderneming genoemd) die zich tonen in de vele economische cycli (Kitchen, Juglar, Kuznets, Kondratiev, …).

Aangezien de patronen onderhevig zijn aan verstoringen moet men ze niet als een absolute zekerheid gaan hanteren. Cycli herstellen zich altijd weer.

De korte cycli moduleren op lange cycli en hebben een voorspelbare verhouding (één Kondratieff = drie Kuznets= zes Juglars = twaalf Kitchens).

De Kontratiev-cyclus duurt +/- 54 jaar wat betekent dat de gemiddelde mens in zijn leven altijd profiteert van voorspoed en tegenslag. Dit betekent dat men met behulp van een lange termijn planning en een adequaat sociaal netwerk de cycli ongehavend door kan komen.

Sommige mensen hebben last van teveel geluk, teveel ongeluk, teveel passie of teveel wantrouwen om flexibel om te gaan met de toekomst.

In dat geval kunnen er voor deze mensen ondersteunde systemen worden ontworpen die zowel het geluk als het ongeluk delen door elkaar een waarborg te verlenen of elkaar te helpen in het besturen van het levenspad.

8. Smart Computing: De Mens in de Machine

Software gaat steeds meer psychische functies van de mens overnemen waardoor er uiteindelijk volledig autonome systemen zullen komen.

Op dit moment zijn vooral patroonherkenning (Big Data) en sensors gekoppeld aan procesmanagers (‘robots”) bruikbaar.

In de volgende stap kan de mens zich gaan koppelen aan zeer krachtige simulatoren die aan de ene kant de buitenwereld voorspelbaar zullen maken (“Early Warning”) en aan de andere kant een persoonlijke fantasiewereld (“het Holodeck”) kunnen maken waarin de mens eindeloos kan doorbrengen.

In de laatste fase kan de mens zich voorzien van lichaamssensors die het onbewuste zullen gaan ontsluiten.

Producten zullen worden gestandaardiseerd middels onderling gekoppelde product-configurators waarmee de klant kan gaan spelen (of andersom).

9. Van Coöperatie naar Banking Robot

Bankieren is heel oud. In de code van Hammurabi (1700 v Chr) werd er al gesproken over verzekeren. Rond 1200 ontstonden in Italië de handelsbanken.

De Treasury voortgekomen uit het graanpakhuis van Hammurabi is de functie binnen de bank die moet zorgen voor de levensloopbegeleiding van de bank door te zorgen voor een goede balans tussen sparen (productie) en lenen (consumptie) op zowel de korte- als de lange termijn.

Bankieren was tot 1900 uitsluitend voorbehouden aan de welgestelden. Rond die tijd ontstonden er twee nieuwe bankvormen die zich gingen richten op het vergaren van vermogen onder de minder draagkrachtigen (Giro & Postspaarbank) en het besturen van collectieve bedrijven en het dragen van collectieve risico’s (Raiffeisen, de Coöperatie of Onderlinge Waarborg Maatschappij).

De Consumptiebank (Bank van Lening) kreeg een enorme impuls toen de arbeiders in de jaren zestig verplicht werden om een salarisrekening te openen. Vanaf dat moment raakten de Nederlanders hun vrees om te lenen en te spenderen kwijt. Deze ontwikkeling werd natuurlijk sterk geholpen door de opkomende Kondratieff-golf.

Aan het eind van 20e eeuw hebben de banken geprofiteerd van de verder oplopende economie en hebben daarbij vergeten om een geldvoorraad voor de slechte jaren op te bouwen. Dit geldt natuurlijk niet alleen voor de bank zelf maar ook voor zijn klanten.

Rond 2000 op de top van de golf werd door de ontwikkelaars van de handelsbank Binck-Bank, Knab gelanceerd als een nieuwe vorm van klantgericht bankieren (Personal Financial Planning).

Knab probeert om de nieuwe mogelijkheden van de IT-technologie ten volle aan te wenden. Tot op heden slaat deze moderne vorm van bankieren niet erg aan omdat de klant de diensten te duur vind. Het grootste probleem is natuurlijk dat deze bank geen aansluiting krijgt bij de duurzame socialen, de expanderende genieters en de comprimerende zekerheidzoekers.

Het ligt in de lijn der verwachting dat rond de tijd van de Singularity de bank zich zal hebben getransformeerd in een begrijpend pratende alleswetende bankrobot die perfect waakt over de belangen van de klant. De teerling voor een Dr.Watson-bank is deze maand door IBM samen met de DSB-bank in Singapore geworpen.

Het lijkt er op dat deze ontwikkeling wel eens sneller kan gaan dan men denkt omdat IBM wederom een miljard dollar heeft gestoken in de toepassingen van zijn Dr.Watson-technologie. Deze investering zal vooral worden besteed aan het verbeteren van de medische Dr.Watson.

Dr. Watson ook wel Semantic Analytics genoemd kan in korte tijd eindeloos veel kwalitatieve (tekst, plaatjes) en kwantitatieve data tot zich nemen, patronen ontdekken,  logische redeneren en praten.

Om de uitdagingen van de komende cyclus-periode aan te kunnen zullen de banken zich moeten gaan concentreren op het balanceren van hun eigen geldvoorraden en daarmee ook de waardenvoorraden van hun klanten. Dit kan alleen als ze zich gaan bezighouden met de volledige levenscyclus.

Dit betekent dat een bank niet alleen alle soorten dienstverlening moet gaan bieden maar ook alle soorten banken onder één noemer moeten zien te brengen.

In dat kader zal de bank ook weer een sociale kant moeten gaan tonen.

We hebben gezien dat deze kant van het bankwezen zich in het verleden heeft getoond in de coöperatie en de waarborgmaatschappij. Deze banktypen zijn grotendeels verdwenen en hebben zich getransformeerd in een “normale” bank en verzekeraar waarbij de inbreng in het beleid van de klanten niet groot meer is.

Het herstellen van de klantbetrokkenheid (zie Knab) is een “hot issue” en “customer co-creation” staat hoog in de trend top tien.  Daarnaast rijst het aantal nieuw opgerichte kredietunies de pan uit en is de regering al druk bezig om deze vorm van onderlinge solidariteit een wettelijke basis te geven.

Het ligt dan ook voor de hand om onderlinge solidariteit (“de naaste”) weer als uitgangspunt te nemen voor de mensen die dat willen en dat zijn de mensen met een sociale persoonlijkheid.

10. Integrale Gezondheidszorg

We zijn weer terug bij het verdwenen bankkantoor in de wijk. Het stond in een winkelcentrum waar inmiddels door de snelle opkomst van de Internetwinkels alleen nog de lichaamsgerateerde kort cyclische retail aanwezig is.

De kans is groot dat die zich zelfs op den duur terugtrekt als de winkel-logistiek zich volledig heeft aangepast aan het aan huis bezorgen.

Vaak is zo’n winkelcentrum gekoppeld aan een gezondheidscentrum dat zich nu ook druk moet gaan maken over de psycho-sociale zorg. De overheid heeft bedacht dat de huisarts in de wijk in samenwerking met de wijkverpleegkundige moet gaan optreden als personal case-manager.

Opvallend is dat de economische gezondheidszorg (de armenzorg) nog grotendeels een kerkelijke aangelegenheid is. Er zijn vele organisaties die de hulp van levenswijze “maatjes” aanbieden om mensen te helpen ook economisch orde op zaken te stellen.

Wat tot op heden nog volledig ontbreekt is een integrale benadering. De vele professionele hulpverleners (“de sociale kaart”) en vrijwilligers werken notoir langs elkaar heen,  het aantal specialismen is sterk gegroeid waardoor ieder probleemhokje een eigen loket heeft en men kan door de soms zeer complexe vaktaal moeilijk onderling communiceren.

Wat vaak wordt vergeten is dat er naast hulpverleners en vrijwilligers ook nog commerciële partijen zijn die belang hebben bij een gezonde medewerker of klant.

Die belangen worden bij voorbeeld gedragen door Arbo-diensten, Verzekeraars en Banken die schadeclaims moeten afhandelen en natuurlijk ook voorkomen. Een vergaande samenwerking rondom het wijkgebonden integrale gezondheidscentrum ligt voor de hand.

Het is hierbij van belang om te beseffen dat de technologie veel werk uit handen kan nemen zodat de mens zich volledig kan richten op het persoonlijk contact zowel in de vorm van een gesprek als van de zorg zelf (totdat de zorg-robot zich aandient).

11. De Zelf-Ontplooiende Stad

Een stad is een verzameling gebouwen, waarin mensen samenwonen, werken, worden verzorgd of plezier maken. De mensen en de gebouwen zijn verbonden door allerlei soorten netwerken (energie, vervoer, telecommunicatie, sociale netwerken, waardeketens, ..).

De stad kan net als het Integrale Gezondheidscentrum verdeeld worden in vier onderling verbonden onderdelen n.l Besturing, Bedrijvigheid, Sociaal en Cultureel.

Boven de Stad kan een Monitor worden gedefinieerd die erg veel lijkt op het menselijke bewustzijn. De Monitor moet er voor zorgen dat de verschillende onderdelen niet te dominant worden.

De vier onderdelen kunnen weer worden opgesplitst in vergelijkbare onderdelen waardoor er in totaal (1+4) x 12 = 60 onderdelen kunnen worden gedefineerd. Die onderdelen kunnen als nodig is nog veel dieper kunnen worden opgedeeld als we de mens weer opsplitsen in bijv. organen en de organen weer in cellen. Op ieder niveau gelden dezelfde wetten.

LINKS

Over Slimme Software

Over de Stad

Over Paths of Change (PoC)

Over Grammers of Engagement

Over Roeping

Over Verslaving

Over Communities of Practice

Over de Magie van de OnKwetsbaarheid (in Dutch About Anti-fragility

This is the same blog in English.

Deze blog is het gevolg van een  presentatie over Anti-Fragility die ik op 7-9-2016 heb gegeven voor de sofware-architecten van de KNVI (Koninklijke Nederlandse Vereniging van Informatieprofessionals).

De presentatie in 2016 begon met een verhaal over mijn Smart City-project in Den Haag (“Smart Urban Space”). Dit stuk van de presentatie is hier weggelaten op de conclusie na over de Anti-Fragiele Stad. Die conclusie staat in Hfdst. 15.

Het verhaal over de Zelfontplooiende Stad staat hier.

0. Over Anti-Kwetsbaarheid

Nassim Taleb beweert dat er geen woord in het Engels bestaat voor het omgekeerde van Fragility (kwetsbaarheid). Daarom heeft hij het zelf gemaakt (Anti-Fragility, anti-kwetsbaarheid). In het Nederlands bestaat het woord wel alhoewel het net als in het Engels ook een niet-(on/anti)-woord (“een tegendeel”) is.

Het omgekeerde van Fragility is onkwetsbaarheid, een mythisch begrip, waar veel levenden naar op zoek zijn geweest maar dat alleen aan de Goden is (of was?) voorbehouden.

Taleb plaatst Anti-Fragility vooral in het scheppende perspectief. Met Anti-Fragility kun je chaos gebruiken om je eigen orde te scheppen.

Dit document bevat een zoektocht naar Anti-Fragility langs allerlei modellen die stukjes van de puzzel bevatten.

1. Over de Phoenix, het Symbool van Veerkracht

Op het plaatje houden Thoth, de Uitvinder en Ma’at, de Godin van de Balans, de Levensboom (de Ished) in Evenwicht.

De vruchten van de Boom des Levens gaven Eeuwig Leven (en dus Onkwetsbaarheid) en Inzicht in het Grote Plan.

In de top van de Boom die gesitueerd was in Heliopolis  zat de Bennu Vogel, de Magische Phoenix. De Vuurvogel die uit haar eigen Vuur herboren wordt is het Symbool van Nassim Taleb voor Veerkracht, het laatste stadium voor anti-kwetsbaarheid.

De tovenaar Thoht wordt ook wel Djehuti genoemd. Hij is de bestuurder van de Djed, de levenskracht (“het Vuur van de Phoenix”, de Kundalini), waarmee hij het Rad van Avontuur in beweging  zet dat door Ma’at binnen de perken wordt gehouden.

Het mag duidelijk zijn dat Nassim Taleb op zoek is naar de bron van de Levenskracht en de beperkingen van Ma’at (Balans) wil ontlopen.

In moderne terminologie wil Nassim permanent in de “Edge of Chaos” (“de Adjacent Possible“, Kauffman) opereren. De “edge” is het gebied tussen orde en chaos waar de nieuwe ruimte wordt gevormd en de tijd zijn werk nog niet kan doen.

2. Citaten Nassim Taleb

Cursief een aantal citaten van Nassim Taleb om in de stemming te komen:

Our brain is not cut out for nonlinearities. People think that if, say, two variables are causally linked, then a steady input in one variable should always yield a result in the other one. Our emotional apparatus is designed for linear causality.

Wind extinguishes a candle and energizes fire. You want to be the fire and wish for the wind. …The mission is how to domesticate, even dominate, even conquer, the unseen, the opaque, and the inexplicable.

It takes a lot of intellect and confidence to accept that what makes sense doesn’t really make sense.

For a free person, the optimal – most opportunistic – route between two points should never be the shortest one.

Not seeing a tsunami or an economic event coming is excusable; building something fragile to them is not.

The ultimate freedom lies in not having to explain “why” you did something.

The best choice is the one that remains for no good reason while other options have 2 or more reasons.

You get pseudo-order when you seek order; you get a measure of order and control when you embrace randomness.

In fact, every step is a new beginning. 

3. Introductie

Dit document is een persoonlijke zoektocht naar anti-fragility, een concept bedacht door de auteur/wetenschapper/filosoof/geldhandelaar Nassim Taleb. Anti-fragility is het omgekeerde van kwetsbaarbaarheid (fragile).

Taleb is een liefhebber van het omgekeerde en van kunstige metafoor (“The general principle of antifragility, it is much better to do things you cannot explain than explain things you cannot do.”).

Nassim zet zijn lezers graag op het verkeerde been suggererend dat dat het goede been is. Door het omgekeerde te nemen laat hij de grenzen zien van het dagelijkse en opent daardoor een nieuwe wereld die grotendeels onbegrijpelijk is maar wel degelijk mogelijk (“I want to live happily in a world I don’t understand”).

De zoektocht maakt gebruik van wat ik “mapping” noem, het springen (“afbeelden“) van model naar model waarbij het basismodel, Paths of Change,  steeds meer wordt verrijkt met details die zich rondom het kernthema (on-kwetsbaarheid) ophopen.

4. Het Basis-Model, Paths of Change

Paths of Change (PoC) beschrijft veranderprocessen en is ontwikkeld door Will McWhinney.

De methode maakt gebruik van het concept wereldbeeld (worldview), een specifieke kijk op de wereld.

PoC gebruikt vier onafhankelijke  wereldbeelden:

  • Sensory (waar-nemen / handelen/ ervaring/ rood),
  • Unitary (waar-heid /kennis /systeem /blauw ),
  • Mythic (weer (waar?)-geven  / idee/ inzicht/ geel) en
  • Social (waar-deren /waarde /groep / groen).

Een verandering is een cyclisch proces dat minimaal twee wereldbeelden doorloopt. Als voorbeeld, het wetenschappelijke veranderproces, koppelt unitary (waar-heid) aan sensory (waar-nemen) en vice-versa.

PoC is een fractaal-systeem (zelf-referentie, herhaling zelfde model). De basisvorm, de golf, herhaalt zich op ieder schaalniveau. Er zijn vele golven met een verschillende periodiciteit (frequentie).

Cycli van verschillende periodiciteit versterken of beperken elkaar. Omhoog en omlaag van gelijke waarde heffen elkaar op.

Een golf lijkt op een Sinus en bestaat uit een weg omhoog (mythic), de top (unitary), de weg omlaag (sensory) en het dal (social, depressie) waar vandaan de weg omhoog weer start.

De wiskundige Fourier heeft aangetoond dat alle functies kunnen worden beschreven als een verzameling van sinussen en cosinussen. Een cosinus is een vertraagde sinus.

Een Sinusvorm bevat twee tegenstellingen (omkeringen) n.l. richting (omhoog/omlaag) en evenwicht (top/dal).

Richting en (&) evenwicht vormen samen het geheel. Ze worden elkaars complement genoemd. Een systeem dat bestaat uit twee opponenten en complementen wordt een Quaternio genoemd.

Een voorbeeld van de Quaternio in het basismodel van PoC is de link waar-nemen (Sensory) vs weer-geven (Mythic). Weer of waar betekent aandacht. De kruisen in het model gaan over tegenstellingen.

Quaternions hebben een hele rijke historie in de geschiedenis van de wetenschap en zijn door de psycholoog/filosoof Carl Jung weer op de kaart gezet.

Een Quaternio biedt de mogelijkheid om met een concept te spelen door complement en opponent te onderzoeken.

Het is duidelijk dat Taleb een expert is in het spel van omkeren en confronteren. Zijn hoogste doel is om de lezer zodanig in de war te brengen dat hij zelf het Licht ziet.

Er zijn veel  vergelijkbare Quaternio’s (“vierluiken”). Die kunnen worden gebruikt om een toegespitste kijk te introduceren in een discussie. Door ze steeds te relateren (“mappen”) aan het PoC-model kun je een meer-dimensioneel plaatje schetsen.

Bovenstaand Quaternio komt uit de Grid/Group-theorie. Er worden twee variabelen gebruikt die een dualiteit zijn n.l. individu en niet-individu (groep) en vrije keuze (prescribing) en niet-“vrije keuze” (prescribed). Hierdoor vormen ze samen een Quaternio.

PoC is te beschrijven met de variabelen Communion en Agency, waarbij Agency lijkt op de Vrije Keuze-variabele maar dan andersom n.l. het effect van Agency is vrije of niet-vrije keuze en de groep-variabele lijkt op Communion (Samen vs Niet-Samen).

De Grid/Group-theorie is onder meer gebruikt bij het ontwerpen van Panarchy, een theorie over autonome processen. Panarchy wordt in Hfdst. 9 geintroduceerd.

De verbindingen tussen de wereldbeelden kunnen worden benoemd. Plan (Unity) -> Praktijk (Sensory) wordt Maken genoemd en Praktijk->Plan (Theorie, Unity) wordt Analyse genoemd.

Unity comprimeert (M->1) en Sensory expandeert (1->M).

De vier onderdelen van PoC kunnen weer worden ingedeeld volgens hetzelfde model. Dit noemt men zelf-referentie of schaal. In het plaatje wordt de persoonlijkheid opgeblazen tot een stelsel van Communities. Een Community of Practice heet een bedrijf.

De rechtsdraaiende cyclus is de Productie-cyclus. De linksdraaiende cyclus is de Consumptie-cyclus.

De kleuren in de plaatjes geven de relatie aan met PoC.

5. De Definitie van Anti-Fragility

Het concept anti-fragile is bedacht door Nassim Taleb en staat in de titel van zijn boek Antifragile: Things That Gain From Disorder. Anti-fragile is de antithese van fragile (kwetsbaar). Hoe meer wanorde hoe beter het anti-fragiele systeem werkt.

Een fragiel systeem is zwak dus zou je zeggen dat een anti-fragiel systeem sterk is (Robuust). Nassim Taleb gooit er nog een paar scheppen bovenop. Als je anti-fragiel bent ben je blij als er iets goed mis gaat want dan wordt het gewin groter.

Tussen fragiel (kwetsbaar) en anti-fragiel (onkwetsbaar) definieert Taleb de concepten anti-agile (niet aanpasbaar, rigide) en agile (aanpasbaar) met robuust (resilient, veerkrachtig) als midden categorie.

Anti-Fragiel worden is eigenlijk onmenselijk vandaar dat Nassim zoveel referenties geeft naar mythische voorbeelden (Phoenix (Robuust, Veerkracht), Hydra (Anti-Fragiel), een veelkoppig monster, dat meer koppen terugkrijgt als een kop wordt afgehakt).

Anti-fragile: is het vervolg op zijn bestsellers Fooled by Randomness, en The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable.

Black Swans zijn onvoorspelbare gebeurtenissen waar je je volgens Nassim tegen kunt wapenen door het systeem robuust te maken.

Fragiele systemen hebben maar twee standen n.l. (0): Heel (H) en (1): Kapot (K). Organismen zijn veerkrachtige systemen.  Ze hebben 2×2 standen (HH (00 =0), HK (01 = 1), KH (10 =2), KK  (11=3)-> Hh->H , HK, KH, KK->K) en zijn cyclisch (0, 1,2,3.0,1,2,3,0,…).

Anti-Fragiele systemen zijn het product van een evolutionair proces. Evolutionaire systemen hebben 2**2**n standen en tonen zich als een spiraal.

In fact, the most interesting aspect of evolution is that it only works because of its antifragility; it is in love with stressors, randomness, uncertainty, and disorder — while individual organisms are relatively fragile, the gene pool takes advantage of shocks to enhance its fitness.

Onderstaande plaatje toont de Involutie (convergentie van de Evolutie) van de Spiraal van het Universum van de Big Bang tot en met het ontstaan van de Sociale Systemen.

Als een fragiel systeem kapot gaat kan de nieuwe staat iets heel anders doen dan vroeger of helemaal niets doen. In dat geval passen de brokstukken niet meer in elkaar.

Een fragiel systeem kan door een grote verstoring anti-fragiel worden omdat de componenten anders worden geordend en ook zelf worden aangepast.

Een niet-veranderbare (anti-agile, rigide) ecologie weerstaat een verstoring.

Een veerkrachtige (robuuste) ecologie herstelt zich maar verandert niet.

Een veranderbare (agile) kwetsbare (fragile) ecologie valt na een grote verstoring uit elkaar, ordent de brokstukken op een andere manier en blijft hetzelfde doen (“functional redundancy”).

Een onkwetsbare ecologie doet iets nieuws met nieuwe brokstukken. Het is de vraag of nieuw beter is. Het is ieder geval anders.

6. Over Rampen: Black Swans en Dragon Kings

In tegenstelling tot Nassim Taleb is Didier Sonnete van mening dat er naast de Black Swan nog een ander soort ramp bestaat, de Dragon King.

Black Swans ontstaan door Self-Organized Criticality, “de druppel die de emmer doet overlopen”, de eerste steen die een lawine, een kettingreactie, doet ontstaan. Een kettingreactie duidt op een systeem dat te geïntegreerd is. Alles hangt met alles samen.

Het moment waarop de lawine ontstaat is niet met zekerheid te voorspellen maar de verdeling van de grootte van lawines vertoont een z.g. powerlaw-verdeling (de 80/20-regel, Pareto-principe). Een powerlaw-netwerk heeft heel veel kleine knooppunten en een paar grote “hubs”, die als magneet fungeren voor de kleintjes.

Dragon Kings ontstaan omdat er door synchronisatie min of meer gelijke (homogene) sterk gekoppelde (coupling) objecten gaan ontstaan die zich als een geheel volgens een vast ritme gaan gedragen (kuddegedrag).

De kudde drijft het systeem tot enorme hoogte (“een hype”, “bubble”) waarna het in elkaar stort en een tsunami start die veel opgebouwde waarde vernietigd. Dit wordt positieve feedback genoemd.

Synchronisatie forceert homogeniteit. Ongelijke onderdelen gaan in het geheel op elkaar lijken. Voorbeelden zijn verliefdheid, mensenmenigten (“meutes”), vogelzwermen, bacteria, hersenen, files, het weer en economische bubbles.

7. Stroomsystemen en Constructal Law

Het energieverschil, het potentieel, tussen de ritmische input van de zon en de output  van de ritmisch roterende aarde (via reflectie), wordt omgezet in geordende (geconfigureerde) ritmische (cycli) beweging (stroom systemen, bijv. het weer, de waterkringloop in de zee, …).

Het ritme van de zonnecyclus veroorzaakt grootschalige synchronisatie op aarde.

Als het potentieel te laag is komt de beweging tot stilstand (uitputting). Een blokkade van een aantal stroompaden kan een infarct doen ontstaan waardoor de stroom zich ophoopt en blokkeert. Op den duur wordt de blokkade (“doorbraak”) weer opgeheven als de bron maar blijft bestaan.

Een te grote stroomlijning van de rivierdelta veroorzaakt bij een te groot aanbod overstromingen. Hierdoor gaat de stroom anders lopen (bypass). Een rivierdelta is een combinatie van vele stagnaties die plotseling door de grote druk die zich bij het knooppunt ontwikkeld een bypass veroorzaken.

Tussen stagnatie en vrije stroom bevindt zich een persistent model dat een optimalisatie is van vele variabelen (i.h.a de lengte van de stroom). Dit model, de boom,  komt steeds terug.

Constructal Law is een onderdeel van de Thermodynamica. Ze laat zien dat stroomsystemen allemaal hetzelfde fractale “boom”-patroon vertonen op ieder schaal-niveau (hersenen, longen, bloedvaten, boom, rivier, stad,…).

Het model van Paths of Change bestaat eigenlijk uit vier aan elkaar gekoppelde bomen die 90 graden zijn geroteerd.

Unity is de Boom van de Hiearchie, Sensory is de Boom van de Causaliteit, waarbij een oorzaak vele gevolgen kan hebben.  Social zijn de Wortels van de Boom en Mythic is het omgekeerde van Social. Uit het Vele komt de Eenheid voort.

In zijn totaliteit lijkt het op een centrum (de Leegte) waaruit paden voortvloeien die alle kanten op stromen. Dit model is het gevolg van een systeem zonder weerstand.

Hier toont zich de Levensboom van Thoth en Ma’at maar ook de Uhrplant van Goethe die de wetenschap van de Morphologie (de Vormkunde) in gang heeft gezet.

De essentie van Constructal Law is dat de stroomsystemen in de vorm van boomstructuren op den duur alle weerstand verwijderen zodat ze steeds beter kunnen stromen. Die weerstand wordt gevormd door de vormen die “oude” stroomsystemen hebben geproduceerd.

Dit betekent dat de cyclus sneller gaat bewegen, het boom-object kleiner wordt (maar wel deel blijft uitmaken van een groter object (dat weer deel uit maakt van een nog groter object (via de fractale wetten)))  en de vorm van het object meer gestroomlijnd wordt gegeven het medium waarin het zich bevindt (vissen (water), vogels (lucht), zoogdieren (land)).

Volgens de Constructal Law zijn de organismen maar ook de hulpmiddelen van de organismen (vliegtuigen, boten , auto’s,…) allemaal een gevolg van de rotatie (in de rotatie, in de rotatie) die het overschot aan energie van de zon heeft veroorzaakt.

8. Vitaliteit, een voorbeeld van een Spanningsveld

Vitaliteit is een verband tussen diversiteit (veerkracht) en efficiency (orde). Als er teveel is gestroomlijnd wordt het totale gekoppelde systeem gevoelig voor verstoring (fragiel, breekbaar (brittle)).

Door het uitvallen van een elektriciteit-centrale vallen alle centrales uit of door een virus valt een groot deel van de software uit (collapse). Andersom levert een te grote diversiteit een te lage samenhang (connectivity) op en werkt er niets meer samen (stagnatie, chaos).

Vitaliteit is een voorbeeld van een spanningsveld (Efficiency (Alles gelijk) vs Diversiteit). Als je dieper analyseert blijkt dat alle problemen ontstaan door spanningsvelden die niet in het midden, in balans, verkeren omdat ze met grote moeite in balans kunnen komen.

De ene en de andere kant zijn meer waarschijnlijk maar veroorzaken zulke grote problemen dat een ander spanningsveld ze weer oplost.

Aangezien de spanningsvelden samenhangen middels spanningsvelden is de wereld een systeem dat in wankel evenwicht verkeerd en dat uiteindelijk tot een punt in een kruis kan worden teruggebracht. Dat punt is het scharnierpunt waarom alles draait.

9. Panarchy, de Fusie van Pan & Anarchie?

De hoofdstukken 4 t/m 6 laten een aantal samenhangende onafhankelijke variabelen zien die een spanningsveld zijn n.l. (1) Verbondenheid (2) Vitaliteit (3) Orde en (4) Potentieel. Die variabelen komen ook voor in het model achter Panarchy.

Panarchy is een fusie tussen Pan, de God van de Natuur en Anarchie, een  niet van boven gestuurde organisatievorm. Panarchy gaat over Autonome processen in de Natuur.

Panarchy is een cyclisch 4-dimensionaal model (een spanningsveld tussen Vorm & Proces) van de ontwikkelingen (de stromen) die een ecologie doormaakt.

De vorm van de cyclus is het cijfer 8, de Möbius-ring. De ring is een 2-Dimensionele band in een 3-D-ruimte die geen boven- en onderkant heeft maar die suggestie wel wekt.

De ring kan worden onderverdeeld in vier fasen die overeenkomen met de cyclische ontwikkeling van een organisme van geboorte tot dood.

De fasen zijn:

(1) geboorte en groei (opbouwen potentie en verbondenheid, groen/blauw), Vanuit het diepste punt (“de depressie”) ontstaat er weer samenhang. De samenhang produceert en consumeert hulpbronnen waarbij er veel meer wordt geproduceerd dan geconsumeerd. Er is nog genoeg ruimte om te groeien en om voorraden te maken. Vanuit het overschot ontwikkelt zich een besturingssysteem (een elite) die vooral zorgdraagt voor consensus. De onderdelen staan in dienst van elkaar.

(2) conserveren (behoud huidige situatie prioriteit, veel te veel connecties, geen mogelijkheid voor nieuwe paden, systeem wordt broos en breekbaar, er ontstaan  verschillende breuklijnen, diversiteit neemt toe, blauw/geel): Het systeem verbruikt vrijwel al zijn hulpbronnen om zich in stand te houden. Er vindt geen innovatie plaats en het verleden wordt belangrijker als de toekomst.

(3) ineenstorten en uit elkaar vallen  (geel/rood): Uiteindelijk valt het geheel uiteen in brokstukken die niet echt op elkaar aansluiten. Er werkt niets meer samen en het systeem komt tot stilstand.

(4) herordenen en opnieuw beginnen (rood/groen): De brokstukken worden weer aangepast en samengevoegd en een nieuwe cyclus begint.

Iedere faseovergang wordt afgesloten met een fase-specifieke ramp omdat er steeds op een andere manier “door de bocht” wordt gegaan.

Het model van de ecologie herhaalt zich op verschillende schaalniveaus. Stromen op een hoger niveau zijn groter en stromen langzamer.

De verschillende schalen (bijvoorbeeld mens, sociaal netwerk, stad, zie verder Hfdst. 15) hebben relaties die omhoog (revolutie, geel/blauw) en omlaag (herinneren/terugval, blauw/rood) springen.

Onderstaand plaatje toont het Panarchy-model geprojecteerd op het PoC-model.

Een aantal observaties:

(1) De Mobius-Ring toont zich hier ook,

(2) Er is een symmetrie tussen Blauw/Geel en Rood/Groen. Aangezien PoC een Quaternio is, zie je hier dat de opposities via de kruislijnen Groeien en Reorganiseren lopen. Groeien gaat van Dieptepunt naar Top en Reorganiseren gaat van Stijgen naar Dalen. Beiden gaan in tegengestelde richting Neer->Op vs Op->Neer, een Golf.

(3) Er is een symmetrie tussen Blauw/Rood (Analytic Game, Maken/Analyseren) en Geel/Groen (Emergence, Inzicht in Waarde, Waarde van een Inzicht).

Het Analytische Spel (Unity <-> Sensory) is een mensenspel. In een Ecologie wordt dit niet gespeeld. Het spel ontstaat via de terugkoppeling naar een hogere orde. Dat komt omdat we bij het Ontwerpen altijd veel te abstract denken en een aantal stappen terug moeten doen om de realiteit weer te bereiken. Thoht wordt altijd weer teruggefloten door Ma’at.

Taleb: “We have the illusion that the world functions thanks to programmed design, university research, and bureaucratic funding, but there is compelling — very compelling — evidence to show that this is an illusion.  Technology is the result of antifragility, exploited by risk-takers in the form of tinkering and trial and error.  Engineers and tinkerers develop things while history books are written by academics; we will have to refine historical interpretations of growth, innovation, and many such things. … The error of naive rationalism leads to overestimating the role and necessity of … academic knowledge, in human affairs — and degrading the uncodifiable, more complex, intuitive, or experience-based type”.

Het Spel van de “Emergence” (Mythic <-> Social) laat het gebeuren. Er  wordt niet gehandeld. Soms worden ideeen gewaardeerd (“brainstorm”) maar de grote vraag is of die ideeen echte ideeen zijn. In het algemeen zijn ideeen waarnemingen.

Andersom is het altijd goed inzicht te hebben in de waarde die mensen toekennen aan een proces of een calamiteit die het gevolg is van een gebeurtenis (Black Swan, Dragon King). In het laatste geval is er sprake van een hype en dient te worden opgelet dat de “fictieve” waarde niet te hoog wordt ingeschat.

Een Ecologie is een Autonoom (Natuurlijk) Proces en geen Mensenspel. Mensen hebben weinig invloed in de Ecologie behalve dat ze net als de andere organismen gebruik kunnen maken van de Ecologie en hem daarmee ten gronde kunnen richten door alles op te maken.

(4) Er is een “nieuw” type “Path-of-Change” ontstaan, een Ecologie/Ecologie-sprong dat via Revolutie (geel-sprong omhoog-blauw) en Herinner (Remember) van Blauw-sprong-omlaag-Rood loopt.

10. Menselijke uitdagingen

De mens (en zijn soortgenoten, de zoogdieren) heeft in zijn leven altijd te maken met existentiële levensproblemen.

Volgens Plutchik zijn dat er vier:

(1) Identiteit (herkennen, herhalen, accepteren, afstoten, isolatie, deelnemer, samenwerken): Als je niet kunt ontdekken wat hetzelfde is kun je nooit iets herhalen. Een persistente identiteit met bijbehorende kenmerken is een eerste vereiste om te kunnen samenwerken.

(2) Hiërarchie (aanvallen, ontsnappen): Hoe hoger hoe machtiger. Om te kunnen overleven moet het duidelijk zijn wanneer je moet vluchten en wanneer de kans groot is dat je wint.

(3) Tijdelijkheid (voortbestaan, reproductie, overdracht van kennis & ervaring (= inzicht), verschil, samenkomen, vertrekken, leven en dood, vieren, spel): Als er voor alles een einde is moet het mogelijk zijn om te reproduceren zowel lichamelijk als qua cultuur. Het slagen van een reproductie is een moment waarop men viert. Het einde van een existentie is een moment van droefenis. Reproductie herhaalt hetzelfde maar niet helemaal hetzelfde. Er is sprake van een afwijking of van verschil.

(4) Territorium (exploratie, oriëntatie, beschermen, grenzen, voorspelbaarheid, hulpbronnen, overschotten, markten): Een territorium is nodig om rust te hebben om hulpbronnen op te bouwen en te bewaken. Een territorium moet een duidelijke grens hebben en de overschotten en tekorten van een territorium moeten kunnen worden bewaard en verhandeld.

9. Menselijke verhoudingen

Deze problemen kunnen worden afgebeeld naar de vier relationele elementaire sociale relaties van Alan Fiske:

(1) Identiteit->Cummunal Sharing, groen,

(2) Hierarchie->Authority Ranking, blauw,

(3) Tijdelijkheid -> Equality Matching, geel en

(4) Territorium ->Market Pricing, rood.

De sociale relaties kunnen ook worden afgebeeld naar de vier wereldbeelden van PoC.

Die vier relaties van Fiske zijn vooraf gegaan door de agonistische en hedonistische samenleving, waarbij de eerste was gebaseerd op hiërarchie en conflict (territorium, oversprong-gedrag, mannelijk) en de ander op spel/cultuur (tijdelijkheid, vriendschap, vrouwelijk) en samenwerking (identiteit).

11. Menselijke Emoties

Plutchik is vooral bekend geworden door zijn 3D-model van de menselijke emoties. Het model bestaat uit vier primaire emoties met hun tegendeel:

(1) Vertrouwen vs Afkeer, groen,

(2) Angst vs Woede, blauw,

(3) Verrassing vs Waakzaamheid, geel en

(4) Vreugde vs Droefheid, rood.

In het plaatje wordt de intensiteit weergegeven.

Het model van Plutchik is afbeeldbaar op PoC en alle andere modellen die de revue hebben gepasseerd in deze blog. Het model is op vele manieren uitgetest en wordt bijvoorbeeld gebruikt bij het ontwerpen van robots.

12. De Menselijk Maat

Volgens de meettheorie is meten het maken van een afbeelding (f) van de buitenwereld (de meting, waarnemen),  het waarderen van de meting en het plaatsen van de afbeelding in een abstracte relationele wiskundige wereld (het netwerk-model, groen).

De wijze van afbeelden (de analyse, de methode, de functie f) mag geen invloed uitoefenen op het eindresultaat anders wordt het model veranderd (“bias”). Deze invloed, vertaalt in specifieke eisen wordt een schaal genoemd.

Alan Fiske ontdekte dat zijn theorie over de menselijke verhoudingen (zie Hfdst. 9) ook van toepassing is op de verhoudingen tussen de meetschalen. Mensen nemen naast objecten ook menselijke verhoudingen (een ratio) waar.

De vier schalen zijn ontstaan door “symmetry-braking“. Iedere volgende schaal beperkt de vrijheid van handelen op een formele manier.

In Communal Sharing is iedere combinatie van identiteiten toegestaan, terwijl Authority Ranking een bepaalde volgorde van deze entiteiten tolereert. Daarna wordt het verschil van de entiteiten (in de zin van afstand) toegestaan en als laatste mogen de verschillen alleen nog meer een eenheid zijn (meetlat).

De Ratio Schaal (Market Pricing) is vergelijkbaar met de Euclidische Geometrie, een ruimte waarin evenwijdige lijnen elkaar niet snijden. Het is de ruimte waarin we denken te leven als we dicht bij huis blijven. In werkelijkheid, als we vanuit de ruimte naar de aarde kijken zien we dat we op een bol leven en snijden de evenwijdige lijnen elkaar weer wel.

De meest vrije geometrie is de Projectieve Geometrie, die verbonden is met Communal Sharing en de Nominale Schaal. In dit geval bestaat de werkelijkheid alleen maar uit kruisende lijnen (een netwerk), waarbij een punt een kruispunt van twee lijnen is (in de N=2 dimensionale ruimte), een lijn een verbinding van twee punten en de onderliggende werkelijkheid een bol (of een anti-bol, een zadelvlak) is.

De symmetrie tussen punt en lijn wordt dualiteit genoemd en is een algemene eigenschap in alle projectieve ruimtes.

De gekromde ruimte is de ruimte van de relativiteitstheorie van Einstein, waarin er geen vast punt is en alles relatief ten opzichte van elkaar beweegt. Alles draait om alles. Communal Sharing is Agile en is de anti-these van Market Pricing.

De Ratio Schaal en de Euclidische Geometrie hebben vrijwel geen mogelijkheid om te transformeren. Ze zitten vast in hun eigen structuur. De werkelijkheid is lineair en de enige toegestane transformatie is vermenigvuldigen.

Market Pricing, de meest gebruikte sociale relatie op aarde, is daarom de meest rigide (anti-agile) en egoistische organisatievorm die er bestaat.

De Nominale Schaal (Communal Sharing (CS)) is een opsomming (bijv. de Politieke Voorkeur van Mensen).

De onderdelen van de schaal (de voorkeuren) kunnen in iedere willekeurige volgorde worden getoond (permutatie).

De deelnemers van een CS zijn voor elkaar inzetbaar en inhoudelijk vervangbaar (“functional redundant”).

Een CS is agile (flexibel) omdat iedere structuur via andere combinaties mogelijk is. CS is de basisvorm van de community.

Wiskundig staat de nominale schaal voor het behoud van de identiteit ( s1=s2 ⇔ f(s1) = f(s2), de permutatie groep).

In de Ordinale Schaal (Authority Ranking (AR)) zijn de onderdelen geordend  (bijv. kledingmaten).

De basis-relatie is baas-ondergeschikte. Deze relatie is complementair. De baas speelt zijn rol maar de onderschikte ook.

AR is fragiel omdat de rangorde ook een uniek pad van escalatie bepaalt. Je hebt aan een zet voldoende om de rest van de keten te raken. De ramp is voorgebakken in de ordening en kan door een kleine trigger in gang worden gezet (domino).

Wiskundig staat de ordinale schaal voor het behoud van orde (( s1< s2 ⇔ f(s1) < f(s2)). Deze orde wordt beschreven door monotoon stijgende functies.

De Interval Schaal (Equality Matching (EM), vriendschap) gaat over de verschillen tussen de waarden in de Ordinale schaal.

Voorbeelden zijn de temperatuur-schalen van Celcius en Fahrenheit die geen “echte” nul hebben omdat de verschillen ook negatief kunnen zijn (onder nul).

Bij EM streeft men naar evenwicht door verschillen te beperken (balans, reciprociteit). Iedere deelnemer levert een gelijkwaardige bijdrage. Er moet een evenwicht zijn tussen geven en nemen. EM is veerkrachtig.

Wiskundig gaat het hier om het behoud van verschil (s1 − s2 = s3 − s4 ⇔ f(s1) − f(s2) = f(s3) − f(s4)). Dit behoud wordt vertaald in de lineaire functie (f(x)= ax+b, a>0), vermenigvuldigen en optellen.

In de Ratio schaal (Market Pricing (MP)) zijn de verschillen altijd gestandaardiseerd op één waardoor de getallen in de schaal als Eenheid (meter, kilogram, sec,…) worden gebruikt en de waarde nul de laagste waarde is (Kelvin).

In MP is de relatie gebaseerd op een transactie waarin de partijen gelijkwaardige objecten ruilen. De prijs van het object is meestal gebaseerd op geld.

Relaties worden door middel van de transactie afgewikkeld en van te voren door een contract gedefinieerd. Ze zijn meestal kortstondig van aard.

MP is Anti-Agile. Ze is gemaakt om niet te veranderen (gestandaardiseerd).

Wiskundig gaat het om het behoud van ratio/verhouding: s1/s2 = s3/s4 ⇔ f(s1)/f(s2) = f(s3)/ f(s4). De functie f moet daartoe de vorm f(x)=ax aannemen.

13. Opnieuw Over Anti-Fragility

Er is veel reden om aan te nemen dat wat in Panarchy Revolt (Geel-sprong-vertraag-Blauw) wordt genoemd door Nassim Taleb Anti-Fragility (AF) wordt genoemd.

AF is de kunst om een enorme gefrustreerde diversiteit (mythic, geel) op een gezamenlijk doel (unitary, blauw) te richten. Dit gebeurt bij revoluties waarbij de gefrustreerde achtergestelde volksmassa (groen) de positie van de machthebbers (blauw) willen veroveren.

AF veroorzaakt een overgang tussen twee (eco-)systemen waarbij er een nieuwe hogere orde ontstaat.

De nieuwe orde heeft een lager ritme (trager) omdat ze de flexibiliteit van de lagere orde kwijt is geraakt en een grotere reikwijdte heeft.

Door de revolutie is de bureaucratie van de oude structuren opgevuld met de deelnemers die buiten de orde stonden. In wezen verandert er weinig (de ijzeren wet van de oligarchie).

De nieuwe orde heeft een ander concept gevonden voor de diversiteit die onder druk staat. Voorbeeld is de overgang van het eencellige naar het meercellige organisme dat in haar eencellige staat  tegen de stroom in moest gaan om voedsel te verzamelen en nu gewoon wacht tot de bruikbare hulpbronnen langskomen.

Zolang het nieuwe plan, model  alleen maar in de geest aanwezig is is het model schaal-onafhankelijk (“een visie of een filosofie”).

Zodra men het ontwerp gaat maken (Blauw/rood/-> maken) zal men terug moeten vallen op wat er is of nog veel moeten ontwerpen en bouwen (de “utopie”) om de complete ecologie vorm te geven.

Anti-fragility ontstaat als de onbalans in een Equality Matching-structuur (veerkracht) te groot wordt en de structuur weer naar zijn evenwicht wil terugspringen.

In zo’n geval zijn er drie mogelijkheden (1) de onderdelen gaan terug naar de oorspronkelijke AR (blauw) en worden opnieuw geordend (contra-revolutie) (2) de onderdelen gaan MP (standaardisatie, rood) doen en worden vertaald in (een aantal) eenheden of (3) ze verlaten de huidige ecologie en gaan naar een “hoger” liggende ecologie waar ze ook in een nieuwe AR terecht komen.

Het plaatje laat zien dat Veerkracht (Anti-Fragile) en Fragiel een categorie vormen en dat Agile en Anti-Agile een categorie vormen.Hierbij moet je je afvragen of Anti-Fragiel en Veerkracht niet hetzelfde zijn.

De eerste categorie (Fragiel, Anti-Fragiel) zijn een Vorm waarbij Fragiel een fysieke vorm is (een glas, materie, vast, “aarde”) en Anti-Fragiel een Idee (“lucht”, film, software, media).

Agile en Anti-Agile zijn Samenwerkingsvormen die een proces besturen. In het eerste geval (Anti-Agile) is het proces (een stroomlijn) gefixeerd (standaard, aarde/ijs). Het tweede geval (Agile) is heel flexibel (“water”). Alle paden van de bron stromen naar de zee.

14. Nassim Taleb over de Anti-Fragile Mens

In het boek Anti-Fragility staan een groot aantal “heuristieken”.

Een paar voorbeelden:

Be less dependent on external material objects

First remove the downside before you add more things to your life to make it better: Ruim eerst je troep op voordat je aan iets nieuws begint.

Seek out novelty: Try as many things as you can and keep your risk low: Dit is vergelijkbaar met de Bijbelse Spreuk “Onderzoekt alles en behoudt het goede”.

Many Small Risks can give a Big Win; Dit is de z.g. Barbell Strategy.

Get comfortable being uncomfortable:  Stop trying to be a Machine: Comfort is Not the Human Ideal:  Laat je nooit door anderen programmeren met redenen die een risicoloos bestaan garanderen. Uiteindelijk gaat er altijd iets mis of in de buitenwereld of in de binnenwereld en zul je moeten reageren. Als je daarin niet hebt geoefend ben je een willig slachtoffer.

Maintain your mobility;  Zorg  ervoor dat je altijd in beweging blijft en dus niet om wat voor reden ergens vast komt te zitten. Als je niet op tijd kunt vertrekken kun je getroffen worden door een ramp.

If you have more than one Reason to do something, Don’t Do it:  Dit heeft te maken met twijfel, motivatie en vooral ook onduidelijkheid (“elevator pitch”). Als er meerdere redenen zijn zijn er ook meerdere acties die nu nog door elkaar heen zitten.

Stop pretending you know so much about your future and structure yourself to take advantage of opportunities in the future. More Options, Less Plan: De toekomst is niet voorspelbaar dus plannen (voorspelbare acties) gaan altijd ergens mis. Als je dan geen alternatieve paden hebt zit je vast.

Evolution does not need narratives. Taking action now is the best thing to doDe natuur verzint niets. De natuur gebeurt. Er is niets op tegen om zomaar wat te doen en is te kijken wat de uitkomst is. Uitvindingen worden niet bedacht ze zijn vaak een gevolg van een fout of een andere kijk op hetzelfde.

Nimium boni est, cui nihil est mali:  The good is mostly in the absence of the bad: The quickest way to riches is to avoid becoming poor. The most effective way to health is to purge the unhealthy. The easiest way to be happy is to remove unhappiness. The fastest way to wisdom is to not be stupid: Het slechte en het goede hebben hun eigen domein. Ingewikkelde problemen moet je niet oplossen maar ze vermijden.

15. De Anti-Fragile Stad

Met behulp van PoC kunnen meerdere lagen van een Ecologie tegelijkertijd worden gemodelleerd. Bovenstaand plaatje toont een model van de Stad in vier lagen (Openbare Ruimte, Sociale Netwerken (verdeeld in Sub-netwerken), Bedrijfsleven (Waarde-ketens/cycli) en Bestuur. Iedere laag bestaat uit vier stappen waardoor er 16 (4×4) knooppunten zijn.

In bovenstaand plaatje wordt de Anti-Fragiele Stad getoond. Het Bestuur van de Stad is het resultaat van een groei-proces (zie Hfdst. 8) dat ontstaat vanuit het waarderen van de bedrijvigheid door het Sociale Netwerk. Het Bestuur van de Stad stuurt de Innovatie via de Creatieve Sector.

16. De Anti-Fragile Mens

Bovenstaand plaatje is een PoC-afbeelding van het MBTI (Myergs Briggs)-model van de Menselijke Persoonlijkheid. MBTI is een interpretatie van de archetypen van Jung die zijn samengevat in het Quaternio.

Het model bestaat uit drie delen:

(1) Observator: Observator-In-de-wereld= Judging vs Observator-Boven-de-wereld = Perceiving.

De observator is een hogere (of lagere) (fractale) vorm van de Quaternio.

(2) Rotatie: Extravert (Met-de-klok-mee-draaien) vs Introvert (Tegen-de-klok-draaien) en

(3) Een 2-combinatie zonder herhaling van de vier “organen”

(a) Thinking (T, Unity, Denken, Blauw),

(b) Sensing (S, Sensory, Waarnemen/Actie, Rood),

(c) Feeling (F, Social, Emoties, Groen) en

(d) Intuiting (N, Mythic, Verbeelding, Geel).

Je bent Anti-Fragiel als je met de Verbeelding (Inzicht, N) een Sprong maakt naar een Ordening (Thinking, T) die boven de Mens uitstijgt (in het domein van de Observator). Hierbij heb je de keuze om in de Lucht te springen (omdat er niets kan worden gemaakt) of om aan te sluiten met wat nu is. Hierbij moet je vaak weer een paar lagen terug gaan om de aansluiting te vinden.

De kortste weg tussen Waarnemen en Anti-Fragiel is om zowel de Emoties (waarderen) als het Denken (waarheid) te negeren. Het gaat hier om “zien” met de verbeelding (“het derde oog”, inzien).

17. Over de Magier

Thoth and the Human represented by the Ape. The Ape uses the Eye of Horus (the third Eye) to look at Thoth

Het derde oog doet me erg veel denken aan de  Magier (Thoht) die de Veerkracht van  de Creativiteit (Equality Matching, het Verschil, de Creatieve Spanning, de Levenskracht) gebruikt om het Universum een stap verder te brengen waarbij Ma’at er voor zorgt dat die stap een haalbaar stapje is.

Mijn favoriete tovenaar is Don Juan een magier uit de Toltec-traditie die in de boeken van Carlos Castaneda zijn leerling, Carlos, leert om van de Tonal (het bekende, het talige) naar de Nagual (“het onbekende”, de anti-fragiele wereld) te springen. De Nagual is een hoger dimensionaal gebied waar de tovenaar kan toveren wat hij wil.

Hierbij is het opvallend dat veel van de aanbevelingen van Nassim Taleb in de boeken van Carlos Casteneda terug te vinden zijn wanneer Don Juan Carlos uitlegt hoe hij een impeccable  “warrior” kan worden:

The attributes of a warrior are ruthless, cunning, patience and sweetness. The fifth element is not a personal one: timing. With those tools he faces every day life. Ruthless is not cruelty but a lack of self pity. Patience is waiting without rushing. Cunning is to distract the mind from the real issue, so it won’t interfere with the process. Sweetness is simply being nice. Timing is the ability of the warrior to use those four qualities at the right time. The warrior aims to be impeccable in whatever he does, but never takes himself and his actions too seriously, considering them as controlled folly. He acts with sustained effort and unbending intent in order to raise his level of energy.

A warrior lives by acting, not by thinking about acting, nor by thinking about what he will think when he has finished acting.

LINKS

Over de Adaptive Cycle (zie Panarchy)

Een hele uitgebreide Engelse samenvatting van het boek Anti-Fragility

Over Polarity Management

Over het Viervoudige (Quaternio)

Waarom Neurale Netwerken op het Universum lijken

Een lange lijst van vierluiken

About Anti-Fragility (in English)

Over Magie

Over Alchemie

Over de Evolutie van de Schoonheid

Over Ma’at

Over Synchronisatie

Over Don Juan & Tales of Power

Samenvatting boeken Castaneda

Over de Community of Practice (in Dutch)

Deze blog bevat een presentatie over de Community of Practice (CoP). Een CoP is een verzameling mensen die ervaring delen.

Opvallend is dat de zuivere Community of Practice niet voorkomt. Dat komt omdat men Kennis (Theorie) en Ervaring (Praktijk) door elkaar haalt.

De verwarring ontstaat omdat men de theorie als “dwingende” ervaring ziet. De theorie is foutloos. De gebruikers van de theorie maken fouten die worden veroorzaakt door tekortkomingen bij de gebruiker en niet in de theorie.

Doordat de gebruiker volgens de regels werkt en het mislukken van de regels door de gebruiker komt en niet door de regels wordt de theorie niet aangepast en worden de mislukkingen geaccepteerd totdat het systeem zich volledig volgens de regels gedraagt.

Het idee dat de praktijk ondergeschikt is aan de theorie is ontstaan in de Verlichting, een periode die samenvalt met de 18de eeuw.

In die tijd werd de verbeelding (het creatieve) teruggebracht tot de fantasie en werden de emoties (die waarderen) gezien als een geestelijk probleem (“hysterie“). Het enige wat telde was de ratio die werd vertaald in logisch redeneren.

In de verlichting ontstond de conduit-metafoor, een model waarbij communicatie een proces is waarbij conduits (objecten, containers) worden uitgewisseld die door iedereen te begrijpen kennis bevatten.

Dit in tegenstelling tot de toolmaker-metafoor waarin de mens zijn waarheid toont in zijn handelen (“The Truth of the Pudding is in the Eating“, (Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote (1615))).

Er zijn vier uitspraken over Waarheid mogelijk:

(1) De waarheid van een theorie is objectief.

(2) De waarheid van een theorie is gebaseerd op de waarneming van dat wat gebeurt (een feit is een gebeurtenis (een geboorte)).

(3) De waarheid van een theorie is een mening, een waardering: “If we have Analyzed Judgment, we have solved the problem of Truth” (F.P. Ramsey, Fact and Propositions, 1927). Wat (belangrijke) mensen vinden (zoals de Paus of een Hoogleraar) is waar.

(4) De waarheid van een theorie is het gevolg van een persoonlijk inzicht. Vaak het resultaat van een waarom-vraag. Wat ik geloof is waar.

De vier kijken op de waarheid  kunnen worden ondergebracht in een vierluik wat door Jung een Quaternio werd genoemd. Een Quaternio bestaat uit twee tegendelen en twee complementen.

Een Inzicht is het gevolg van een uitzicht, een waarneming die in een waargeving resulteert (Waar -> Weer, Beeld, Idee).

De waarheid is objectief (context-vrij) en subjectief (wat anderen er van vinden, context-afhankelijk).

Ervaring is wat de mens al doende in de werkelijkheid als afwijking van zijn eigen theorie, zijn Verwachting (Overtuiging), meemaakt. Ervaring is een persoonlijke reflectie op het persoonlijk handelen.

Een Community of Practice (CoP) lijkt erg veel op het Middeleeuwse Gilde met als groot verschil dat lokatie geen rol meer speelt zodat een Gilde niet meer bij een Stad hoeft te  horen maar in theorie wereldwijd kan opereren.

Door de enorme schaal die nu optreedt is het vrijwel onmogelijk om een eenduidig definitie voor een gilde te formuleren waardoor er veel communities zijn die min of meer hetzelfde gebied betreffen.

Dit is voor een deel opgelost door de gildes om te zetten in Internationale Standaard/Beroeps Organisaties die zich bezig houden met het ontwikkelen van Normen. Normen zijn theorieen die door een groep mensen worden geaccepteerd.

De belangrijkste factor in een Gilde is het Delen van Fouten waardoor de Theorie van de Gezellen kan worden verbeterd. In de huidige tijd hebben mensen erg veel moeite met het delen van Fouten omdat Fouten maken wordt gezien als Falen.

De werkwijze om een eerste versie van een CoP op te zetten lijkt erg veel op het ontwikkelen van een Expert-Systeem, waarbij de Meesters en Gezellen de Experts zijn en de Fouten (Failures) door de leerlingen worden geleverd.

Aangezien iedereen een leerling is geweest kan iedereen een relatie leggen tussen een veelgemaakte fout en een oplossing van de fout.

In het algemeen maken mensen steeds weer dezelfde fouten als ze met een beroep beginnen behalve als de fout structureel in het ontwerp- en bouwproces is geadresseerd.

Op dit moment bestaan er miljoenen communities die kunnen worden getypeerd door de Menselijke Persoonlijkheid die een combinatie is van Kennis (Wikipedia), Ervaring (Praktijk), Relaties (Sociaal, Facebook) en Creatief (Inzicht, Interesse, Linkedin).

Een Gilde is een productie-systeem. In een product-systeem loopt de Cyclus rechtsom. Linksom gaat het om een consumptie-systeem. Beiden systemen houden elkaar in evenwicht bij het Hart (Communion/Wij).

Wat nu volgt zijn de sheets van de presentatie met toelichting in presentatievorm.

Het laatste plaatje voor de samenvatting laat zien dat er twee manieren zijn om de cyclus te doorlopen n.l. met de klok en tegen de klok. De eerste is de productie-cyclus en de tweede is de consumptie-cyclus.
LINKS
Waarom persoonlijkheden eigenlijk een leersttrategie zijn.
Waarom de theorie altijd klopt en gebruikers die het niet snappen dom zijn.
Over de relatie theorie & praktijk
Over de Community of Practice met betrekking tot Verslaving en Burn-Out
Over Gilden (in de Gezondheidszorg)
Over Schalen (Constructal Law)
Over Schalen (Perspectief)
Over Schaal-vrij (Scale-Free)
Over Onkwetsbaarheid (Anti-Fragility)

About Alchemy and Logic

This blog is about Logic, Alchemy and the relationship between Logic and Alchemy.

Classic Logic is based on the Square of Opposition of Aristotle. This square was discussed for more than 2000 years. Recently scientists detected that the Square is really a Cube. It misses an extra dimension.

The Square describes  the six oppositions (“dual combinations”) of possibility (“some”, Particular Affirmative), necessity (“all”, Universal Affirmative), not-possibility (“not some”, Particular Negative) and not-necessity (“not all”, Universal Negative).

Geometric Logic is a part of Modal Logic which is a part of Logic.

In Geometric Logic the Linguistic Representations of Logic are mapped to the Graphical Representations of Geometry.

Modal Logic works with the notion that propositions can be mapped to sets of possible worlds.

The idea of possible worlds is attributed to the famous mathematician Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716), who spoke of possible worlds as ideas in the mind of God and argued that our actually created world must be the best of all possible worlds. Possible worlds play an important role in the explanation of Quantum Mechanics.

Alchemy is based on the Square of the Four Elements. The Four Elements are oppositions. The oppositions of Alchemy are related to the oppositions of the Square of Opposition of Aristotle in an orthogonal model. They form an arc of 90 degrees, which makes Alchemy the complex part (imaginary) of Logic.

In his work De Arte Combinatoria Leibniz developed a general theory of science that was based on a fusion between Alchemy and Logic.

The four Elements of Leibniz
The Square of Leibniz

In this blog I will explain Alchemy and Logic and show that Alchemy and Geometric Logic share the same geometry, the Hexagon (the Seal of Solomon), which is a 2D-mapping of the Cube of Space of the Sefer Yetsirah.

Leibniz calculating machine
Drawing of Leibniz’s calculating machine, featured as a folding plate in Miscellanea Berolensia ad incrementum scientiarum (1710), the volume in which he first describes his invention.

About Alchemy

When thou hast made the quadrangle round, 
Then is all the secret found. 
George Ripley (d. 1490).

One of the most complicated ancient architectures is the architecture behind Alchemy. The architecture of Alchemy is full of strange concepts and allegories.

Alchemy comes from the Arabic al-khemia meaning the Black Soil of Egypt (or the ((Egyptian) Black Art). Alchemy is the art of transformation.

Alchemy is an ancient science that was practiced all over the world. The most famous teacher was called Hermes Trismegistus in Greece and Thoth in Egypt. The old science of Hermes came back in the Renaissance.

The essence of Alchemy is called REBIS (Res Bina), Double Matter. REBIS is the end product of the alchemical magnum opus or Great Work. It is the Fusion of Spirit and Matter (the Body). Spirit is the Creative Part of the Human.

Double matter is sometimes described as the divine hermaphrodite, a being of both male and female qualities as indicated by the two heads within a single body.

The Great Work is the chemical and personal quest to create Double Matter, the Philosopher’s Stone, Spirit in Matter.

The Stone is the agent of chemical transmutation, and the key ingredient in the creation of the elixir of life, said to heal all diseases, induce longevity and even immortality.

In current Physics  transmutation is proved at room temperature in a proces called Cold Fusion.

In Physics one explanation for the fusion between Quantum Mechanics and Gravity is called the Wheeler Feynman Absorber Theory. In this theory the Future causes the Past and vice-versa. We are always in the Now, the Middle between Past & Future.

The Future and the Past are created by the Intention of the Observer, we call Measurement.

The Philosopher Stone
The Philosopher Stone

The aim of the Great Work is a fusion with the One (the Blazing Star, Saturn, Point) that is divided in the Two (Sun & Moon, Male & Female, Line) and the Four Planets (Square), the 12 (4×4-4) Constellations or more structures based on a power of a power (of a power….)  of 2. The Great Work moves from 2**N, …., Sixteen to Four to Two to One (or from one to two to four) in a Spiraling Spiral Motion.

The Spiraling Spiral in Chartres Cathedral
The Spiraling Spiral in Chartres Cathedral

The One, to which the elements must be reduced, is a little circle in the center of the squared figure (the cross). The cross is the mediator, making peace between the opposition of the planets.

The First Matter is the primordial chaos comparable to what we now call the vacuum, the state of lowest energy. This state contains all possibilities.

It can be looked on as an unorganized state of energy  that is the same for all substances and exists in an invisible state between energy and matter.

The First Matter is the One, the Point in the Middle of the Circle. In current physics a point is called a singularity or a black hole.

Alchemy is about Recombination

Alchemy is about re-combination summarized in the Latin expression Solve (break down in separate elementset Coagula (coming back together (coagulating) in a new, higher form).

Solve and Coagula
Solvite Corpora et Coagulata Spiritus (“dissolve the body and coagulate the spirit”).

Earth (Body) becomes Water (Spirit) by dissolving it in some solvent. Water becomes Air (a moist vapor) by boiling, which further heating turns into Fire (a dry vapor).

Finally Fire becomes Earth by allowing the vapors to condense on a solid material (a stone).

The circulation may repeat if it is done in a reflux condenser, such as the Pelican or kerotakis.

The Pelican is the Symbol of the Heart Chakra the connector between the Upper- and the Lower Triangle of the Body.

Kerotakis
Destillation

According to the early alchemists, the four elements—fire, water, air, and earth—come into existence via the combination of specific qualities, recognized as hot, cold, wet, and dry, being impressed on to the Prime Matter. For example, when hot and dry are impressed on the Prime Matter, we have fire.

(Hot and Cold) and (Wet and Dry) are oppositions. Their fusion is the empty set.

(Hot or Cold) and (Wet or Dry) can be combined -> (Hot, Wet), (Hot, Dry), etc.

The Cold allows substances to get together. The Hot is the power of separation.

Wet things tend to be Flexible (Fluent, Movement, Self, Not-Agency) whereas Dry things are fixed and structured (Agency, Resistance, not-Movement).

When the qualities are changed, the elements themselves are changed. Adding Water to Fire substituting wet for dry; hot and dry becomes hot and wet: steam, or Air.

As you can see in de picture below Hot & Cold and Wet and Dry are Binary Opposites (“lines”) that are voided by the central cross, the point of the Empty Set, The Void (A and not-A -> Empty).

Hot & Dry = Fire, Hot & Wet = Air, Cold & Wet = Water and Cold & Dry = Earth.

There are four types of Trinities the Passion-trinity (Dry, Wet, Warm), the Structure-trinity (Dry, Wet, Cold), the Resistance-trinity  (Warm, Cold, Dry) and the Movement-trinity (Warm, Cold, Wet).

The Square rotates. The wheel of the Square is driven by the four qualities. Wet on the rising side, Hot on the top, Dry on the descending side, and Cold on the bottom.

The start is powerless (Cold). By becoming more flexible (Wet) success and power comes (Heat).  At the top Rigidity (Dry) undermines the system and it falls back to a powerless state.

The Four Triangles
The Four Elements arise out of the Quintessence, The Fifth Element, The Symbol of The Heart Chakra, the Seal of Solomon

The four Elements all share the Triangle of the Holy Trinity. Every Trinity is seen from another perspective.

The two triangels, The Up-triangel and the Down-Triangel, are Opposites that are created out of two triangels that contain two Opposites that are fused. Humans are opposites in opposition.

Humans are FourFold

Humans are part of the Bilateria,  animals with bilateral symmetry.

Humans can be described as a fusion of two mirrored bilateral triangles, the Up-triangel related to the Top of the Body (Mind) and the Bottom-triangel of the lower Body both connected by the Heart. The two triangels and the separate triangels have to be balanced.

The principle of Balancing the two Triangles of Top & Bottom of the Body is represented by the Egyptian Goddess Ma’at who weights the Heart (the connector of Up and Down) of the Dead with her Feather (Nothing).

The Balance of Ma'at
The Balance of Ma’at

As you can see the Square of the Cycle of the Four Elements is visible in the picture below. The total picture shows a Hexagram with a Center (The Cross).

The points that are missing in the Square are the top- and the bottom of the two triangels which are the Whole (Up, Heaven) and the not-Whole, Emptiness, the Bottom (Hell).

The Seal of Solomon
The Seal of Solomon

A hexagon is a 2D-projection of a Cube.

The hexagon of Solomon can be transformed into the Cube of Space of the Sefer Yetsirah.

Cube of Space
Cube of Space

The Cube of Space can be transformed into the Tree of Life. The Tree of Life also called the tree of knowledge or world tree  connects heaven and underworld and all forms of creation and is portrayed in various religions and philosophies all over the world.

The Spiral of Alchemy is about the Chemical Transformation of the Body by the Conceptual Transformation of the Mind.

The Tree of Life shows the levels/scales (three) and possible paths of the Opus Magnum, the alchemical journey.

About Truths for a Fact and Truths for a Reason

People have always believed in the fundamental character of binary oppositions like Hot & Cold and Wet & Dry are used in Alchemy.

In this part we move to the Field of Logic. In this case Hot/Cold and Wet/Dry transform into Necessary /Not-Necessary and Possible/not-Possible.

Chemical Wedding (Union of Opposites)
Chemical Wedding (Marriage of Opposites)

Oppositions can be divided in:

  1. Digital oppositions, contradictories, contain mutually exclusive terms (Gender (Male/Female)).
  2. Analogue oppositions, antonyms  or contraries: contain terms that are ordered on the same dimension (Temperature (Minimum->Cold/maximum->Hot)).

Square of Opposition
Square of Opposition

The doctrine of the square of opposition originated with Aristotle in the fourth century BC and has occurred in logic texts ever since.

The logical square is the result of two questions: Can two things be false together? Can two things be true together?

This gives 4 possibilities: no-no: contradiction (A/O, E/I); no-yes: subcontrariety (I/O); yes-no: contrariety (A/E); yes-yes: subalternation (A/I, E/O) better known as implication (A->B).

The four corners of the square represent the four basic forms of propositions recognized in classical logic:

  1. A propositions, or universal affirmatives take the form: All S are P.
  2. E propositions, or universal negations take the form: No S are P.
  3. I propositions, or particular affirmatives take the form: Some S are P.
  4. O propositions, or particular negations take the form: Some S are not P.

The square of opposition was debated for many reasons for more than two thousand years.

One of the discussions is about the difference between possible and necessary. In the so called Master Argument Diodorus proved that the future is as certain and defined as the past. The essence of logic (necessaty) implies the non-existence of freedom (possibility). X is possible if and only if X is necessary.

The term ‘possible’, in Aristotle’s view, is ambiguous. It has two senses known as one-sided possibility and two-sided possibility (or contingency). Being two-sided possible means being neither impossible nor necessary, and being one-sided possible simply means being not impossible.

Leibniz distinguished between necessary Truths for a Reason, which are true for a reason—i.e, their opposite is a contradiction—and contingent truths, (Truth for a Fact) such as the fact that the president of France is François Hollande. A contingent truth cannot be proved logically or mathematically; it is accidental, or historical (based on facts (events)).

About Geometric Logic and n-dimensional “Squares” of Opposition 

Modal Logic is about the fusion of necessity and possibility, contingency.

Logical Hexagon
Logical Hexagon

In Modal Logic the propositions are modelled in a logical hexagon where:

  1. A is interpreted as necessity: the two propositions must be either simultaneously true or simultaneously false. A is a Proof or Law.
  2. E is interpreted as impossibility. E is an Observation that contradicts the Proof of A.
  3. I is interpreted as possibility:  the truth of the propositions depends on the system of logic being considered . I is an Idea implied by the Proof that Contradicts E.
  4. is interpreted as ‘not necessarily’. O contradicts A.
  5. U is interpreted as non-contingency: neither logically necessary nor logically impossible, its truth or falsity can be established only by sensory observation.
  6. is interpreted as contingency: propositions that are neither true under every possible valuation (i.e. tautologies) nor false under every possible valuation (i.e. contradictions). Their truth depends on the truth of the facts that are part of the proposition. Y is a possible proven theory.

The Logical Hexagon has the same geometry as the Seal of Solomon. It contains the Square of Opposition (A,E,I,O).

The Logical Hexagon can be transformed just like the Seal of Solomon to the Cube of Space now called The Cube of Opposition.

The Logical Hexagon is used in many fields of Sciences like Musical Theory or Scientific Discovery.

The Hexagon of Opposition based on Musical Theory
The Hexagon of Opposition is used in Musical Theory

Every opposite can be defined by a string of zero’s and one’s like 1010. An opposite is 0101. This means that there are 2**4/2 = 4×4/2= 16 / 2 = 8 possible opposites. This is called the Octagon of Opposites.

The Octagon contains six reachable and two unreachable points in the Center (0000, 1111), the Empty Set (the Void, the Hole, Contradiction) or its Opposite (The Whole, Tautology).

Logical Geometry
Logical Geometry

The rhombic dodecahedron RDH with the standard bitstring decoration
Octagon of Opposition

It is clear that it must be possible to create higher dimensional models based on n-based-logics.

When n becomes very big the geometry will tend to a n-Dim circle in which every point is in opposition to the point at the other side.

The big problem with n-based logics is language. We don’t have the names to articulate the many grades of opposition that are possible.

The other problem is that a negation is not a symmetric operation (A = not-not-A) but a rotation with an angle 360/n.

The n-opposite-geometries are highly related to Simple Non-Abelian Groups (SNAGs). They play an important role in biology.

The last step is to transform the static n-opposite geometries by making n very large (infinite) to a dynamic “opposition field”.

Related Models

In current Psychology Hot & Cold are called Communion and Moist & Dry, Agency. Together they create the so called Interpersonal Circumplex.

Interpersonal Circumplex

The four stages of Learning by Jean Piaget.

The mathematical model behind the theory of Piaget is called the Klein Four Group or Identity/Negation/Reciprocity/Correlation-model.

Piaget

INRC-model of Piaget
INRC-model of Piaget

In the Science of Ecology (Panarchy) Agency & Communion are called Connectedness and Potential. The Panarchy model looks like a Mobius Ring.

panarchy model
panarchy model

A model that describes the Four Perspectives on Security:

Quaternity

The Semiotic Square of Greimas:

Semiotic Square
Semiotic Square

The Chinese Sheng-Cycle: The Chinese Five Element Model is comparable to the Western Four Element model. It contains as a Fifth Element, the Whole-Part-relationship (Earth, Observer State). Emptiness (Nothing, the Tao) is represented by the recursive Pentangle inside.

The Sheng Cycle

Tetralemma (Ancient Indian Logic)
Tetralemma (Ancient Indian Logic)

The lesson

When thou hast made the quadrangle round, then is all the secret found“.

When You have moved once through the Cycle you have seen Everything there is to See. The only way to move out of the Cycle is to jump into the wHole in the Middle.

The secret: It is impossible to move though the center because the paths that go through the center are a contradiction or a tautology (I am what I am, JHWH).

We have to move with the Cycle (making the rectangle round (a circle)), around the Singularity (the Hole of the Whole), going Up and going Down all the time.

The only way to solve this problem is to join the opposites by accepting only one thruth-value, by:

  1. Accepting everything (Wu Wei),
  2. Denying everything (Stoics) or
  3. Diminishing the amount of dimensions (“becoming Simple”, “like Children”) by moving up in abstraction (Hot & Cold -> Temperature -> Everything is Energy) to the level of zero dimensions, a point, becoming One with the First Matter (Tao, Vacuum, The Kingdom).

“If we then become children, would we thus enter the kingdom?” Jesus said unto them, “When ye make the two one, and when you make the inside like unto the outside and the outside like unto the inside, and that which is above like unto that which is below, and when ye make the male and the female one and the same, so that the male no longer be male nor the female female; then will ye enter into the kingdom.” (Gospel of Thomas, Logion 22).

LINKS

About the History of Cycles (in Dutch)

About the Geometry of Negation

About the Logic of Music

About Wu Wei

About Modal Logic

About the Cube of Opposition

About Logical Geometry

About the Square of Religion

Semiotics for Beginners

About Holonomic Alchemy

About Paths of Change

About the Sheng Cycle

How to use the Square of Opposition as a Research Tool

About the Cube of Space of  Sefer Yetzirah

About Truth of Reason and Truth of Fact

Why Humans are Toolmakers

About Chemical Transformation (Cold Fusion)

About the Ars Generalis Ultima of Ramon Lull (1305)

About the Six Domains of  the Polynomic System of Value

About the Logic of Creation

About Leibniz Calculating Machine

About Zero Dimension 

Why Innovation is Re-Combination

How to Balance the Seal of Solomon

About Interpersonal Theory 

About Panarchy

About the Hexagon of Opposition

About n-based logics

About Flow-Systems

Anti-Fragility and the Square of Opposites

An Introduction to Hexagonal Geometry

 

About Autarky

The amount of local cooperative energy-companies in the Netherlands (in 2012) is increasing. It all has to do with the decrease of the price of solar-sells but there is more at stake.

Local energy-companies are part of a movement aimed at Autarky. Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient.

The word Autarky comes from Greek αὐτάρκεια (autárkeia), itself from αὐτός (autós) = self and ἀρκέω (arkéo) which in its passive form means be satisfied, content or “Out of my own Power“.

The need to become self-sufficient has certainly to do with the current economic-, ecological- and energy crisis. People are afraid that the supply of vital energy and food will suddenly stop or become priceless. This is not the only reason.

Some people think we are wasting our money, food and energy by producing nondurable throw-away goods in which the packaging is sometimes more important than the content. They want to create durable products and services. This is not the only reason.

Some people don’t trust the suppliers of their food and energy, their politicians and/or the caretakers of their savings, the banks, anymore. They believe that their food is intentionally manipulated, their savings are wasted, their country is sold out to the rich and their environment is polluted for just one simple reason, Greed, the opposite of “Being Satisfied”.

The people of the autarkic movement want to recreate the necessary functions (bank, energy, food, work, healthcare, government) themselves in a cooperative way in their own living context.

Atmospheric Energy Diagram
Atmospheric Energy Diagram

The local cooperatives  are now joining on a higher (mostly country) level and are  in need of a shared (real-time)infrastructure. The current infrastructure does not support flows that move between many participants (so called peer-to-peer-networks).

The current system is a Hierarchic Top Down System containing Huge Highways that are connected to Big Production-facilities. This makes it impossible to consolidate, share and distribute resources peer-to-peer on a local level.

The Electric Highway

The Top Down System has created Global Markets where the local production is sold  to the highest bidder.

The Global Markets are the playing field for advanced speculators that make a lot of money. After the deal is made the local production is transported to a far away destination. That is the reason why the Top Down Systems are integrated in world-wide Logistic Systems.

If we want to coordinate all the local initiatives we need advanced systems that Up- and download, control, predict, connect, share, balance and distribute vital local resources on the short and long term.

The Panarchy Cycle of an Ecology
The Panarchy Cycle of an Ecology

Examples of these systems can be found in “crowd funding“, “virtual power plants”  and “treasury management” (balancing many small amounts of Money at the short and long term).

In Nature we find comparable (Fractal) Distribution-Systems in the Lungs, the Arteries, Riverdelta, the Weather Cycle and Ecologies.

All of these fysical Flow Systems, that map 1 Resource-> on Many Resources or Many Resources->on 1 Resource,  are based on the third Law of Thermodynamics called Constructal Law.

Virtual Power Plant
Virtual Power Plant

In the philosophy of the Stoics and Cynics of Ancient Greece the perfect human was not only arete (“all-around excellent”) but also independent of every need. Arete was associated with a full life as a citizen of a city.

Later Spinoza (“On Human Freedom“), Rousseau and David Thoureau (Walden) have developed their own autarkic philosophy.

Autarky was the ideal of a complete man who needed no one and no organization. This ideal can also be found in Zen Buddhism, Taoist practise, Early Christians (Nazarites), the Catholic Order of the Franciscans and the Protestant Quakers.

In reality it is almost impossible to be completely self-sufficient as a lonely human being. We need others when we are young, sick and old and we need others because we are specialized (“Talented”). Autarky is a possible aim for a small community.

Resource Balancing in Nature (Lungs, RiverDelta)
Resource Balancing in Nature (Lungs, RiverDelta)

The religious, cultural and political movements at the left and the right aimed at living the “good life” (“Living Slow“) are converging in  the movement of the Cultural Creatives. The Cultural Creatives are the new Elite that is moving to the AND-state (Left AND Right).

They don’t believe in the old Competitive Ideologies (Socialist, Capitalist, Religious, Liberal, Nationalist, Conservative, Globalist, etc..) but want  to focus on the Shared Collaborative Values between all Humans. We all need Love, Food and Shelter.

The Stoic Zeno shows the Doors to Truth and False
The Stoic Zeno shows the Doors to Truth and False

Autarky has always been a major political aim of countries. Autarky is about the possibility to control your own future and to become independent of other powers that could use your dependency to tell you what to do to get what you desperately want.

At this moment the shortage of fossil fuels, especially oil and gaz, is used to influence the policy of other countries and is the cause of local conflicts in the Middle East.

China is buying all kinds of vital materials to make sure their economy will not become dependent on others. If they will succeed and nobody doubts about that, they will become the economic controlling power of the world.

Reaching a state of local autarky, being satisfied with what your environment provides you, has become the aim of the wordwide sustainability movement.

Total autarky is possible when you want to live as a stoic or a survivalist. Most people accept a more simple living, move off-the-grid and build autonomous buildings that make use of  renewable energy.

Allotment Garden
Allotment Garden

Others start to farm in their own backyard, join an allotment garden or move back-to-the-land and practice sustainable agriculture.  To handle their surpluses and shortages independent  local markets are created that make use of  alternative currencies.

A strive for (regional) Autarky pushes the need to innovate to a higher level because not all regions contain the right materials, knowledge or experience to realize everything everybody needs. To become fully Autarkic the Production and Consumption Systems in the Region have to be based on simple concepts and parts that are available everywhere. Simple concepts are concepts that are easely copied.

The only way to combine Simple and Complex concepts is to use the Concept of Self-Reference (Fractals). The only way to make use of parts that are available everywhere is to make use of the Simple Building Blocks of Nature. A good example is the use of algea in food processing.

The concept of Autonomy not only plays an important role on the many levels of human (personal, organization, country) and animal society (Competitive vs Collaborative (Ants)). It is also a major subject in the research of (Second-OrderCybernetics (Control Theory).

Self Reproducing Systems
Self Reproducing Fractal Systems

Second Order Cybernetics is concerned with the Control of the System of Systems (the Meta-System). Hierarchy is not the solution to this problem because it leads to the logical problem of Infinite Regress (“Turtles on turtles on … all the way down”).

The Meta-System is controlling, reproducing and balancing itself by a Fractal Feedback-Cycle that moves Backwards (Consumption) and Forwards (Production).

The concept of Self-Reproduction is called Autopoiesis or Autocatalysis. The Design Philosophy of Cradle to Cradle is a good example of Autopoiesis.

A System is an Autarky if all its Levels are capable of Self-Reproduction.

If a human wants to become self-sufficient he has to accept and develop his own talent and find complementary people so he is able to create a Self-Reproducing Unit.

The smallest Self-Reproducing Unit in Human Society is the Family living in one House. This House has to produce more than enough Energy and the Garden has to produce more than enough food to support the Family.

Garden City (Culemborg, the Netherlands)
Garden City (Culemborg, the Netherlands)

If we cluster all these Self-Reproducing Families/Houses & Gardens in a small City the chances are high that the combined talents of the families will be able to supply every profession needed if the people of the city want to Live a Simple Life.

It is also possible that the surplusses and shortages of the families can be compensated by creating a Market on the level of the small City or one level higher, the Region.

An Autarkic Movement becomes an Aggressive Competitive Nationalistic Movement when the Citizens of the Country feel that their Country is plundered by outsiders and their Leaders promise to get it all back by expanding the Space to Live (“Lebensraum“) to facilitate everything that is needed.

This happened when Germany was preparing for War after the enormous reparation payments of 132 billion gold marks to the Winners of World War I.

The Autarkic Movement could also become a Peaceful Cooperative Social Movement like the Movement of Gandhi in India when the people accept the Good Life they already live and want to share the surpluses with others who are in a worse state.

LINKS

Dutch Report about Local Energy Companies (in Dutch)

About the house that produces his own energy (Passive House)

The Complete Book of Self Sufficiency

About Close-Loops Systems

About Smart Grids

About Anti-Fragility

About Fractal Distribution Systems

Jerry Rifkin: About the Distributed Economy

The John Seymour School for Self Sufficiency

About Entrainment

About the EU Policy of Smart Specialization of Regions

About Darwin and Collaboration 

About Artificial Life

About Smart Technology

About the Thermodynamics of Living Systems

About Worldviews (How to find Complementary People)

A City is an Organism

About the Viable Systems Model of Stafford Beer

About Garden City

Gandhi’s view on Capitalism

The Autarkic Dreams of Germany

 

About Intelligent Design

Thermodynamics, the Science of Heat, became an important science in the 19th century when physicists started to improve the Steam-Machine. This blog is about a recently discovered law of Thermodynamics called the Constructal Law.

The Constructal Law describes How Intelligent Systems emerge out of the Laws of Thermodynamics.

Heat is Random Motion

According to Thermodynamics the evolution of the universe has been characterized by an on-going transformation from a simple, restricted, highly condensed, homogeneous state (the Big Bang) to an increasingly complex, widely dispersed, dynamic, multipotent, granular diversity.

Energy always moves from High to Low Temperature. This is the main reason why most of the energy of Earth comes from our Sun.

With help of the Electro-Magnetic radiation of the Sun we call Light, plants, algae and bacteria transform simple molecules into complex organic structures (Biomass = Potential Chemical Energy) and store the energy of the Sun. Bacteria and Fungi brake up these structures, produce heat, reduce the complexity, and close the Cycle.

The Input of the Heat of the Sun has to be compensated by a comparable Output of Radiation otherwise Earth would be burned instantly. The difference between the Input and Output of Energy is transformed into Movements on Earth.

The Earth’s climate is a huge flow system. It circulates air and water from the tropics to the poles and back. These flows develop as air and water move from hot to cold regions, a result of variation in the heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun.

The Earth is not only heated by the Sun. The hot kernel of the Earth is surrounded by a small crust. At certain places on Earth and the Sea the rotating pool of the magma-ocean produces a lot of energy.

The Earth with its solar heat input, heat rejection, and wheels of atmospheric and oceanic circulation, is a heat engine without shaft. Its maximized mechanical power cannot be delivered, but is instead destined to dissipate through air and water friction and other forms of heat loss. It produces maximum power, which it then dissipates at a maximum rate.

The earth is wasting a lot of energy because the transmission of  most of its energy is not contained in a Tube-like-system.

The system maximizes the sum of the work done driving the planetary circulation, and the heat rejected back to space at the cold end of the heat engine.

When the speed of the planetary circulation is low, so are the turbulent losses. As speed increases, up to a certain point the sum of work done (circulation speed) and heat rejected also increasing until the turbulence starts to interfere with the circulation and  actually decrease the total of work done and heat rejected. That is the point, “the edge of turbulence”,  at which the system will naturally run.

Every flow system tries to find the perfect balance between movement and friction.

The biomass on Earth is direct or later (Oil, Gaz, Coal) consumed by all kinds of organisms. In Food-Webs Organisms are consumed by other organisms.

We, the Humans, describe the interaction of the organisms in the Food-Webs as a Struggle for Live, a Survival of the Fittest, but the flow of energy in the food webs could also be seen as an adaptive chain of chemical reactions that are performed in self-moving, self-reproducing chemical factories.

Energy is Potential Movement. The potential energy stored in the biomass on Earth is transformed into circular movement (kinetic energy). During this transformation Heat is produced. Heat is the waste produced by a restrained non-effective movement.

The energy of the Sun produces all kinds of movements on Earth. Examples are river-delta’s, our respiratory system and the weather-system.

Flow Systems that move from one  to many always look like a leaf or a tree
Flow Systems that move from One to Many always look like a Leaf or a Tree. Left a River Delta is shown. Right a picture of the Lungs is displayed.

According to Constructal Theory the generation of design (configuration, patterns, geometry, shape, structure, rhythm) in nature is a physical phenomenon that unites all animate and inanimate systems. Design in Nature always shows itself as systems that flow and improve themselves.  Systems improve themselves because the movement from chaos to order takes many discrete steps.

Biological organisms are flow systems. River basins are flow systems. A Tree is a flow system. The Traffic System is a flow system. The City of Paris is a flow system. The Financial Market is a flow system. The Internet is a flow system. A Proces-Manager is a flow system.

Flow Systems

All these flow systems must be structured (architecturally designed) in such a way that the currents that flow (Life Energy, Water, Air, Electricity, Gaz, People, Cars, Trains, Airplanes, Content, Money) increasingly get to where they need to go. This gives shape and structure to everything that evolves over time.

Flow Systems always remove the Resistance to the Flow themselves.

Constructal Law is formulated as follows: “For a finite-size system to persist in time (to live), it must evolve in such a way that it provides easier access to the imposed currents that flow through it.”.

Nature always provides Resistance to Change (Heat, Erosion, Friction) and this resistance is provided by the Systems of the Past. The current Order resists the potential Chaos of Free Moving Energy.

The Paths of Change of our Universe always move in the same way. The pattern looks like a Moebius Ring, the number 8, because this is the only way to cope with the polarity of the movements. In a Moebius Ring two Opposite Cyclic Movements are perfectly United.

A Moebius Ring is a 2D-structure that operates in 3D because it needs a Twist to operate.

According to Constructal Theory the Energy of the Sun creates two types of Systems called Engines and Brakes.

Engines are the most effective and efficient states in the evolution of our Universe. They have found the best way to cope with the resistance that is provided by the Brakes. Brakes are the old systems like trees, forests and natural or constructed dams that slow down the movement so the potential energy can be stored.

If the Energy of the Sun is not stored,  the Self-Reproducing Systems are unable to evolve to a higher level of organization.  If every Resistance would be gone the Flow-Systems would Flow in a Radial Pattern to every Direction possible.

If we remove the Natural Brakes (Forests, River-delta’s) the Expansive Flow-systems will take over control and the Smart Highly Improbable Next Generation Brake Systems, the Organisms would die.

We, the Humans, are here to Resist the Engines that give the Flow-Systems the opportunity to make Everything the Same. Every Thing has to become the Same because the Universe does not discriminate. Every configuration has the same chance to be alive.

Dependent on the type of flow there are standard solutions to the dualities that are provided by the eternal battle between engine (movement) and brake (not-movement).

Paris is a Flow System

The standard solution can be calculated using the Laws of Thermodynamics. Tree (or Leaf)-shaped fractal systems are for example the best solution for a One-to-Many (or Many-to-One) Flow. The Flow Systems always converge to these Shapes.

Our Earth is rotating, spinning and moving around our moving Sun. The influx of Energy on every area on Earth is changing all the time.

This means that every Flow-System on Earth has to adapt to the short term and long term changing Energy Input of the Sun.

The stability of a Flow-System, the Resistance to Change, is highly dependent on the Resilience of the System.

According to the theory of Panarchy the Resilience of a System is dependent on the Potential and the Connectedness of a System.

In  the Exploitation/Conservation phase of the Adaptive Panarchy-Cycle the Constructal Engines become more efficient (producing more Potential) and Connected. This means that the amount of possible paths in the River-delta of the System is reduced. This amount determinates the resilience of the system.

At the state of maximum production and maximum connection (conservation) the system is spending all its potential at self-reproduction and is highly vulnerable to external disturbances. At a certain moment when a disturbance destroys the majority of the paths the system collapses (release).

Revolt: A small Wildfire can destroy a complete Ecology

The bits and pieces, the components, of the scattered ecology are reassembled sometimes in a different way (reorganization) and the system starts again most of the time on a higher level of organization.

Kleiber’s law

Kleiber’s Law is an example of the Constructal Law. It shows the many levels of organization that have occured since the chemical factories of the bacteria started to work together. Kleiber’s Law can be extented to the level of the Community and the City.

The Panarchy Cycle is Self-Similar. It repeats itself on many Scales. The higher the scale the bigger the impact and the slower change takes place.

The Scales are interconnected. A huge disturbance on a lower scale (Revolt) can have an huge impact on a higher scale when both cycles are moving into the Release State.

A Slow moving High Level Cycle can help to restructure a fast moving cycle by providing the template of the way the components were originally assembled (its CommunityDNA) (Remember).

Constructal Law is a Law of Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics has evolved into a Statistical Theory called Statistical Mechanics. To calculate a probability you have to define the Space of all Possibilities of a System, the Phase Space.

When you don’t know what a system will look like it is impossible to calculate the Phase Space. To calculate the possibilities of Constructal Law you have to imagine the possible constructions of Mother Nature.

It is possible to play with Probability Theory without knowing the exact Phase Space. In this case you have to look at the probabilities of the probabilities. These probabilities are described by the Triangle of Pascal. Behind the Triangle of Pascal a new Triangular Structure shows itself. This pattern goes on and on until the primary Triangle of Creation, the Holy Trinity, is reached.

The Trinity is a combination of Desire (Mother, Female, Expansion, FLOW), Control (Father, Male, Compression, BRAKE) and the combination of both Expansion AND Compression also called the Void or the Tao. In Physics the Void is called the Vacuum or the Zero-Point-Field.

The Triangular Pattern behind the Triangle of Pascal

When we have moved back in time and have reached the state of the Trinity we are very close to the Big Bang. The Big Bang is a result of the Union of the Opposites (Yin/Yang, Male/Female, Matter/Anti-Matter, Expansion/Compression) that both came out of the Void.

The Vacuum is the Eternal Flow System of Creation. It contains everything that is possible even the impossible, the Empty Set.

The Tao is like a well: 

used but never used up.

It is like the eternal void:

filled with infinite possibilities.

It is hidden but always present.

I don’t know who gave birth to it.

It is older than God.

(Tao Te Ching 4)

According to Constructal Law every finite-size system must evolve in such a way that it provides easier access to the imposed currents that flow through it.

The Tao is the Channel of the Energy of Life. If Constructal Law is Right we have to give easier access to this Flow. We have to become the River to move to our final destination, the Sea of the Nothing.

LINKS 

A video about Constructal Theory

About the Higgs Field and the Big Bang

Why the Objects in the Universe are of Different Size

About Innovation and Thermodynamics 

About the Big Bang

About Friction

About the Big Freeze

About the Constructal Theory of David Deutsch

The Website about Constructal Theory

An Introduction into Constructal Theory

About Morphology

About Panarchy

About Kleiber’s Law

About Genetic Similarity Theory

Why a City is an Organism

About the Triangle of Pascal and the Holy Trinity

About the Holy Trinity

About Constructal Law and the Trinity

Attraction + Obstacles = Excitement 

About the Law of three & Gurdjieff

 

 

About Perspective

File:Reconstruction of the temple of Jerusalem.jpg
Medieval Perspective

Introduction

When we Look with our Eyes and not with our Mind we can See that Space looks very different from what we Think it is. In Our Space Parallel Lines meet at Infinity.

Around 1400 during the Renaissance Painters started to look at Space with their own Eyes and discovered the Rules of Perspective Drawing.

Between 1600-1800 Perspective Theory changed from a Theory of Art to a Theory of Mathematics called Projective Geometry.

It took 400 Years before a few Mathematicians realized that Projective Geometry was the Foundation of Mathematics and it took another 100 years before Projective Geometry started to influence Physics.

In 1908 Hermann Minkowski discovered that Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity could be analysed using Projective Geometry. Minkowski created a 4D Space-Time Metric Geometry in which he added one Time Dimension.

Many experiments now show that 4D-Space-Time  is not sufficient to incorporate what Time Really is.

The essence of Our Universe is Movement, Expanding Space,  and Movement = Space/Time (Space Divided By Time).

Both Time and Space are 3-Dimensional and represent a Different,  Reciprocal, Complementary (Dual), View on Movement.

We can move independently in Time OR Space and in Time AND Space (The Chronotope).

The Future is Expanding Space with Infinite Potential.

Time moves behind Space and Scales Space.

About Perspective Drawing

A Mathematical Theory of Perspective Drawing could only be developed when the Renaissance freed painters to depict Nature in a way closer to what they Observed.

In the Middle Ages Social Status was very important. Important People or Buildings were always emphasized.

In the Renaissance the Artists started to look with their own Eyes and Created Pictures where the Viewer looked through the Eyes of the Painter.

The Florentine architect Filippo Brunelleschi (1337-1446) studied Greek Geometry, developed a theory of perspective and undertook painting just to apply his geometry.

The first treatise, Della pittura (1435) by Leone Battista Alberti (1404-72) furnished most of the rules.

Alberti regarded mathematics as the common ground of Art and the Sciences. “To make clear my exposition in writing this brief commentary on painting,” Alberti began his treatise Della pittura, “I will take first from the mathematicians those things which my subject is concerned”.

Alberti stressed that “all steps of learning should be sought from nature“. The ultimate aim of an artist is to imitate nature.

Perspective Machine designed by Albrecht Durer

Alberti did not mean that artists should imitate nature objectively, as it is, but the artist should be especially attentive to beauty, “for in painting beauty is as pleasing as it is necessary“.

The work of art is according to Alberti so constructed that it is impossible to take anything away from it or add anything to it, without impairing the beauty of the whole.

Beauty was for Alberti “the harmony of all parts in relation to one another,” and subsequently “this concord is realized in a particular number, proportion, and arrangement demanded by harmony“.

Alberti’s thoughts on harmony were not new – they could be traced back to Pythagoras – but he set them in a fresh context, which well fit in with the contemporary Aesthetic Discourse.

IMAGE: Leonardo's perspectograph
The Perspectograph of Leonardo Da Vinci

One of the earliest Artists to produce a book on how to draw in perspective was Albrecht Dürer. As well as discussing geometric methods, he also illustrated his book with a set of woodcuts showing practical tools for accurate perspective drawing. Other Artists like Leonardo Da Vinci developed comparable tools.

About Projective Geometry

Projective Geometry formalizes one of the Central Principles of Perspective Drawing and of Human Perception: Parallel Lines Meet at Infinity.

In Euclidean geometry, constructions are made with Ruler (Line) and Compass (Circle). Projective Geometry only require a Ruler.

In Projective Geometry one Never Measures Any Thing, instead, one Relates one Set of Points to another by a Line.

Two projections of the same object.
Different Points of View

Alberti was the first to ask what two pictures have in common if two drawing screens are interposed between the viewer and the object, and the object is projected onto both resulting in two different pictures of the same scene.

The basic idea behind Linear Perspective is simple: in every painting an artist creates a “floor” or area of the painting where the figures and/or objects will be placed. The floor ends at a horizon line, and the horizon line has a Vanishing Point or Point of Convergence on it.

The artist then draws parallel lines radiating from the vanishing point outward. Images closest to the vanishing point should appear smaller and closer together, and images farthest from the vanishing point should appear larger and farther apart, giving the impression of depth and space in the painting.

Pappus of Alexandria ( 290 – 350), one of the last great Greek mathematicians of Antiquity, proved that that given one set of points A, B, C on a line, and another set of points a, b, c on another line, then the intersection points X, Y, Z of line pairs Ab and aB, Ac and aC, Bc and bC are also on a Line. This line originates at the Vanishing Point.

Pappus’ Theorem

Later Desargues (1591-1661) proved Pappus Theorem for Triangels. He proved that the three vertices of one triangle a, b, and c, and those of the other A, B, and C meet in a third point, and that these three points all lie on a common line called the Axis of Perspectivity.

Desargues’ theorem

Later Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) proved Pappus Theorem for Conics (Circles, Parabola, Hyperbola) in his  “Essay on Conics” (1640) when he was 16 years of Age.

Pascals Theorem

About the Four Points of the Cross-Ratio

Finally 400 years later in 1803 Lazare Carnot found the answer to the Question of Leone Battista Alberti.

In his book “Géométrie de Position” he proved that the so called “Cross-Ratio” is always preserved in a Projection with One Point of View.

The Cross-Ratio

The Cross-Ratio is the Ratio of the Ratio of the Four Points A,B,C,D lying on a Line that intersects the Four Lines defined by a,b,c,d that orginate at the Vanishing Point O.  Carnot  proved that (AB)(CD)/(AC)(BD) = (A′B′)(C′D′)/(A′C′)(B′D′).

The Cross Ratio is not only the Cross-Ratio of the Four Points A,B,C,D. It is also the Cross-Ratio of the Four Lines  and the Three Angles that originate out of the Vanishing Point. In this case (AB)(CD)/(AC)(BD)=Sin(AB) x Sin(CD)/Sin (AC) x Sin (BD).

This principle is called Duality. In 2D-Projective Geometry Connected Points and Lines, called an Incidence, are interchangeable.

There is a corresponding Duality in three-dimensional Projective Geometry between Points and Planes. Here, the line is its own Duality, because it is determined by either two points or two planes.

ratios.jpg
The Cross-Ratio k is dependent on the Order of the Four Points. It converges to 0 and infinity when k=1 and to -1/2 and 2 when k= -1.

Two examples: 2D: Two distinct Points determine a unique Line and two distinct Lines determine a unique Point. 3-D:  Three distinct Points not all on the same Line determine a unique Plane and three distinct Planes not all containing the same Line determine (meet in) a unique Point.

The 24 Permutations of A,B,C and D produce 6 possible values of the Cross-Ratio, depending on the order in which the points are given. If k = 1, the other Cross-Ratio’s are 0 and infinity. This happens when point A = point D. In this case the Geometric Entity is an Equilateral Triangle.

If k = -1, the other Cross-Ratio’s are -1/2 and 2. This is called a Harmonic Cross-Ratio. This happens when the Internal Ratio of AC determinated by B is Equal to the External Ratio of AC determinated by D. When k=-1/2 and 2 the Geometric Entity is a Square.

If the Four Points of the Cross-Ratio are on a Line or a Circle, then the Cross Ratio is a Real Number, otherwise the Cross-Ratio is a Complex Number.

Ruler (Space) and Compass (Time): The Tools of the Geometer

About the Four Layers of Geometry and the Four Points of the Cross-Ratio

In 1872 Felix Klein, published a new Mathematical Research Program called the Erlangen Program under the title Vergleichende Betrachtungen über neuere geometrische Forschungen.

In this program Projective Geometry was emphasized as the Unifying Frame for all other Geometries.

Although lines in the Projective Plane meet in one point of Infinity Klein argued that there could be two points of Infinity if the Projective Plane was a Surface Closed in Itself.

When we look at the Origin of Projective Geometry, the Artist painting A Sphere, Earth, on a Flat Surface, it is not difficult to realize that this Closed Surface is a Sphere.

.

Geometry is now divided into Four  Layers. Each Layer adds a set of Assumptions that creates certain Invariants for that Layer.

An invariant is a property of a configuration of Geometric Entities that is not altered by any transformation belonging to the specific layer.

A transformation is an operation applied to a Geometric Entity. The most common transformations are Translation, Rotation and their Combinations (Reflection).

What we will see is that the Four Points of the Cross-Ratio are highly related to the Four Layers. In Every Higher Layer One Point of the Cross-Ratio is moved to the Internal Landscape, the Mind, of the Observer. This principle is called “As Within so Without“.

The First and most fundamental Layer is the Layer of Projective Geometry. This is the Layer of Human Perception and is invariant under the Cross-Ratio also called a Moebius Transformation.

The Second Layer is called Affine Geometry. In this layer Parallel Lines are preserved and the Assumption of a Plane at Infinity, the Horizon,  is created.  This Plane generates Parallel and Orthogonal Relationships between Geometric Entities by placing One of the Four Points of the Cross-Ratio in the Plane at Infinity.

Affine Geometry is Euclidean Geometry with congruence (something is the same when Shape and Size are the Same) and a metric (a definition of a Distance) left out. An affine transformation preserves straight lines and ratios of distances between points lying on a straight line.

This the layer of  the Emotions, “the harmony of all parts in affinity to one another” of  Leone Batista Alberti.  In Affine Geometry the Frame of Reference of the Painter, the Floor,  is created. On this Floor,  the Horizon, the Plane at Infinity is drawn.  From the Point of View of the Observer, it is not possible  to Judge Distance or the-Sameness because a given Visual Object may be Large and Far away or Small and Close.

In Eucludian Geometry A Ruler contains a Fixed Scale

The Third Layer, Metric Geometry, adds the concept of Distance (Metric, Scale) to the Affine Layer. A Distance is a relation between Two Points of the Cross-Ratio. This is the Layer of the Painter, Creator, Observer, who creates his own Distance to the Distances he is Painting in the External Frame he is looking at.

Since Projective Space is the Space of Actual Perception, the true function of Metric Space is the Coordination of Various Perspectives. This is illustrated in Perspective Drawing, in which there are always Two Perspectives being Coordinated—the Vanishing Point and a Point just behind the Eyes of the Observer.  Each of these is an instance of the One Point at Infinity.

alchemy
The Expectation looks through a Small Hole.

The last, Fourth,  Layer is the layer of Euclidian Geometry. In Euclidean Geometry Distance is Fixed (not Relative) and Scaled to a Unity (Meters). This leaves us with just One Point of the Cross-Ratio, the Unity, the One.

Between  1926 and  his death in 1983 Alfred Tarski worked on the Axiomatization of Euclidean Geometry. In Tarski’s system there is only one type of Object: the One, The Point.

There are just two Geometrical notions between Points: the Ternary Relation of “in-Betweenness” and the Quaternary Relation of “Equidistance” or Congruence.  Betweenness captures the Affine aspect of Euclidean Geometry; Equidistance/Congruence, its Metric aspect.

This is the Layer of the Human Expectation who has not Distanced Itself and is Looking Outside Through a Small Hole at the Future. The Expectation considers the Future as an Extension of the Past (Memory).

In Euclidian Geometry we have to Move Outside to the Objects to Measure their Distance and the Sameness with a Pre-Defined Unity.

If we don’t move to the Object we will measure an Illusion.

About Space measured by Time and Space measured by Space

The Ancient Sumerians  knew that the Length of one side of a Hexagon is the same length as is the Radius of the Circle that circumscribes this Hexagon (See Pascals Theorem).

They also knew that the Stars of the Constellations of the Zodiac shift Counterclockwise, at the rate of 72 years/degree, because of the Precession of the Earth’s axis. One Wobble takes 25.920 years.

The length of one side of the Earth Hexagon is therefore the Distance traveled by the Constellations of the Zodiac along the horizon during 25.920/6=4,320 years.

They then subdivided this distance by 7,200  which produced the Royal Mile that was subdivided into 1,760 Royal Cubits.

Before 3.117 BC the complete Earth was covered with a uniform Geodesic System that was based on the Rotation and Precession of the Constellations of the Zodiac. This System was implemented in the Megaliths.

At that Time Space was measured by Time.

The Physical System of the Megaliths was destroyed by the Great Flood of 3.117 BC but the Metric System survived thousands of years until the French Revolution.

On the 8th of May, 1790, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand at the end of the French Revolution, proposed before the National Assembly in Paris a Change to a Decimal Measurement System.

The Academy of Science recommended that the new definition for a Meter be equal to 1/10,000,000 of the distance between the North Pole and the Equator, and this was accepted by the National Assembly in 1791.

From that Time on Space was measured by Space.

Why the Future contains Infinite Possibilities

A Painter or a Human always looks Forwards in Space. If there are Parallel Lines visible they all Converge to a Vanishing Point at The  Horizon. The Horizon is a Parallel Line at Infinity.

We all know that the Parallel Line of the Horizon is caused by the fact that the Earth is a Moving Sphere. This Moving Sphere moves around other Spheres that move around other Spheres.

The Rotation of the Spheres in Space is used as a Clock. Every time when the Cycle of the Spheres repeats itself we add one unit to a standard Time-Measure. One Sun Cycle is named a Year. One Cycle of the Precession takes 25,920 Years.

We Measure our Time by the Cyclic Movement of Objects in Space. The Cyclic Movements caused by the Rotations of Objects around Objects (around Objects) is really a Rotating Rotating Rotation, a Spiraling Spiral.

We don’t live in the Sphere but we live and Move on the Surface of a  Moving Sphere. That is why our Geometry is an Elliptic Geometry (or Projective Geometry).

Euclides and Pythagoras were aware of Projective Geometry (See also Pappus) but the Scientists of the Enlightenmentstarted to interpret their Theory with a Different Eye. They saw Numbers in a completely different way the Greek did.

The Scientist disconnected Number from Magnitude (Form) and created an Abstract Static Number Theory and an Abstract  Static Theory of Physics. The Movement of our Universe, the Ether, came to a stilstand.

The Theory of Perspective Drawing, based on our Real Perception of Reality, is the same theory that generated Projective Geometry. We are now back to Normal again.

In the blog about Geometric Algebra I wrote about a very Independent Thinker called Dewey B. Larson.

He reinvented Physics and Projective Geometry in his own way, Calculated all the well known Physical Constants and based his Theory on a simple well know Assumption that Space and Time are Reciprocal (A Ratio of Ratio’s , the Cross-Ratio) because Velocity= dS(pace)/dT(ime).

Moving Movement is the Essence of our Reality.

What Larson calls “Motion” is the Ether Wind (or the Higgs Field) the Velocity which was measured in the North-South (Z) direction at 208 km/s in 1933 by Dayton C. Miller.

Einstein believed the results of the Michelson-Morley Experiments in 1887 that “proved” that the Moving Ether was non-existent. Now we know that the experiments were wrong.  Einstein also did not believe that Space was Expanding. At this moment the Expanding Universe is confirmed by many observations.

When Space Expands,  Time Compresses and fills up the Space to Keep Balance. Time Scales Space.

Space moves to Infinity. Time Moves to the Inverse of Infinity, Zero. Space is measured by the Linear Visible Scalar Number-System. Time is Measured with the Rotational Invisible Imaginary Number System.

Expanding Space is Linear Motion. Time is the Spiraling Motion of the Vortex.

golden mean spiral2
The Spiraling Spiral of Time

Space is Yang and Time is Yin. Yin is feminine, Curved, Rotational, smooth or cold. Yang is masculine, Straight, Linear, rough or hot.

Space and Time are Complementary Duals that Move Around the Void.

If we look at the Human Perspective we now are able to understand what Time and Space Really are.

When we Look Forward we Experience Space. Time is always Behind our Back.

Human Senses and Conventional, Scientific Equipment can only Look Forward and therefore Measure Space (Distance) and the Change of Space (Velocity, Acceleration).

This is a Limitation of our Physical Sensory System, which evolved to measure Space, Scaled by Time, to produce what we Perceive as Causality–a Linear Ordering of Events.

Without the Cause-and-Effect System, the Sensory World of Space would just become Chaos.

Time, History, is Always Behind Us and Space, The Future, The Adjacent Possible, with Infinite Possibilities, is Always in Front of Us.

Let’s Move.

LINKS

Generalized Projective Geometry

About Pythagoras and Heliopolis (Egypt)

About Pythagoras

Paul Dirac: About Physics and Projective Geometry

About the Middle Ages

About Expanding Space and Not-Euclidian Geometry

About the Renaissance

About Resistance and Mass

About the Mathematics of Perspective

About the Ether

About Clean Space

About Projective Geometry

Pictures of the Projective Plane

About Geometric Algebra

About As Within, So Without

About the Reciprocal Theory of Dewey B. Larson

A Video about Mobius Transformations

About Projective Geometry and our Senses

About Projective Geometry and Geometric Algebra

About the Cube of Space

About Time and Paranormal Experiences

About Geometry

A Textbook about Metric Geometry

About the Four Points of View

About the Void

Why the Future is Open Space

About Alchemy and the Klein Bottle

About the Human Sensory System

Stuart Kaufmann: About the Adjacent Possible

About Number and Magnitude

We have lost the relationship between Number and Form or Number and Magnitude as the Ancient Greeks called their Forms.

A few years ago a Revolution in Mathematics and Physics has started. This revolution is caused by Geometric Algebra.

In Geometric Algebra the Ancient Theories of Euclid and Pythagoras are reevaluated.

Numbers are Scalar (Quantum) Movements of Geometric Patterns and not Static Symbols of Abstractions that have nothing to do with our Reality.

Movements and not Forces are the Essence of Physics.

The basic rule Movement = Space/Time (v=s/t) shows that  Time and Space are two Reciprocal 3D-Spaces. Our Senses Experience Space and not Time.

The Simple Rule N/N=1/1=1 balances the Duals of Space and Time. One Unit Step in Space is always Compensated by One Unit Step in Time.

Geometric Algebra has a strange relationship with Pascals Triangle. This Triangle, also called the Binomial Expansion, contains all the Possible Combinations of two Independent Variables. Our Universe is a Combination of Combinations exploring Every Possibility.

The last and perhaps most important Discovery in Mathematics called Bott Periodicity shows itself in Pascals Triangle.

Bott Periodicity proves that we live in a Cyclic Fractal Universe, the Wheel of Fortune, that is Rotating around the Void, the Empty Set. The Empty Set contains Every Thing that is Impossible in our Universe.

This blog is not a Scientific Article. I have tried to connect the Old Sciences and the New Sciences in my own Way.

It contains many links to Scientific Articles and even Courses in Geometric Algebra.

So if you want to Dig Deeper Nothing will Stop You.

About the One and the Dirac Delta Function

Every Thing was created out of  No Thing, the Empty Set, ɸ, the Void, the Tao. The Empty Set contains 0 objects.

The Empty Set is not Empty. It contains Infinite (∞) Possibilities that are Impossible.

Every impossibility has a probability of 0 but the sum of all possibilities (1/∞=0) is always 1. In the beginning ∞/∞ =1  or ∞x0=1.

This relationship is represented by the Dirac Delta Function. It is used to simulate a Point Source of Energy (a Spike, an Explosion) in Physics.

The Delta is reprented by the Symbol Δ, a Triangle. The Delta is called Dalet in the Phoenican and Hebrew Alphabet. Daleth is the number 4 and means Door.

The original symbol of the Delta/Daleth contains two lines with a 90 Degree Angle. Two orthogonal lines create a Square or Plane.

The Dirac Delta Function is defined as a Square  with an Area of 1,  a Width of 1/n and a Height of n where n->∞.

The Dirac Delta Function is a Line with an Area of 1.

In the Beginning a Huge Explosion took place that created the Universe.

The Dirac Delta Function δ (x) has interesting properties: δ (x) = δ (-x), δ (x) = δ (1/x). It has two Symmetries related to the Negative Numbers and the Rational Numbers.

When we move from 2D to 1D, the Number Line, the Delta Function becomes the Set of the Numbers N/N =1.

The Tetraktys of Pythagoras

The Monad (1) of the Tetraktys of Pythagoras, the Top of the Triangle, was created by Dividing the One (1) by Itself without Diminishing itself. The Monad (1/1=1)  is part of  the 1D Delta Function.

Creation is an Expansion of the 1/1 into the N/N, adding 1/1 all the time,  until ∞/∞ is reached. At that moment every Impossibility has been realized.

File:Dirac function approximation.gif
The Dirac Delta Pulse

 

To move Back to the Void and restore the Eternal Balance of  the One,  Dividing (Compression) has to be compensated by Multiplication (Expansion).

At the End of Time N/M and M/N have to find Balance in the N/N,  move Back to  1/1, Unite in the 0 and become The Void (ɸ) again.

About the Strange Behavior of Numbers

The big problem of the Numbers is that they sometimes behave very differently from what we Expect them to do.

This Strange Behavior happens when we try to Reverse what we are doing.

It looks like the Expansion of the Universe of Numbers is Easy but the Contraction creates many Obstacles.

It all starts with the Natural Numbers (1,2,3,).

When we Reverse an Addition (Subtract) and move over the Line of the Void Negative Numbers appear. Together with the Natural Numbers they are called the Integers.

The same happens when we Reverse a Division and the Fractions (the Rational Numbers) (1/3, 7/9) suddenly pop up.

An Integer N is a Rational Number divided by 1 (N/1).

The Integers are the Multiples of 1, the Fractions are its Parts.

Numbers behave even stranger when we want to Reverse a Repeating Repeating Addition (Irrational Numbers) and want to calculate a Rational Power (2**1/2).

The Complex Numbers (or Imaginary Numbers), based on the Square Root of -1 called i, are a combination of the Negative Numbers and the Irrational Numbers.

Irrational Numbers ( the Pythagorean Theorem), Fractions (a Piece of the Cake) and Negative Numbers (a Debt) are part of our Reality but the Strange Number i represents something we cannot Imagine.

About the Duality and the Expansion of Space

In the beginning the only One who was in existence was the 1.

When the One divide itself again the number -1, the Complement of 1, came into existence.

1 and -1 are voided in the No Thing, the Empty Set, 0:  -1 + 1 = 0.

The Two, the Duality, both started to Expand in Two Opposite Directions (<– and +->) both meeting in the  ∞/∞. This expansion is what we call Space.

Space is a Combination of the Strings S(1,1,1,1,1,…) and -S = (-1,-,1,-,1,-1,…) where S+S=(0,0,0,0,0,0,…).

The Expansion pattern of Space is a Recursive Function S: S(N)=S(N-1)+1 in which + means concatenate (or add) the String “,1”.

An Addition X + Y is a concatenation of S(X) and S(Y). A Substraction X-Y is a concatenation of S(X) and -S(Y). In the last case all the corresponding combinations of 1 and -1 are voided. (1,1,1,1)-(1,1,1)=(0,0,0,1)=(1).

Multiplication XxY is Adding String S(Y) every time a “1” of S(X ) is encountered: 111 x 11 = 11  11  11. Dividing X/Y is Subtracting S(X) every time a “1” of S(Y) is encountered:.111  111  1/111=11 1/111. In the last example a Fraction 1/111 appears.

This Number System is called the Unary Number System.

About the Trinity and the Compression of Space called Time

The Strange Behavior of Numbers is caused by the Limitations of our Memory System. We are unable to remember long strings that contain the same Number.

To make things easy for us we Divide Space into small Parts so we were able to Re-Member (Re-Combine the Parts).

When we want to Re-member, Move Back in Time, we have to Compress Expanding Space.

Compressed Space is Time.

Time and Space have a Reciprocal Relationship called Movement (Velocity = Space/Time).

There are  many ways ( (1,1,1), (1,1,1),..) or ((1,1),(1,1))) to Compress a String in Repeating Sub-Patterns.

In the blog About the Trinity I showed that the most Efficient Way to group the One’s is to make use of a Fractal Pattern (a Self Reference) and Groups of Three Ones.

The Trinity applied to the Trinity ( A Fractal) is a Rotating Binary Tree. Binary Trees represent the Choices we make in Life.

The rotating Expanding Binary Trees generate the Platonic Solids (see linked video!) when the (number)-parts of the Binary Tree Connect.

The Ternairy Number System is represented by the Binary Tree

When we connect Three Ones (1,1,1) by Three Lines (1-1,1-1,1-1) a 2 Dimensional Triangle Δ is Created.

If we take the Δ as a new Unity we are able to rewrite the patterns of 1’s and -1’s into a much Shorter Pattern of Δ’s and 1’s: (1,1,1),(1,1,1),(1,1,1), 1,1 becomes Δ,Δ,Δ,1,1.

We can repeat this approach when there is still a Trinity left: Δ,Δ,Δ,1,1 becomes ΔxΔ,1,1.

This Number System is called the Ternary Number System.

About Ratio’s and Magnitudes

According to EuclidA Ratio is a sort of relation in respect of size between two magnitudes of the same kind“.

A Magnitude is a Size: a property by which it can be compared as Larger or Smaller than other objects of the Same Kind. A Line has a Length, a Plane has an Area (Length x Width), a Solid a Volume (Length xWitdth x Height).

For the Greeks, the Numbers (Arithmoi) were the Positive Integers. The objects of Geometry: Points, Lines, Planes , were referred to as “Magnitudes” (Forms). They were not numbers, and had no numbers attached.

Ratio, was a Relationship between Forms and a Proportion was a relationship between the Part and the Whole (the Monad) of a Form.

Newton turned the Greek conception of Number completely on its head: “By Number we understand, not so much a Multitude of Unities, as the abstracted Ratio of any Quantity, to another Quantity of the same Kind, which we take for Unity”.

We now think of a Ratio as a Number obtained from other numbers by Division. A Proportion, for us, is a statement of equality between two “Ratio‐Numbers”.

This was not the thought pattern of the ancient Greeks. When Euclid states that the ratio of A to B is the same as the ratio of C to D, the letters A, B, C and D do not refer to numbers at all, but to segments or polygonal regions or some such magnitudes.

The Ratio of two geometric structures  was determinated  by fitting the Unit Parts of the first geometric Stucture into the Other.

The Perfect Triangle of the Tetraktys contains 9 = 3x3 Triangels. A Triangle contains 3 Lines and 3 Points.

An Example:  The Tetraktys is a Triangle (A Monad) and contains 9 Triangles (a Monad). The 1x1x1-Triangle Δ, a Part of the Tetraktys,  is Proportional to the Whole of the Tetraktys (T) and has a Ratio T/Δ = 3= Δ -> T = Δ (3)  x Δ (3) = 9.

The Mathematics of Euclid is not a Mathematics of Numbers, but a Mathematics of Forms.

The symbols, relationships and manipulations have Physical or Geometric Objects as their referents.

You cannot work on this Mathematics without Knowing (and Seeing) the Objects that you are Working with.

About Hermann Grassman, David Hestenes and the Moving Line called Vector

Hermann Grasmann lived between 1809 and and 1877 in Stettin (Germany). Grassmann was a genius and invented Geometric Algebra a 100 years before it was invented.

In his time the most important mathematicians did not understand what he was talking about although many of them copied parts of his ideas and created their own restricted version. None of them saw the whole Grassmann was seeing.

When he was convinced nobody would believe him he became a linguist. He wrote books on German grammar, collected folk songs, and learned Sanskrit. His dictionary and his translation of the Rigveda were recognized among philologists.

Grassmann took over the heritage of Euclid and added, Motion, something Euclid was aware of but could not handle properly.

angle between vectors in 2 dimentions
A Displacement or Bivector

Grassmann became aware of the fact your hand is moving when you draw a 2D Geometric Structure. He called the Moving Lines, that connect the Points, Displacements (“Strecke”).

screw theory 2
A Displacement and a Rotation of a Vector

In our current terminology we would call the Displacements “Vectors”.

blades

Vector algebra is simpler, but specific to Euclidean 3-space, while Geometric Algebra works in all dimensions. In this case Vectors become Bi/Tri or Multi-Vectors (Blades).

The Trick of Grassmann was that he could transform every transformation on any geometrical structure into a very simple Algebra. Multi-Dimensional Geometric Structures could be Added, Multiplied and Divided.

The Greek Theory of Ratio and Proportion is now incorporated in the properties of Scalar and Vector multiplication.

add-bivectors
Combining (Adding) Bivectors creates a Trivector

About a 100 years later David Hestenes improved the Theory of Grassmann by incorporating the Imaginary Numbers. In this way he united many until now highly disconnected fields of Mathematics that were created by the many mathematicians who copied parts of Grassmanns Heritage.

About Complex Numbers, Octions, Quaternions, Clifford Algebra and Rotations in Infinite Space

Grassmann did not pay much attention to the Complex Numbers until he heard of a young mathematician called William Kingdon Clifford (1845-1879).

Complex numbers are ,just like the Rationals (a/b), 2D-Numbers. A Complex number Z = a  + ib where  i**2=-1. Complex Numbers can be represented in Polar Coordinates: Z = R (cos(x) + i sin(x)) where R = SQRT(a**2 + b**2).  R is the Radius, the Distance to the Center (0,0).

When you have defined a 2D-complex Number it is easy to define a 4-D-Complex Number called a Quaternion:  Z = a + ib + jc + kd or a 8-D Complex Number called an Octonion.

William Rowan Hamilton, the inventor of the Quaternions, had big problems to find an interpretation of all the combinations i, j and k until he realized that i**2 =j**2 = k**2 = ijk=-1.

What Hamilton did not realize at that time was that he just like Grassmann had invented Vector Algebra and Geometric Algebra.

Quaternions are rotations in 4D-space

This all changed when William Kingdon Clifford united everything in his new Algebra.  Clifford’s algebra is composed of elements which are Combinations of Grassman’s Multivectors.

The Clifford Algebra that represents 3D Euclidean Geometry has 8 = 2**3 components instead of 3: 1 number (Point), 3 vectors (Length), 3 bivectors (Area) and 1 trivector (Volume).

It turns out if you use combinations of these elements to describe your geometric objects you can do the same things you did before (you still have 3 vector components).

In addition, you can have additional data in those other components that let you find distances and intersections (and a lot of other useful information) using simple and (computationally) cheap numerical operations.

The most important Insight of William Kingdom Clifford was that the Complex Numbers are not Numbers all.

They are Rotations in higher Dimensional Spaces.

About Pascal’s Triangle and Mount Meru

The String 1,3,3,1 of Clifford’s 3D Geometry is related to the 4th Level of Pascal’s Triangle. Level N of Pascal’s Triangle represents N-1-Dimensional Geometries.

The Sum of every level N of the Triangle is 2**N. This Number expresses the Number of Directions of the Geometric Structure of a Space with Dimension N.

A Point has 0 Direction, while a Line has 2 Directions, relative to its Center point, a Plane has 4 Directions, relative to its Center Point, and a Cube has 8 directions, relative to its Center point.

Mount Meru (Pascal's Triangle in Vedic Mathematics)

Pascal’s Triangle is also called the Binomial Expansion. This Expansion shows all the Combinations of two letters A and B in the function (A+B)**N. Level 1 of the Triangle is (A+B)**0 = 1  and level 2 is A x A + 2 A x B + B x B -> 1,2,1.

The Binomial Expansion converges to the Bell-Shaped Normal Distribution when N-> ∞.

The Diagonals of Pascal’s Triangle contain the Geometric Number Systems (Triangular Numbers, Pyramid Numbers, Pentatonal Numbers, ..) and the Golden Spiral of the Fibonacci Numbers.

Pascal’s Triangle is a Repository of all the Possible Magnitudes and their Components.

The Normal Distribution shows that the first level of the Triangle (the Tetraktys) is much more probable than the last levels.

The first four Levels of the Triangle of Pascal contain the Tetraktys of Pythagoras.

 

The Tetraktys  is an Ancient Vedic Mathematical Structure called the  Sri Yantra, Meru Prastara or Mount Meru.

About Numbers, Operations and the Klein Bottle

The Complex Numbers are not “Numbers” (Scalars) at all.

They are “Operations” (Movements) that can be applied to Magnitudes (Geometries) and Magnitudes are Combinations of the Simple Building Blocks of the Tetraktys, Points and Lines.

The Tao of Ancient China was not for nothing represented by a Flow of Water. According to the Ancient Chinese Mathematicians Every Thing Moves.  In the Beginning there was only Movement.

In the Beginning only the One was Moved but when the Duality was created the Two moved around each other never getting into contact to Avoid the Void.

When we look at the Numbers we now can see that they are the result of the Movements of  the first Diagonal of Pascals Triangle,  the 1’s (Points) or better the Powers of  the One: 1 **N (where N is a Dimension).

Even in the most simple Number System, the Unary Number System, Concatenation is an Operation, An Algorithm.

The Mathematician John Conway recently invented a new Number System called the Surreal Numbers that contains Every Number you can Imagine.

The Surreal Numbers are created out of the Void (ɸ)  by a simple Algorithm (Conway calls an Algorithm a Game) that describes Movements (Choices of Direction: Up, Down, Left, Right, ..)  that help you to Navigate in the N-Dimensional Number Space.

The Ancient Chinese Mathematicians played the same Game with the Numbers.

Algorithms were already known for a very long time by the Ancient Vedic Mathematicians. They called them Yantra’s.

SriYantra
Sri Yantra

Geometry is concerned with the Static Forms of Lines and Points but there are many other more “Curved” forms that are the result of  Rotating Expansion and Compression. These forms are researched by the modern version of Geometry called Topology.

The most interesting 4D Topological Structure is the Klein Bottle.  The Klein Bottle is  a combination of two Moebius Rings. It represents a Structure that is Closed in Itself.

It can be constructed by gluing both pairs of opposite edges of a Rectangle together giving one pair a Half-Twist. The Klein Bottle is highly related to the Ancient Art of Alchemy.

The movement of the Duality around the Void can be represented by a Moebius Ring the Symbol of Infinity ∞.

Later in this Blog we will see why the Number 8 is a Rotation of ∞ and the symbol of Number 8 is a combination of the symbol of the number 3 and its mirror.

First we will have a look at the Reciprocal Relation between Space and Time.

The Klein Bottle, The Universe Closed in Itself, the Basic Structure behind Alchemy.
The Klein Bottle, The Universe Closed in Itself, the Basic Structure behind Alchemy.

About Dewey B. Larson, Velocity and Time

Dewey B. Larson (1898 – 1990) was an American Engineer who developed the Reciprocal System of Physical Theory (RST).

Larson believed that the failure to recognize that Motion is the most basic physical constituent of the universe has handicapped the progress of the traditional study of physics, which focuses on Forces.

The definition of Motion stems from the Equation of Velocity, v = ds/dt.

Instead of depending upon the change of the location of an object to define an arbitrary “quantum” of space per “quantum” of time, such as miles per hour, or meters per second, the RST assumes that the observed universal passage, or progression, of time is one aspect of a universal motion that necessarily must be accompanied by a universal “passage,” or progression, of space.

The Units of Time fill up the Units of Space. Space and Time are Duals.

Space is not-Time and Time is not-Space. Time is Non-Local, Cyclic and represented by the Rotating Imaginary Numbers. Space is Local, Linear and Represented by the Scalar Numbers. Space is the Vacuum and the Nothing and Time is the non-vacuum, the Every Thing, the Solids represented by the Cube of Space.

The Cube of Space is the structure behind the Tetraktys but also behind the Book of Genesis.

Our Reality contains two Reciprocal 3D-structures related to Space and Time. Space and Time are related by the Simple Formula N/N=1/1=1, the Formula of Diracs Delta Function.

We are able to perceive the Real 3D-Structure of Space. The 3D-Structure of Time is Imaginary. It is situated in the Imaginary Number Space of i.

LarsonsScalarCube.jpg
Larson’s Cube, the Geometric Representation of the Octonion.

Larson, a Self Thought Genius like Grassmann, developed Geometric Algebra without knowing anything about Geometric Algebra but he also invented String Theory long before String Theory was invented.  The Mathematics of Larson is also the Mathematics of the Tetraktys of Pythagoras without even knowing anything about it.

wom_image3.jpg
The Periodic System of Larson

Larson was able to Calculate all the important Physical Numbers without any problem and was also able to Calculate Chemical Structures and Reactions.

About the Bott Periodicity

The fourth line of Pascals Triangle and the Tetraktys contains 8 Directions in the Four Geometric Dimensions: 0, 1, 2, and 3.

Mathematicians are intrigued with this number 8, because they find it popping up unexpectedly in advanced mathematics.

In fact, expanding the Binomial Expansion to 8 dimensions just creates an inverse copy of these first Four Dimensions, and then the pattern just repeats itself with a half-twist and back from there, ad infinitum.

This is called Bott Periodicity discovered by the mathematician Raoul Bott (1923-2005).

The mathematician John Baez wrote an article in which he relates this 8-fold Periodicity to the Scalars (1), the Complex Numbers (2), the Quaternions (2×2), and the Octonions (2x2x2 = 2**3).

Bott Periodicity

The Universe of Numbers and Magnitudes  is Cyclic and Fractal.

Our own Reality, symbolized by the Tetraktys,  repeats itself in Higher Dimensions until Infinity.

The Tetrad, represents Completion, because it contains all its Previous Numbers, the 1, 2, 3, and itself, 4, in One Number, 10 = (The One) +  9 (= 3 (Trinity)x 3 (Trinity) = Tetraktys).

As you can see in the Picture above the Fractal Pattern of 8 contains two kinds of Trinities/Triangles, an Upside and a Downside (Rotated by 180 Degrees) Triangle. When you Rotate by 180 Degrees the 1 becomes -1 and 1 + -1 =0 is the Void.

The Square is a combination of two Triangels. It is represented by the Of Star of David, the Symbol of the Heart Chakra.
The Star of David, the Symbol of Human Center, the Heart Chakra.

The Multi Dimensional Rotations of the Octonions always Come Back to Square 1/1=1, the One and keep Rotating around the Center, the Nothing,   Until Infinity.

LINKS

About the Tetraktys (1)

About the Tetraktys (2)

About Triangular Numbers and Pascal’s Triangle

About the Empty Set

About the Relationship Between Geometry and Music

About the Trinity

About the Game of the Surreal Numbers

About Larson and the Unification of Mathematics

The Collected Works of Dewey B Larson

About Number and Magnitude

About Ratio and Proportion

About Ratio and Proportion by Euclid

A book of Augustus deMorgan about “The Connection between Number and Magnitude”

The text of the Fifth Book of Euclid

An Educational You Tube Channel called Insights in Mathematics

About the History of Geometric Algebra

About the Sri Yantra

About Geometric Algebra

Free Software to use Geometric Algebra

About Clifford Algebra

About Yantra’s

About Movement

About Topology

About the Digital Root Patterns

About the Heart Chakra

A Video that shows how the Platonic Solids are created out of the Trinity Numbers

All you want to know about Geometric Patterns

About the Vedic Square

This blog is about the Cycle of Nine implemented in the Digital Root or Modulus 9-Function. The Digital Root generates many Patterns that were used in Ancient Architectures.

One of the most important Digital Root Patterns is the Vedic Square. It is the Digital Root of the Multiplication Table of the numbers 1 to 9.

This Table contains the Harmonics of the Numbers 1 to 9. These Harmonics are highly related to the Harmonic Pattern behind the Cycles in our Universe.

The first part of this Blog is about the Digital Root. It contains the patterns that are behind the Cycle of Nine.

This part is very technical but it makes it possible to show that there is a deep structure  behind the Modulus-9.

This pattern has to do with just two numbers, 2 and 3. They generate the Spirals of Expansion and Compression of our Universe.

2 and 3 and their Sum 5  are also the Numbers behind the Harmonics of our Universe.

The Second Part is about the Vedic Square. It is called the Vedic Square because this Square is one of the most important tools in Ancient Vedic Mathematics.

Vedic Mathematics was used in many Ancient Cultures (China, Egypt, Greece) with different names. The Chinese art of Feng Shui was called Vaastu Shastra in India.

Pythagoras, trained in Egypt (Heliopolis),  used the same principles and used the same  Patterns the Ancient Vedic Scientists were using.

The last part is about the Game of Chess. This game is  just like many other Ancient Games a Simulator of the Game of the Universe.

This blog contains many links to other Blogs and Resources on the Internet. These references make it possible to dig deeper into this fascinating subject.

About the Digital Root

When  you divide a number X by a number N the Remainder of the division is called X Modulus N.  22 mod 7 = 1 because 22 = 3×7 + 1.

The Modulus-function N maps the Set of the Natural Numbers to the Numbers 0, 1, 2, ….,N-1.

One of the most famous and ancient Modulus-functions is called the Digital Root. The Digital Root is the Modulus 9 function.

Because 10 mod 9 = 1 every Power of 10 has a Modulus 9 of 1. Therefore (a10**X+ b10**Y+…) mod 9 = a + b, the Sum of the Digits of the Number. 62 mod 9 = 6+2 = 8.

Digital Roots have been recorded for thousands of years, formalized by Pythagoras in 530BC and even earlier in Indian Vedic Mathematics (Vaastu Shastra).

Digital Roots are used in Numerology. In Numerology Numbers have a Meaning.

In Gematria Letters and Words are transformed into Numbers which have a meaning.

In Ancient Languages like Hebrew Letters are also Numbers. Numerologists believe that Words with the same Digital Root have the same Meaning.

The numbers 0 to 9 of the Digital Root are the Points of the Tetraktys of Pythagoras.

The Tetraktys of Pythagoras

The Modulus 9 pattern contains 2 number groups (3,6, 9) and (1,2,4, 5,7,8).

Later we will see that the last group contains 2 subgroups (1,4,7) and (2,5,8).  Together with (3,6,9) we can map these 3 Triangels on the Modulus 9 Circle.

4 is the Middle of 1+7=8, 5 is the Middle of  2+8=10 =1 and 6 is the Middle of 3+9=12=3. 5 is also the Middle of the Middle.

The group (1,2,4,5,7,8 ) is called the Ring Z/9 in Mathematics. Z/9 is isomorphic with the Sequence 2**N mod 9 where N is positive and negative. The sequence 1,2,4,8,16(7),32(5),64(1),128 (2),256 (4),… repeats itself until infinity.

This Sequence is the Expansion and Compression Pattern of the Number 2.

The Ring Z/9 is part of the Tetraktys and forms a Hexagram. This Hexagram is a 2D-projection of the Cube of Space. When we combine the (3,6,9)-pattern with the Hexagon a (4×4) Triangle is created.

The number 2 is the Container, the Cube, inside the Tetraktys. That is the Reason why the Second letter in the Hebrew Alphabet Beth means Vessel or Container.

(3,6,9) is a Triangular Cycle that repeats itself until Infinity.  The Number 3, the Trinity, is the Mover of the Container of 2. This Rotation moves With and Against the Clock.

This is the reason why the 3th Letter of the Hebrew Alphabet, Gimel, means Camel. The Camel of Gimel carries the Water into the  2 Containers of Beth.

The Number-2-pattern contains 3 Binary Groups (called Polar Pairs) with a Sum of Nine (1,8), (2,7), (4,5). The Number-3-Pattern contains 2 Polar Pairs (3,6) and (0,9). The Polar Pairs represent the Lines of the Tetraktys.

(0,9) maps unto Itself and represents The Beginning and The End, The Now. (0,9) is a Point and a Line.

The Polar Pairs of the Z/9 create a Cyclic Pattern that contains two Squares, (1,2,4,0) and (5,7,8,0). Both of them Share the Zero, The Void.

The Sum of the Opposite Numbers of the Z/9, (4,8 = 12=3), (1,5 =6 ), (2,7=9) of the Tetraktys shows the 3,6,9-pattern again.

There are 8 Ternary Groups ((1,5,9), (1,6,8), (2,6,7), (2,5,8),(2,4,9),(3,4,8),(3,5,7),(4,5,6)) with a Sum of 15. This Ternary Group represents Triangels. All of them are part of the famous Lo Shu 3×3 Magic Square.

The 3 Triangles of (1,4,7), (2,5,8) and (3,6,9) copied from the linked Website.

When we use the number 3 as a generator 3 Triangles are created (1,4,7), (2,5,8) and (3,6,9).

The 3 Triangles move With and Against the Clock ((1,4,7) and (7,4,1)).

It takes 3 rotations to get every Triangle back to its original position. (1,4,7) becomes (7,1,4) and (4,7,1). This means that there are 6 permutations of every Triangle.

Every addition of two Triangels produces another Triangle.   An Example:  (1,4,7) + (2,5,8) = (3,9,6).

When we create a Matrix to find all the combinations a new group of 9 transformations ((1,1,1),(2,2,2),(3,3,3),(4,4,4),(5,5,5),(6,6,6),(7,7,7),(8,8,8),(9,9,9)) appears. They are the Triangels that are a Line and a Point. An Example:  (1,4,7) + (1,1,1)=(2,5,8).

There are now (18 +9=27) x27 = 729=3**6 = 9**3 possibilities.

The same 27×27 Matrix appears when we Multiply the 3 Triangels. An Example:  (5,8,2)x(5,8,2)= (25,64,4)= (7,1,4) and (3,6,9)x(5,8,2)=(15,48,18)= (6,3,9).

Another interesting patterns  becomes visible when we look at the Opposite Numbers of 3 Triangels (1,5), (2,6), (3,7),(4,9) en (5,9) in the Picture above.  They recreate the Triangels. An Example: (5+9=5, 2+6=8 ,8+3=11=2).

About the Digital Root of the Golden Mean

The 27×27 Matrix pattern also emerges out of 24 repeating numbers (1 1 2 3 5 8 4 3 7 1 8 9 8 8 7 6 4 1 5 6 2 8 1 9) of the Digital Root of the Fibonacci Sequence (The Golden Ratio).

this solution gives the densest
lattice packing of spheres in 24 dimensio

When we group the Golden Ratio pattern in 2’s (2×12) the Polar Pairs appear. The 12 pattern has  a Sum of 108 = 0 Modulus 9. 108 and 24 are related to the Gayatri Mantra.

1 1 2 3 5 8 4 3 7 1 8 9

8 8 7 6 4 1 5 6 2 8 1 9

When we  group the pattern of 24 numbers (3×8) of the Golden Ration into Trinities the Triangle Pattern appears again.

1   2  3  4                  -3 -2 -1 -4 (Pattern-number)

1   1  2  3  (7)           5   8   4   3   (2)

7   1  8  9  (7)          8   8   7   6   (2)

4   1  5  6  (7)          2   8   1    9   (2)

The Pattern of the Pattern is (1,2,3,4,-3,-2,-1,-4). The last part of the Pattern (-3,-2,-1,-4) can be transformed into the first part (1,2,3,4) by adding 4.

The Digital Sum of the first 3×4 numbers is 7 and the Digital Sum of the last 3×4 numbers is 2.

When we rearange the 24 cycle in 6 groups of 4 digits another pattern shows itself: (1,4,8,5), (1,3,8,6), (2,7,2,7),(3,1,6,8), (5,8,4,1), (8,9,1,9).

The pattern of the Golden Mean copied from the Linked Website

When we combine all the different rotations of the 3 Triangels a Cyclic Flow Pattern appears that looks like the Jitterbug of  Buckminster Fuller.

The Jitterbug is a 3D projection of the 4D 24-Cell (again 24!) also called the Hyperdiamond.

The 24-cell is self-dual and is the regular polytope with no analogue among the five Platonic solids of 3-space.

The 24-cell also called the Hyperdiamond

About the Vedic Square

One of the Simple Structures of Numbers that contains a lot of patterns is the Vedic Square. The Vedic Square was called the Eight Mansions in China. The Vedic Square is the Digital Root of the Multiplication Table of the numbers 1 to 9.

The Multiplication Table is a subset of the 27×27 Matrix of the 3 Triangels.

The Multiplication Table contains the Harmonics of the Numbers 1 to 9.The Vedic Square was used to build the Pyramids, create the Chinese I Ching, the Game of Chess, Dante Alighieri used it to structure his trilogy La Divina Commedia, the Sistine Chapel was build and the frescoes and symbols were arranged according to its concepts and the first chapter of Genesis was written and imbued with its numerous concepts graphic images.

File:Michelino DanteAndHisPoem.jpg
La Divina Comedia of Dante with the Tower of Babel on the background. This Ziggurat is a Geometric Structure highly related to the Vedic Square.

Scholars and Artists discovered that the various lines of the Vedic Square could be used to direct a design. By selecting a line of numbers, and using a constant angle of rotation, various designs could be produced. These designs are visible in abstract Islamic Art.

The Vedic Square is a Symmetrical Structure because AxB=BxA. This is called the Associative Property of Multiplication.  The Square is a combination of Two Triangels and contains 45 distinctive numbers.

The Vedic Square repeats itself until infinity when you extend the Square to a NxN Square.

The number pattern of the diagonal of the Vedic Square, 1,4,9,7,7,9,4,1,9,  is the Digital Root Pattern of the Square Roots. This patterns repeats itself until Infinity.

The Vedic Square contains the 5 Polar Pairs, the 8 Lo Shu Ternary Groups and the 3 Trinity Patterns ((1,4,7), (2,5,8), (3,6,9). It also contains the Star of David, The Zodiac, the Tree of Life and many other Mystic Patterns.

It is possible to transform the Vedic Square to the Lo Shu Magic Square.

The patterns of the Vedic Square Rotate. The End of a Horizontal and a Vertical Pattern connects with the Beginning of the Pattern. This means that the Vedic Square is a Torus.

This Torus is called the Rodin Torus. The Rodin Torus is a Coil that produces a Uniform Electro-Magnetic Field.

The 3-6-9 and 6-3-9 Cycle in the Vedic Square can be thought of as Clockwise and Counter-Clockwise, or as Electricity and Magnetism. They are transport-channels.

The ((3,6,9),(6,3,9)-Matrix divides the Vedic Square in 9 2×2 Squares.

The 9 2×2 Squares have a Sum of 9,18 and 27 which is 1×9,2×9 and 3×9. If we leave out the (3,6,9)-Matrix and divide by 9,  a 3×3 matrix results with 1,2,3 on the Outside  and a Cross of 2’s in the middle. This 3×3 matrix shows the Expansion of the 2 into the (1,2,3).

Patterns in the Vedic Square

The Rows and Colums of Ring Z/9 add up to 45. The Rows and Colums of the Number 3-Pattern add up to 54 which is a Mirror of 45. The (4,5)-pattern generates the Star of David and the Zodiac.

About Indian Vastu Science

The Game of Chess originated in India. It was passed on to the medieval West through the intermediary of the Persians and the Arabs.

The form of the Chess-Board corresponds to the Vastu-Mandala, the 9×9  diagram which also constitutes the basic lay-out of a temple or a city.

Hindu mythology has it that Vaastu Purusha was born of Lord Shiva’s sweat when he fought the deadly demon Andhakasura.

Vaastu Purusha himself became uncontrollable and destructive and the heavenly gods finally subjugated him and brought him down on earth with face down, with his face in the Northeast and his feet in the Southwest.

45 deities stayed there, 32 of them in the outer enclosure and 13 of them in the inner enclosure holding him in place at various points or locations on his body.

32 =64/2 and the Number of the 32 Paths of Wisdom of the oldest book of Hebrew Mysticms the Sepher Yesirah (the Book of Formation or Book of Creation, ספר יצירה).

64 is the Number of the I Tjing. 45 (5×9) is the Sum of the Lo Shu Magic Square and the Number of the Vedic Square.

All these Mystic Structures come from the same Source and are different Views on the same Pattern, the Tetraktys, the Triangular Numbers created by the Meru Prastara or Sri Yantra also known as the Pascal Triangle.

The Vastu Jain Symbol is a version of the Tetraktys

The Vastu Mandala is an expansion of  a Point (the Bindu) into the Line(2), The Trinity (3) and the Rotating (With the Clock and Against the Clock) and Expanding Square (4), represented by the Symbol of the Swastika. The Swastika is a Fractal Generating Pattern.

Every Point is a generator from which the Swastika-pattern generates a new Swastika. The 2×2 Square is transformed by the Swastika Pattern into the 4×4 and the 8×8 Square.

As you can see the Vastu Jain Symbol is an Indian Version of the Tetraktys of Pythagoras.

The Swastika contains the Four Points of the last line of the Tetraktys that are related to the Tethahedron.

About the Game of Chess

The Chess-Board symbolizes the Unfolding of Space by the Number-2-pattern and it synthesizes the Complementary Cycles of Sun and Moon.

The number 64, the sum of the Black & White (Yin/Yang) Squares on the Chess-board, is a divisor of the number 25920 (25920/64=405, 25920/9= 2880/9=320/5=72), which measures the Precession of the Equinoxes.

The Polar Pairs in the Modulo 9 Pattern are expressions of the Planets.

(1,8), the Castles, relates to the Planet Mars.

(2,7), the Bishops, relates to the Planet Venus. Venus is the Ruler of the Heart and the (2,7) is situated in the Middle of the Vedic Square.

When viewed from the Earth, the Planet Venus inscribes a near perfect five-pointed star (pentagram) around the sun every eight years. The points of a five-pointed star (pentagram) touch the circle of a pentacle every 72 degrees.  Likewise, many in Islam expect 72 virgins in heaven.

A full 360 degrees of procession takes 25,920 years, which is also seventy-two (72) 360-year cycles.

(3,6), the Knights relates to the Planet of the Messenger, Mercury. Mercury is Hermes, the Messenger God, with winged sandals. The moves of the Knights create a pattern that looks like the Swastika.

The (3,6)-number-lines are Transport-Channels (Gimel) as you can see in the Vedic Square and the Rodin Torus. The planet Mercury traces a Hexagram during its movement around the Zodiac.

(0,9) is the Planet Jupiter,  the Ruler of Modulus 9 who determinates the Rules of the Game. (0,9) is the Beginning and the End of the Game and is the cause of the Rotation of the Swastika related to the (3,6.9)-pattern.

The numbers 4 and 5 are the Moon (Queen) and the Sun (King). The Moon moves the quickest of all the planets, so does the Queen on the chessboard.

The Number 5 of the King is the Center of the 3×3 Lo Shu Magic Square and the Center of the Tetraktys.

The 8 Pawns represent  the number 2 and are connected to the Planet Saturn, the 2nd Son of the Central Sun and the Trinity (1+ 2 = 3). The Pawns start to move with 2 steps and later move 1 step. The 2 is the Center (The Son of the Sun) of the Trinity.

The 2 is also the Generator of the Expansion Pattern and the Polar Companion of the 7, the Center of the 3D-version of the Square, the Cube of Space.

The Pawn (2, Saturn) promotes into a Queen (Moon, 2×2) when he has reached the Other Side.

LINKS

About the Multiplication Table of 9

About the Tetraktys

About the Trinity

About the Vedic Square

About the Tetraktys and the Lo Shu

About the Lo Shu

About the Harmonics of the Universe

About the Hyperdiamond

About the Void

About Harmonics and Entrainment

About Good and Bad Vibrations

About the number 24

About the Jitterbug of Buckminster Fuller

A Simulation of the Jitterbug Pattern (CUBIC WONDER)

About the Game of Chess

About Plato and the Sri Yantra

About the Rodin Torus

About Vastu Science

About Gematria

About Vastu Science and the Borobudur

About Mystical Number Theory and Pascal’s Triangle

The first part of this Blog is about the Triangular numbers, related to the Number 3, the Holy Trinity.

The second part shows that Pascal’s Triangle (called Meru’s Mountain in Mystics), the Binomial Expansion,  contains every Possible Mystical Number Pattern (including the Triangular Numbers) you can Imagine.

Pascal Triangle also shows that our Universe is a combinatorial miracle. It explores every possibility, is always in balance, expands and moves back to the beginning which is and was the Void, the Empty Set, the merge of Every Paradox, that is Possible.

About Mystical Number-Patterns

The Sēpher Yəṣîrâh (Book of Formation or Book of Creation, ספר יצירה) is the oldest book on Jewish Mysticism. The Sefer Yetzirah describes how the universe was created by the “God of Israel” through 32 Wondrous Ways of Wisdom.

The Number 32 is the Sum of the 10 Sephirot and the 22 Letters of the Hebrew Alphabet.

The Sephirot is related to the  Tetraktys of Pythagoras. The Tetraktys embodies the Four main Greek Cyclical (PlatonicMusical Harmonies: the Fourth (4:3), the Ffth (3:2), the Octave (2:1) and the Double Octave (1:4).

1+2+3+4 = 10. 10 is the 4th Triangular Number. The Nth triangular number is the Sum of the numbers 1 -> N. This Sum is equal to 1/2N(N+1).

Between the 10 Sephirot run 22 Channels or Paths which connect them.

The Sephirot are the Points of the Tetraktys. The Hebrew Letters are the Lines between the Points. The Lines of the  Sephirot and the Tetraktys create a Cube (6) at the Top and a Tetrahedron (4) at the Bottom.

The Letters of the Hebrew  Alphabet are divided in the 3 Mother Letters (אמש, the Trinity), the Seven Doubles (The Planets) and the Twelve Simples (the Zodiac).

The 22 letters of the Hebrew Alphabet are a combination of the Trinity, the 7 Planets and 12 Signs of the Zodiac.

When you analyse the Sepher Yeshirah the Cube of Space (the Kaaba) appears out of the Hebrew Alphabet. The Kaaba is related to the Seventh Planet, Saturn.

The 3 Axis of the Cube of Space are the Trinity, the 6 (2×3) Faces of the Cube stand for the Planets with the 7th Saturn, the Son of the Central Sun (3+1 (Center)+3) in the Center and the 12 (4×3) Boundary Lines of the Cube represent the 12 Signs of the Zodiac.

As you can see the Number Three, the Triangle,  plays an important role. It is the First Structure that is Closed in Itself and is therefore Topological related to the Circle. The Circle (and the Triangle) is able to rotate With and Against the Clock. This property is called Spin in Physics.

It is very important to realize that Everything Rotates in our Universe around a Central Object that rotates around another Central Object. The Central Object Gives Time, determinates the Rythm or Harmonics,  of the Rotation Structure.

The Trinity rotates around the Void. The 7 Chakra’s of the Human rotate around the 4th Chakra, the Heart Chakra, ((3+(1)+3)=7).

The Planets rotate around the Sun and the Sun rotates around the Central Black Hole. The arrow of Sagitarius points to this Black Hole.

On a Six Sided Dice the Sum of all the Numbers is Seven (1+6,2+5,3+4). The Sum of the Six Numbers is 3 X 7 = 21. If we add the Center (Saturn) the Number 22 appears.

22/7 is a good approximation of the number π. π relates the Square (and the Cube) to the Circle.

The Cube of Space symbolizes  the Playing Board of the Game of Life. On the Playing Board we have a Free Choice to move into the many Paths that are available. Every Path has its own Probability and this Probability can be calculated. If we don’t know what to do we could throw a Dice.

The Cube of Space contains the same six lines that exist in the I Ching. Four of the lines are of equal length, the other two, the diagonals, are longer. For this reason symmetry cannot be statically produced and the Dance (of Shiva) results.

The Circle represents the Cycles of Time of the Matrix of the Demiurg. Behind all the Probabilities of all the Possible Paths lies a Hidden Order.

A Hexagram, represented by the Star of David,  is a Two-Dimensional (Orthographic) projection of a Cube. A Symmetric Projection of the Cube creates a Cross.

A Hexagram is a Two Dimensional Cube

One of the many meanings of the first word in the Bible “Bereshit“,  is “They (Elohim) created Six” which means that in Six Stages of  the Time Cycle the Cube of Space (or the Hexagram) was populated. On the Seventh Day the Center was filled.

The book of Genesis does not describe the creation of the Trinity (They, Elohim, 1+2+3, 1x2x3) itself. This stage was later covered in the Zohar.

In my blog “About the Sum of Things” it is shown that Six Stages are part of an Expansion Pattern governed by the Powers of Two. After 2**6 (64) Expansions (or Compressions) the Same Fractal Pattern repeats itself on a higher level.

64 is the Number of the I Tjing and the Game of Chess. The number 32 of the Sepher Yeshirah is 64/2 and is a Contraction of the I Tjing.

The I Tjing is a contraction of the oldest Divination System in the Word called FA. FA is still used all over the world by the followers of the oldest wisdom-system created by the YOrubA in Africa. The Yoruba lived at the place where the ancient Paradise was situated.

Star of David in The Israeli Art Genesis-2
The Fourth Day (Sun (4), Moon (5))

About the Triangular Numbers

The Tetraktys contains the Numbers 1, 3, 6 and 10. These numbers are called Triangular Numbers.

The number 21 is also a Triangular Number because it is the Sum of  the Sixth Level of the Tetraktys,  the Numbers 1 to 6.

The Fifth Level of the Tetractys is related to the Number 15 (1+2+3+4+5). This number connects the Tetractys and the Sephirot to the 3×3 Lo Shu Magic Square also called the Seal of Saturn.

The nth Triangle number T(n) is the number of dots in a triangle with n dots on a side; it is the sum of the n natural numbers from 1 to n.  T(n)=n(n+1)/2.

The Triangular Numbers contain the Perfect Numbers. A perfect number is a positive integer that is equal to the sum of its proper positive divisors, that is, the sum of its positive divisors excluding the number itself. Six (1+2+3=1x2x3) is the first Perfect Number and 28 (1+2+4+7+14) is the next.

The Sum of two Triangular Numbers is a Square

The Sum of two adjacent Triangular Numbers T(n) +  T(n+1) is a Square Number because Two Triangels can be combined in a Square. 1+3=2**2 and 3+6=3**2.

There are many relationships between the Triangular Numbers. These relationships were the focus of the research of the Mystical Group of the Mathematikoi of Pythagoras.

6 (Bereshit, the Cube, the Hexagram) + the 22 Letters of the Hebrew Alphabet = 28, the Next Perfect Number (1+2+3+4+5+6+7).

28 is like the numbers 6 and 15 also a Hexagonal Number. As you can see in the picture below 28 is the fourth Hexagonal Number. As we have seen before a Hexagon is a Projection of a Cube so 28 represents a Cube in a Cube in a Cube. A Cube in a Cube is called a Tessarect or a HyperCube.

28 is a Hexagonal Number

The Number 15 is a Cube in a Cube called a Tessarect or a HyperCube

The first sentence in Genesis (“In the beginning Elohim created Heaven and Eearth“) contains 7 words and 28 letters. This indicates that the Creation Process was already in the 7th stage of the Tetraktys and in its 2nd Fractal Expansion,  the Birth of the Material Universe.

The sum of the entire verse is the 73rd Triangular Number. The prime Numbers 37 and 73 are geometrically related. They form the third and the fourth term in the sequence of Star Numbers (1, 13, 37, 73, 121).

Hexagon/Star pairs are closely related to Triangular numbers. Their product is always a Triangle, and they can be symmetrically generated from a Pair of Triangles.

Star Numbers are a Combination of Two Triangular Numbers

The Square is a combination of two Triangels. It is represented by the Of Star of David, the Symbol of the Heart Chakra.
The Symbol of the Heart Chakra contains Two Triangles.

About Pascal’s Triangle

When a number represents a Geometric Structure it is called a Figurative Number.

Every possible figurative number is generated by the Triangle of Pascal.

The Fractal Sierpinsky Triangle is the Triangle of Pascal Modulo 2.

The Triangle of Pascal was known long before Pascal (re)discovered it.

It was known in Ancient India as the Meru Prastara and in China as  the Yang Hui.  Meru Prastara relates the triangel to a Mystical Mountain called Mount Meru. Mount Meru is also implemented in the Sri Yantra.

The Triangle shows the Coefficients of the Function F(X,Y))= (X+Y)**n. If n=0 F(X,Y)=1 and if n=1 F(X,Y)=X+Y so the Coeffcients are (1,1).

Pascals Triangle is a 2-Dimensional System based on the Polynomal (X+Y)**N. It is always possible to generalize this structure to Higher Dimensional Levels. 3 Variables ((X+Y+X)**N) generate The Pascal Pyramid and n variables (X+Y+Z+….)**N  generate The Pascal Simplex.

The rows of the Pascal’s Triangle add up to the power of 2 of the row. So the sum of row 0 is 2**0 and  the sum of row 1 is 2**1 =2.

The Sum of the  rows of the higher n-dimensional versions of the Triangle is n**N where n is the Amount of Variables and N the level of expansion. So the Sum of Pascal’s Pyramid (3 variables X,Y,Z) is 3**N.

Triangle of Pascal

The most interesting property of the Triangle is visible in the Diagonals.

The First Diagonal contains only 1’s. The Ones represent Unique Objects. They are the Points in the Tetraktys.

The Second Diagonal contains the natural numbers. These Numbers are used to Count Objects that are The Same. The Natural Numbers are the Lines that connect the Points. The Natural Numbers are the Sum of the previous Ones.

The Third Diagonal contains the triangular numbers. The Triangular Numbers are the Sum of the previous Natural Numbers.

This pattern repeats itself all the time.

File:Yanghui triangle.gif
The Yang Hui is an ancient Chinese version of the Triangle of Pascal. This Triangle contains Nine (3x3) Levels.

The Fourth Diagonal contains the tetrahedral numbers (Pyramid Numbers) and the Fifth Diagonal, the pentatope numbers.

Fermat stated that Every Positive Integer is a Sum of at most three Triangular numbers, four Square numbers, five Pentagonal numbers, and n n-polygonal numbers.

The Tetrahedron with basic length 4 (summing up to 20) can be looked at as the 3-Dimensional analogue of the Tetraktys.

File:Pyramid of 35 spheres animation.gif
A Tetrahedral Number represents a 3D-version of the Tetraktys.

The Diagonals of the Triangle of Pascal contain every Possible 2-Dimensional Figurative Number (and Structure).

These Numbers are Projections of Higher Dimensional Numbers and Higher Dimensional Structures.

The Higher Dimensional Versions of the Triangle (the Pascal Pyramid, The Pascal Simplex) contain these structures.

The Rows of the Triangle Sum to the Powers of Two (2 Dimensions). These Powers control the Levels of Expansion.

Every 7th step the Fractal Pattern of the Triangle repeats itself on a higher Level.

The Figurative Numbers are the Geometric Shapes that are created by the Lines of the Natural Numbers that are connecting the Points of the One.

Pascal’s Triangle also contains the numbers of the Fibonacci Sequence (“The Golden Spiral“).

When we take the Modulo 9 (the Digital Root of Pythagoras) of the Numbers of Fibonacci a repeating patterns of 24 steps shows itself that can be represented by a Star Tetrahedron or Stella Octangula. The Star Tetrahedron is a Three Dimensional Star of David.

the Fibonacci Numbers as a Cube.

The StarTetrahedron, shows the Pattern behind the Sequence of Fibonacci.

Every Figurative Number N is the Sum of the Figurative Numbers N-1.  Every Geometric Shape is a combination of all the Previous Geometric Shapes.

This means that Every Geometric Shape is in the end The Sum of the Sum of the Sum of  …. Triangels, Trinities (Elohim) or Triangular Numbers and therefore an Extension of the Tetractys of Pythagoras.

The Expansion of the Whole is a (Fractal)  Combination of Combinations.

The Triangle of Pascal is related to the so called Binomial Theorem which is used in Combinatorics and Probability Theory to describe the Amount of Combinations of a Set of  Objects.

The rows of the Triangle of Pascal also shows the Bell Shaped Pattern of the Normal Distribution.

The Probability Distribution of the Triangle of Pascal converges to the Normal Distribution because of the Central Limit Theorem. Every Row has a Mean of N/2 and a Variance of (N**1/2)/2 which means that with every new row the Mean and the Variance become Bigger and Bigger.

The Triangle of Pascal and therefore the Figurative Numbers describe Everything that is Possible but every Expansion of the Triangle is less Likely to Occur.

The Triangle of Pascal Modulo 3
The Triangle of Pascal Mod 3 represents the Tetraktys in the Tetraktys in the .....

Because of the Fractal Expansion/Contraction Pattern The Cube of  Space, related to the Element Earth,  explains Everything there is to Know on Our Level of Existence, Mother Earth.

The interesting part of the Figurative Numbers is that they representent Visual Patterns with which we can Reason.

We don’t need complex formulas because we can See what is Possible.

The interesting part of the Triangle of Pascal is that we can See that the Complex Figurative Structures are created out of a very Simple Structure, the Triangle.

If we want to understand our Reality we have to begin with looking at the Beginning and not start somewhere in the Middle.

If we look at the Fractal Expansion Pattern of the Triangle we See that Every new Stage is an Expansion Out of the Middle.

The Expansion of the Human, the Next Step in our Evolution,  is therefore an Expansion Out of the Heart, the Balance of Father Sky and Mother Earth.

Life is not only about Me and the Other.

Life is also about the Relationship between Me and the Other.

If we don’t Collaborate the Next stage in our Evolution will never happen.

LINKS

The Content of the Sepher Yesirah

About the Sepher Yesirah

About the Cube of Space

About the Tetractys

About the Cube of Space and Psychology

About the Sepher Yesirah and the I Tjing

A correspondence table of the Cube of Space

About Bereshit

About Genesis

About Patterns in the Bible

About Saturn

About the Trinity

About the Sri Yantra and Plato

About the Lo Shu and the I Tjing

All kind of strange relationships between Triangular Numbers

A website about Mystical Number Theory

About the Figurative Numbers

About Combining the Combinations

About the Golden Spiral and Plato

About the Logic of Creation

About Pascal’s Triangle and the Normal Distribution

A complete course in elementary Number Theory

About the Psychology of the Cube of Space

About the Tetraktys and the Zodiac

About the Process Theory of Paul Young

About the Theory of Dewey B. Larsson

Mysteries of the Equilateral Triangle

About Visual Patterns in Number Theory

About Pascal’s Triangle and Cell Division

About Combining the Combinations

 

steam_engine

Evolution means the creation of larger and larger islands of order at the expense of even greater seas of disorder in the world. In the process of evolution, each succeeding species is more complex and thus better equipped as a transformer of available energy.: Jeremy Rifkin, Entropy: A New World View (1980).

You wouldn’t enjoy a perfectly ordered universe. A wholly ordered universe would be at perfect equilibrium and would be dead. There can arise no Order unless there is a Flow of Matter and Energy which decreases in intensity as a system moves toward equilibrium. Motion, change or evolution in the Universe is driven by fluxes of energy and energy-rich matter flowing from sources of high potential to sinks of lower potential.

During the road from Being to Becoming Cyclic Auto-Catalytic Systems are created that Re-Create themselves until they Die. Islands of Order Appear and Disappear in the Sea of Chaos.

About Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the Science of the Transfer of Energy.

In strict Scientific terms Energy is classified into two main forms: Kinetic and Potential energy. Kinetic Energy is defined as the energy of a moving object. Potential Energy is defined as the energy in matter due to its position or the arrangement of its parts. The various forms of Potential Energy include gravitational potential energy, elastic potential energy, chemical potential energy, and electrical potential energy.

The First Law of Thermodynamics says that the total quantity of Energy in the universe remains Constant.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that the quality of this energy is degraded irreversibly. The Second Law predicts that our Universe will end when the Explosive Motion of the Big Bang wil stop and we will reach the Absolute Zero.

Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1790-1832) detected the Second Law of Thermodynamics when he tried to find the most efficient heating engine.

According to Carnot the Efficiency of an Engine is (T1T2)⁄T1, where T1 is the highest temparature. The Higher the Difference between the two Temperatures of the Engine the Lower the Efficiency. The Bigger the Step the Higher the Waste. If you want to build a highly efficient Engine, the Engine has to make very Small Steps when the Engine is heated.  This principle is known as Adiabatic Expansion (and Compression).

Physical, Chemical, and Electrical energy can be completely changed into Heat. But the Reverse (heat into physical energy, for example) cannot be accomplished without a loss. The irreversible increase of this nondisposable, useless, energy in the universe is measured by the abstract dimension  called Entropy (from the Greek entrope, change).

The Entropy measures the degree to which the probability of the system is spread out over different possible states. If all the possible States of the System are the Same, the System is in Equilibrium and the Entropy, the State of Order,  is on its Maximum.

In the Beginning of the Universe Every Thing was Different. In the End State Every Part of the Universe will be the Same.

About the History of Innovation

The central actor in the 19th century model of cultural innovation is the Artist, conceived, as an individual creator of works of art. Art is produced only by a handful of exceptional individuals.

The process of technical innovation in the 19th century was seen in terms similar. The central focus was on the work of individual inventors and researchers, commonly with little or no specifically scientific training.

By the early 20th century, this model was displaced by an industrialized process of innovation.

The first major step in this process was the rise of the Research University and the development of a large class of technically trained workers. In the 20th century, pure scientific research had become the preserve of universities and specialist research institutes.

The second major step was the development of corporate forms of business organization, which allowed Research and Development to become an organized business activity, operated on industrial lines.

The pattern of innovation in the 21st century is radically different. In most sectors of the economy, the rate of technological progress has slowed down substantially. Technological progress is characterised largely by Incremental Improvements to mature products.

In Computing and Telecommunications, the rate of progress has accelerated dramatically since the late 1980. The convergence of Computing and Telecommunications in the Internet has fundamentally transformed every activity it has touched. Everything that can be formalized will be formalized.

The Internet makes it possible that disjunct Networks of Isolated Innovators connect and share their Knowledge and Experience.

The Artist,  now connected with many other “exceptional individuals” all over the world,  is on its return.

About Incremental and Disruptive Industrial Innovation

There are two types of Industrial Innovation called “incremental”  and disruptive” innovation.

Japan (and now China) has made incremental improvement the cornerstone of  Technical Advancement. After months and years of gradual (adiabatic) changes, products look radically different, as happened with semiconductors, solar cells and batteries.

The US claims that it is the Champion of Disruptive Innovation.  Their “Internet”-entrepeneurs like Amazon, Google and Facebook believe in a “Statistical” model of Innovation, A Portfolio or an Innovation Ecology.

One of the many “Trials and Errors” will result in a big breakthrough that will Disrupt the Market. Behind Disruptive Innovation lies the Concept of Evolution, Survival of the Fittest, the Essence of Capitalism.

Disruptive Innovation uses Incremental Innovation to improve the Parts of the Portfolio.

Incremental Innovation (“Proces/Product/Business Model Improvement”) takes place  when an Innovation is improved until the Limits are reached.

Incremental Innovation could use the Efficient Small Steps of the Adiabatic Process to reach the Goal of the highly Effective.

Most of the time Proces/Product Improvement (“Standardization”) is not a Structured Process because People believe Innovation is about “Thinking Out of the Box”. If People “Think out of the Box” the proces will move into a Chaotic State and will Die.

Creative Incremental Innovation will produce a Lot of Waste (“Heat”, “Fuzz”) and accomplish Nothing. Managed Incremental Innovation has to remove the Waste and the Constraints.

With every step that is taken the System has to become more probable so the results of the proces will be more predictable. When the Limits are reached, we have to Restucture the System to move on.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics shows that Closed Systems finally Converge to a State of Equillibrium with a High Probability, a High Entropy.

Systems that are Isolated by a Boundary behave as Closed Systems. Systems that are Open to other Systems Merge and become Closed.

Most of the Time people don’t understand the Boundary of their System and Act in a Shared Boundary. In this Shared Boundary Competition takes place. Competition is a waste of Energy. If People could define their Boundaries they could Cooperate.

People Communicate. They  Share their Ideas, Problems and Solutions.  When a Process is well understood the Improvements of the Process are disseminated through the Human Networks and widely Copied.

Human Networks are Closed Systems that are connected to other Networks by Boundary Spanners.

Most people don’t understand that there are other people in other Networks who are doing the Same thing they are doing. They think their activity is Unique and don’t understand that the State of Uniqueness was only there at the Beginning.

Secrecy slows down communication between the People in the Network. The result of Secrecy is that People are unable to learn from others so they are unable to reuse the solutions of others. Secrecy is again a Waste of Time.

In the end the Competitive Advantage of the Innovation is completely gone and the Entropy of the System is at its Maximum.

At that moment every Process in every Part of the System will be the Same and the Companies will Merge or will be taken over by other Companies. Winner Takes All.

The Temperature of the Industry will move to Zero and every Movement (and Innovation) will stop.

About Creativity

There are two Views on Creativity. Creativity is a Combinatorical Game and Creativity is a Spontaneous Eruption of Ideas forced by High Pressure.

At such a moment, “the Aha-Erlebnis“, two or more Frames of Reference Fuse and a new Innovative Combination is created.

The last view has a lot to do with the theory of “Self-Organized Criticallity“.

The Metaphor of this Theory is the Disaster, the Avalanche or the Sand Pile that Suddenly moves when the critical grain of sand falls. At that moment a Significant Part of the Collection of individual grains Combines and moves on its own.

When a System is reaching the Boundaries of Proces Improvement and a Huge Pressure to Innovate is experienced,  two or more Systems (“Frames of Reference”) Fuse (Combine).

When the Systems are in Equilibrium the Fusion is easy (“Connecting”) otherwise the Fusion could become a Disaster, a Disruption, a Creative Destruction and a Huge Amount of Heat (Waste) is produced.

About Managed Creativity

If Innovation  is a Combinatorial Game we have to restructure a System into a “loosely-coupled”  System of Components and combine the Components with the “well-articulated” Components of other Systems.

A Loosely Coupled System is a System where each of its components has, or makes use of, little or no knowledge of the definitions of other separate components. The components act as Black-Boxes“.

A Component is “well-articulated” if it contains Just Enough Functionality to do the job. An Under-Articulated system is Rigid. It contains Not Enough functionality to Adapt to the Changing environment. When Systems grow old they become Over-Articulated because the Designers want to add new functionality without looking at the Boundaries of the System. Over-Articulated Systems overlap and it becomes very difficult to find the Essence. Designers always want to Solve every problem with their Own System.

Genrich S. Altshuller was a Russian Patent Officer who tried to find a Pattern behind Patents.

Altshuller screened over 200,000 patents looking for Inventive problems and how they were solved. Of these only 40,000 (20%) had somewhat Inventive solutions; the rest were straight forward improvements.

Altshuller defined an Inventive problem as one in which the solution causes another problem, a Contra-Diction or Conflict,  to appear. He found that the same problems had been solved over and over again using one of only Forty fundamental inventive principles. Altshuller  named his method  TRIZ.

Humans are prone to reivent the Wheel many times because they only look for Solutions in their own Frame of Reference. The Solution of their Problem is almost all the time already available in another Domain.

Roni Horowitz has analyzed the Principles of Althuller and found a deeper structure behind TRIZ which he called ASIT.

ASIT is about Thinking Inside the Box instead of Outside the Box. The so called Closed World condition, forces the thinker to find a creative solution by heavily limiting his or hers Space of Possibilities.

The Qualitative Change Principle looks for solutions in which the influence of the main problem factor is either totally eliminated or even reversed. The System has to become Perfect. Every Component has to fullfill just one Task  (“Well Articulated”) and the Functions of the System have to create a “Closed World” which means that the System has to be Closed in Itself.

About Combining the Combinations

The Second Law of Thermodynamics shows that it is Almost Impossible to move back to an old solution when the Solution is widely used.

Nature Solves its Problems by Experimenting but the Experiments are not completely at Random. Nature uses an Established Infrastructure and Plays with all the Possible Paths that Emerge out of the Existing Infrastructure, The Adjacent Possible.

Before life emerged on Earth, the planet was dominated by a handful of basic molecules. Each of these molecules was capable of a finite series of transformations and exchanges with other molecules in the primordial soup.

According to Stuart Kauffman Life  started when the Chemical Parts of early life  started to Re-Create themselves in a Cyclic Process  called AutoCatalysis. Re-Creation of the Same Structure is one of the most important principles of a Living System. Our body is recreated all the time in an endless Cycle until we Die.

If you could Play with all the Primordial Combinations, you would end up with the Components of Life but it is impossible to create a mosquito, or a sunflower, or a human brain.They were created when the Combinations started to Combine Again and Again.

Innovation in Nature is an endless Cyclic Expanding proces of Combining the Combinations.

This process moves on until the Limits of the Expanding Space of Possibilities are reached. These Limits are reached when there is not enough “useful” Energy available.

Combining the Combination happens in Nature but also in our Culture. Old infrastructures are used in a new way and a complete new field of Combinatorics appears.

Johannes Gutenberg took the older technology of the screw press, designed originally for making wine, and reconfigured it with metal type to invent the printing press which made it possible that new ideas, concepts and procedures were better dissiminated through the Human Networks.

Is there an End to Human Innovation?

The Universe is Expanding and is Creating New Combinations of Combinations all the Time.

The Law of Kleiber shows that the Combinations of the Combinations Fuse. The Law of Kleiber is just like Self-Organized Criticallity represented by a Power-Law. Power-Laws are independent of a Scale and therefore applicable on every Level of the Universe. They show that One Principle (“a Fractal“) Repeats itself on every Level.

Every time when the Combinations Fuse they are better equipped as a Transformer of Available Energy but the Creation of larger and larger islands of Order happens at the Expense of even greater seas of Disorder. Humanity is Wasting resources at an increasing rate, and that will lead to the destruction of our civilization.

The Combinations become Bigger and Bigger AND the Big Structures Attract Each Other. The larger group of possibilities will always be the Dominant Attractor.

This is the main reason for the success of Google, Facebook and Twitter. They have aquired the Power to Control their Market by Giving away their Products for Free so the Amount of Users would grow Exponentionally. They make money by letting other companies pay for the Use of their Huge Attractor.

The Small Auto-Katalytic Chemical Factories, the Bacteria,  that were created in the beginning are now fusing into Very Big Cities and the next Step will be One Mega-City covering a Huge Area of the Earth.  These Mega-Cities will be extremely Efficient and Effective. When this happens Nature will be replaced by a Human Made Technological Structure that has to use completely new ways to produce and use energy.

The next Step is easy to imagine. The Human Race will start to create new Mega-Cities on other Planets that will fuse into Mega-Planets.

The Big Problem will of course be Energy. We have to find new Sources all the time to support the Human Need to Expand and Discover. Every time when we create a new and Bigger Source of Energy the Amount of useless Heat will increase and the End of the Universe will get closer and closer.

Human Invention is Speeding Up the End because in the End Humans want to become One with the Whole.

According to the Second Law of Thermodynamics the Universe is moving to an Equilibrium State and not to an Extremely Impossible Innovative Configuration. At a Certain Point of Time Human Innovation has to Stop because we will reach the State of Absolute Zero Temperature and every Movement will Stop.

In the End the Universe will move into a State of Infinite Sleep.

What to Do?

The most important thing you can do when you want to Innovate is to create a Deep Understanding of just One Frame of Reference.

You have to become an Expert in Something and you have to have the attitude to create the Perfect Frame of Reference.

Every time when the System is not performing you have to solve the problem Inside the Box but you have to make use of Solutions that are Outside the Box.

Every Time when you are Satisfied,  remove a Constraint and Force Yourself to Solve the problem.

At a Certain Moment your Frame of Reference will Explode and will produce many Fragments. They are the Basic Building Blocks of Your Domain.

Start to Play with the Building Blocks and new Possibilities will appear that you have never Thought off.

You now have entered the Adjacent Possible.

LINKS

Why Neural Networks look like the Universe

About Creativity and High Pressure

About Self-Organized Criticallity

About Self-Organized Criticallity and Innovation

About Complexity Theory and Innovation

About Loosely Coupled Systems

About Boundaries

About Triz

Stuart Kaufmann about Radical Emergence

Advanced Systematic Inventive
Thinking

About ASIT (Advanced Systematic Inventive Thinking)

How Nature Plays

About Constructal Law

About the Origin of Good Ideas

About the Adjecent Possible

About the Law of Kleiber

Why Cities are Organisms

About the Beginning of the Universe

About  the End of the Universe

A City is an Organism

The System of Life is growing in size and in complexity, and so do the infrastructures sustaining it.

In 2008 the point was reached where more than 50% of the world population lives in cities. That percentage is growing. By 2030, over 60% of the world’s population – nearly five billion people – will be living in urban area.

The System of Life is generating Super Organisms and the City is one of them.

Urbanization is only a relatively recent phenomenon. As far as we now know urbanization started in Mesopotamia around 4000 – 3500 BC.

For the Ancient Mesopotamians, the cities were the centers of life. Their beginning of time was not a Garden of Eden, but rather an ancient site called Eridu, which they believed was the first city ever to be created.  The creator of Eridu was Enki, the God who came out of the Deep Waters of the Ocean  (the Abzu). The city of Eridu was destroyed by the Great Flood in 3117 BC.

Every time one of the Rulers of a City took control over many Cities and a State was created with a new Center, the Capital. In the Center of the Capital the Palace of the Ruler was situated. What we see is an Expanding Pattern in which the same Structure repeats itself all the Time.

Initially the two life-essential resources for cities were Water and Food.

As Cities grew and as technology evolved, the supply of these resources became dependent on energy for processing, for pumps and for transportation. In the process, cities and their resources evolved into a system of life energized by the individuals that populate cities, and fuel its dynamics.

mexico-city
Mexico-City

Kleiber's law
Kleiber's law

About the Law of Kleiber

The Law of Kleiber shows that Bottum-Up Structures are more efficient than Top-Down Structures.

It also shows that Big Structures are more efficient than Small Structures. The Law is applicable from the level of the Bacteria to the Level of the City and higher.

These two statements are a contradiction until we realize that there are two ways of looking at the same structure. One view is the Top-Down View. The other is the Bottom Up View. When we look Down we see a huge Hierarchy and start to believe that Big is Beautiful.

When we look Up we see that all the work is done by Small Cooperative Components starting at the Bottom with the Bacteria.

The Law of Kleiber is explained by the fact that all the organisms (including the Cities) contain the Same Fractal Structure.

Bacteria exchange their DNA
Bacteria exchange their DNA

About DNA

In the Beginning the Chemical Soup generated Self-Reproducing Chemical Factories. These Factories combined into bigger Factories by exchanging and combining their Factory-Designs (DNA-parts).

Every time when the Factories fused they became more Efficient, Bigger, Stronger, Older and therefore more Competitive. When the Factories became more Competitive they started to Protect themselves against the other Factories.

To Protect themselves the Multi-Cellular Systems began to Sense in Many Directions and became better and better in Predicting the Future.

One of our Ancient Ancestors is the Sponge which is a static Cluster of Bacteria. Scientist have detected that the DNA of the Sponge has a lot in common with the Human DNA. The Sponge contains the Basic Fractal Structure, the Tube.

In a later stage our Ancestors developed something we call a Brain. The Brain is used to Sense the Now and Predict the Future.

The Human is a Moving Sponge who is able to Imagine. With his Imagination the Human is capable to Change the Future (and the Past).

Sponge
The Sponge, the Tube, is the Basic Structure

One of the Bilateria: The Octopus
The Octopus is a Sponge with a Brain.

About Innovation

The Law of Kleiber can be explained by the principle of Self-Reference (Similarity,  Fractals).

The Small Structures at the Bottum combine into comparable structures on a higher level.

What we don’t see is that the structures on every level can be decomposed in the Same (DNA-)Components with a different Scale and a different Name.

Innovation is nothing but a  Combination of  the Components in many different ways until all the combinations are made.

At that moment One of the Combinations becomes the new DNA and a new Level is explored.

Life explores every possible path.

About Cities

A City is a Combination of Houses.

A City protects a Cluster of Houses. A House protects a Cluster of Humans and a Human protects a Cluster of Organs.

All the way down to the Bacteria,  Cooperative Clusters are formed that give the participants a more Secure Way to Live.

A House is a Body. It supports the Body but it also contains all the Bodily Functions.

If we provide the House with these Bodily Functions the House becomes more Sustainable. It is possible to regenerate the Waste that the Humans produce into Energy just as the Liver is doing in our Body.

If we Cluster the Bodily Houses into a City and we provide the City with the same functions of the Body we are able to create structures that are independent of the input of external Top-Down Sources of Energy and Food.

If we are able to detect the DNA of the House and the DNA of the City we are able to Compose new Types of Houses and Cities that are Adaptable, Scalable,  highly Sustainable and are also in Balance with Nature.

It will also be  much more easy to Destroy or Move buildings and cities to another Place without the production of Waste.

looking-to-toledo1
Toledo (Spain)

About Synchronization

In the Miedeval City the Major Cycle was the Cycle of the Seasons. In the Modern City we have become almost independent of the Cycles. We import Food and Energy out of every place in the World.

It takes a Lot of Energy to transport the Food and Energy and Many Places on Earth are dependent on a small amount of other Places that contain the Sources of our always increasing Need to Survive the Effects of our Environment.

When a lot of People (The Slaves) are dependent on a small amount of people (The Masters), the Masters start to dominate the others and increase their Power until Eternity. Power is the most important Addiction of the Humans.

The problem becomes bigger when we realize that many people are producing Food and Energy but are themselves not able to use the Food and the Energy they are producing.

The independence of the Cycles has created a huge unbalance. This unbalance is not only visible in the City but in every place on Earth that is providing Energy and Food to sustain the Modern City.

The only solution to this problem is to create self-sustaining (autarkic) Cities that are able to supply their own food, water  and energy.

Paris
The kernels of Paris

When we want to restore Balance we have to Synchronize the Cycles in the City.  This can be done with the help of Smart Technology (Sensors, Actuators, Analytics) but we can also make use of very old fashioned techniques that were used in the Middle Ages.

When Humans communicate from the Heart and focus on the same subject, the Humans start to Synchronize. They become a  Group.

The most important structure in the Miedeval City to Synchronize its inhabitants was the Building of the Heart, the Church.   The Church was always situated in the Center and was visible from a long distance. The Church was also the only place where people were always Protected.

The Human Heart is doing the same thing as the Church is doing in the City. It connects the Mind with the Organs of  the Body and the Pericardium provides one of the major Rythms of the Human Body.

If we want to Synchronize the City we have to create a Center where People are able to Commun(e)nicate about the Shared Goals of the City. The most important way to share can be found in the Human Culture. The Centres have to contain all the ways Human Culture is performed.

chartres4
The Spiraling Spiral in the Memory Palace of Chartres, the Symbol of the Fractal Universe

About the Memory Palace

Art, Music and Singing were United in the Medieval Cathedrals. The Medieval Cathedrals also contained all the Knowledge (The Memory Palace)  that was needed to understand the Universe.

If we want to Synchronize the Modern City we have to build Modern Cathedrals in the Center of the Center and use them as Places to Commune, to Educate, to Make Music, to Dance and to Sing.

We have to design them as Modern Memory Palaces (Simulators) to teach the Masses about the Fractal Universe and give them Feedback about the State of their own Environment.

sagrada-familia-barcelona-projection
The Sagrada Familia in Barcelona (Antoni Gaudi)

LINKS

This is a  presentation about The City as an Organism

Why the Tube is such an Important Structure

About The Law of Kleiber

Why Innovation is a Combination of Combinations

An Interview with Geoffrey West of the Santa Fe Institute about the Law of Kleiber

About Thermo-Economics

About the Autarkic City

About Cybernetics

About Synchronization

How Gaudi used a Machine to design the Sagrada Familia

About Machines that generate Architectures

How the Heart Synchronizes the Body

About Super Organisms

About Smart Technology

About Addiction

About the Master/Slave-relationship

About the Heart

Why the Cathedral contained all the Knowledge that was Needed

About the start of Civilization

About Entrainment

In 1665 the Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens noticed that two pendulum clocks in his room tended to Swing in Sync. The same happens with fireflies, cardiac pacemaker cells,  menstrual cycles, birds in flight, walking, dancing, circadian rhythms in animals, quantum gravity theory, dialogues and people in a crowd.

Two connected Systems always Entrain because Every System in our Universe Vibrates and is connected.

birds in sync
Birds in Sync

When the Parts are  connected, the Rhythm of the Whole controls the Rhythm of the Parts.

The transformations of the seperate parts takes place in two steps. In the first step the variance of the frequencies of the parts is reduced but the oscillators remain incoherent, each running near its natural frequency, until a certain threshold is crossed. Then the oscillators begin to synchronize spontaneously. The effect is somewhat like the outbreak of synchronous applause after a magnificent concert.

To make the transformation possible the Parts have to adjust their behavior. They have to move with the Rhythm of the Flow of the Central Clock. At the end of the transformation from isolated Parts to the Whole the Parts are the Same. They are Copying each other.

When people are copying other people they lose their identity and move into a trance-state. The same effect can be accomplished with hypnosis.  When people are in a trance-state it is easy to manipulate them.

About Copying

Humans are Copiers. When we look at the Science of Coupled Oscillators it becomes clear that Copying is not an intentional act. People and other Systems are more or less forced to copy others when the frequencies of their systems are within a certain bandwith.

When people are close and are focused on a shared target (a soccer match, a concert, a conversation, a dance, a common goal) the human parts start to synchronize and become a Crowd, an entity that starts to act on its own.

About Communication

The word “communion” means “becoming a union“. All communication arises through Synchronization. All communications are dances that coordinate the rhythmic processes shared among the engaging systems.

Communication is not a transmission of information, but rather a coordination of behavior among living organisms through Mutual Structural Coupling. Just like the Crowd, a communication, starts to live a life of its own, when the exchange of the vibrations of the conversation starts to synchronize. This happens within seconds.

conversation1

In the 1960’s, William Condon of Boston University School of Medicine pioneered the empirical study of communication as coupling. In the microanalysis of a few seconds of film he was astonished to find how the voice and bodily movements of speaker and listener were coordinated within intervals as short as 20 milliseconds.

Condon introduced the term entrainment to describe the coupled behavior. He noted that: “Communication is thus like a dance, with everyone engaged in intricate and shared movements across many subtle dimensions, yet all strangely oblivious that they are doing so“.

Coupling begins with getting the attention of other organisms, or more accurately, with distracting the organisms from other engagements so they are able to discern and respond to this engagement.

When the Oscillations of two Systems are outside a certain bandwith it looks like the most powerful system takes over control. The frequency of the synchronized system is a mean and when big numbers and small numbers are added the small numbers simply disappear. This situation is called an Overload.

Overloads are able to kill small systems because the small system is unable to cope with the huge pertuberations. People with a Dominant Personality are able to force (to entrain) Dependent people to copy their behavior.

About Synchronization

A System of N coupled different oscillators creates a very complex almost unsolvable mathematical problem. In 1975 Charles Peskin formulated the conjecture  that Systems would eventually synchronize even when the parts are not identical. In 1990 the conjecture has been proven by Strogatz and Mirollo.

Systems of Coupled Oscillators show four states called Phase Locking (Synchronization), Phase Drift (“Chaos“)  and Amplitude Death (“Order“). In the last state the oscillations stop completely.  The fourth state called a Chimera is a combination of a synchronized and a drifting state.

The most important issue to notice is the fact that the state of Amplitude Death is what we call Order. It is an exceptional state that can be reached when the exchange of information between the states is “compensating” the vibrations of the states or when the System is “compressed” into a Singularity.

synchronization

Most Systems are oscillating (“Cyclic“) and are in a Phase Drift (“Chaos“) or a Chimera trying to reach some sort of Synchronicity with the other connected Systems. In Nature every System is connected to every other System because of the Electro-Magnetic (and Sound) Fields they share.

Systems of Coupled Oscillators behave differently when the connections between the parts are delayed. It this case highly identical parts start to behave as not identical parts. When a delay occurs the stable rhythm of the heart can suddenly stop, resulting in a sudden death.

About the Circadian Clock

In order to cope with and to predict 24-hour rhythms in the environment, such as light and darkness, temperature or the availability of food, most, if not all, organisms have Circadian (“Daily“) Timing Systems. These systems generate circadian rhythms in a wide range of behavioral and physiological processes.

For most animal species, a main circadian pacemaker has been identified in an anatomically defined location in or close to the brain. During the last years, however, it has become clear that circadian systems are complex and that additional oscillators exist, both within and outside the central nervous system.

The Peripheral Circadian Clocks are situated in the Heart, the Liver, the Lungs and the Kidney. These organs are the same “organs” that are used in Chinese Acupuncture which is not strange because the Aim of Acupuncture is to Balance the Electro Magnetic Field in the Body.

For a correct functioning of the circadian timing system, these oscillators should be synchronized to one another and properly phased to the environmental cycle.

Synchronization between the oscillators occurs via interactions or coupling pathways, whereas the light-dark cycle is used for synchronization to the outside world.

The most important mammalian circadian pacemaker is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) at the base of the hypothalamus in the brain.

From the suprachiasmatic nucleus, nerve impulses travel via the sympathetic nervous system to the pineal gland and inhibit the production of melatonin. At night, these impulses stop and melatonin production ensues and is released into the body.

In fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds, the pineal gland appears to be directly sensitive to small amounts of light that penetrate the skin and skull.

In mammals, with increased development of the cerebral hemispheres, the pineal body came to lie deeper within the brain and indirect stimulation of the pineal gland by light via the retina came to be more important. The Suprachiasmatic Nuclei are connected to the Outer Eye and the Inner Eye, the Pineal Gland.

The Pineal Gland is called the 6th Chakra, the Third Eye (or the Eye of Horus), the Seat of the Imagination.  The Imagination, the Central Clock of our Body, is “in control” of all the other Clocks in our Body.

With the Help of our Imagination we are able to Cure and to Kill the Body.

pineal
Pineal Gland

About the Pineal Gland

The Earth is a huge magnetic sphere. The E/M field of the Earth varies in strength and consistency through the ages. Our bodies own magnetic frequencies and our bio-field patterns react to this variance of the Earth’s field.

The pineal gland is the principal structure in the brain that is directly sensitive to the Earth’s magnetic field. The Pineal Gland Senses the Field.  To sense the Field the Pineal Gland contains small calcite crystals.

Our bone structure Converts Vibrational Energy into Magnetic and Electric Energy. When the bone is bent it produces an E/M-field. This E/M-field interacts with the Pineal Gland and creates a Feed-Back Cycle.

The E/M-field of our Body, the Aura, is a combination of all kind of waves. A special type of wave-structure is called a Standing Wave.

When the E/M-field acts as a Standing Wave all the waves are in harmony and conserve structure. The Human body is in harmony when the total field of all the separate E/M-fields of the Body act as a Standing Wave.

The Standing Wave appears when the Spinal Wave of the Vertebrae of the Body is in a special Alignment.  If this happens the Standing Wave of the Spine Resonates with the Standing Wave of the Earth. At that moment the Kundalini Rises and the Pineal Gland reacts with a Huge Mystical Experience.

About the Heart

The heart beats about once a second throughout your life. These regular contractions pump blood to the Upper (Head) and the Lower part of the body and are driven by electrical impulses from a natural pacemaker inside the heart.

This pacemaker, known as the sino-atrial node, responds to signals from the Central Circadian Clock situated in the Hypothalamus that changes the heart rate according to the body’s needs (“the action potential“), making it slower when resting and faster during exercise.The rhythmic contractions of the heart are triggered by waves of electrical activity that spread from the sino-atrial node throughout the heart muscle.

There are small fluctuations in the time intervals between beats that are fractal in nature, and a loss in this variability is a sign of cardiac ill health. However, a cardiac arrhythmia, in which the rhythm of electrical waves that drive the heart is broken, can be lethal.

A loss in the synchronized rhythm of the heart causes different parts of the atrial or ventricular muscle to contract at different times, undermining the pumping action of the heart. An arrhythmia therefore leads to the mechanical failure of the heart.

The propagation of excitations in heart tissue can be described in terms of travelling waves with a velocity of about 0.5 m s-1 and an amplitude given by the action potential. Since the action potential lasts for several hundreds of milliseconds, a single wave extends over a distance of about 10 cm. This means that a normal human heart is hardly large enough to contain a single wave.

In the heart the wave propagates around a circular obstacle. The wave repeatedly travels along the same path at a frequency given by the wave velocity divided by the circumference of the obstacle.

If the radius is gradually decreased, the frequency increases until the wavefront of a new wave catches up with the tail of the previous wave. If the radius is made even smaller, the wave is forced to adopt a spiral shape that continues to rotate around a central core. Spiral  Waves have been observed in numerous chemical and physical experiments.

The Wave Structure of the Heart resembles the Wave Structure of the Universe. This could be the reason why the Heart plays such  an important role in many Religions.

When the Wave Structure of the Heart is coherent with the Wave Structure of the Whole, the Rhythm of your Life is in Sync with the Rhythm of the Universe.

The Pacemaker Cells are called the Heart Chakra, the 4th Chakra. The Heart Chakra acts as the Balance Point for all the Chakras.

The Balancing Point is the Middle of two Triangels related to  the Head and the Body that rotate With- and Counter-the-Clock creating a Moebius Ring.  The Pineal Gland, the Central Clock, is part of the Upper Triangel of the Mind.

Spiral Waves in the Heart

Chemical Spiral Waves
Chemical Spiral Waves

About Cymatics

In 1967, the late Hans Jenny, a Swiss doctor, artist, and researcher, published the book Cymatics,  The Structure and Dynamics of Waves and Vibrations. In this book Jenny showed what happens when one takes various materials like sand, spores, iron filings, water, and viscous substances, and places them on vibrating metal plates and membranes.

What then appears are shapes and motion- patterns which vary from the nearly perfectly ordered and stationary to those that are turbulently developing, organic, and constantly in motion.

When Jenny experimented with Fluids of various kinds he produced Wave motions, Spirals, and wave-like patterns in Continuous Circulation.

These patterns are the same patterns that are produced by Coupled Oscillators. This is not strange because Sound Waves are highly comparable to Electro Magnetic Waves.

With the help of simple tools it is possible to Simulate the Creation and Expansion of the Universe.

We don’t need very complicated tools to observe the Whole. The Whole shows its patterns everywhere, even in your bathtub.

The Whirpool Galaxy
The Whirpool Galaxy

About the Creation of the Universe

In beginning the Void, the Zero Point Field,  rotated in Silence until a Huge Action Potential disturbed its Eternal Rest.

The Void was in a state of Amplitude Death until a Statistical Fluctuation, an Act of Creation, moved the System into a Chimera and later a Phase Drift.

Out of the Phase Drift Two Coupled Oscillators (Yin & Yang) appeared that moved With- and Against the Clock creating a Spiral Motion, a Vortex.

The Two Coupled Oscillators were each others Complement because two Coupled Oscillators are always Complementary.

After a while the Phase Drift generated Four and More Oscillators and Space started to Expand.

The pattern of this Expansion is governed by the Metallic Mean, which generates Fluent or Quasi Crystals. Fluent Crystals are the basic structure of the Electro Magnetic System of the Human. Scientists believe that the basic structure of our Universe is a Fluent Crystal, a Hall of Mirrors.

Quasi Crystals
Quasi Crystals

Space stops expanding when the Unbalance of the Energy of the Act of Creation is compensated by the amount of Oscillators (Strings) of Expanding Space.

At that moment the Universe will move into the State of Synchronization and all the Parts will move with the Rhythm of the Central Clock, the Tao.

When this happens the Universe starts to contract until Space has reached the Void.

In the last step the Oscillation will stop and the Void and Amplitude Death will appear again.

LINKS

How bacteria entrain

Steven Strogatz: About Coupled Oscillators and Biology

A lecture about Coupled Oscillators

A presentation about Coupled Oscillators

About Engagement

About Standing Waves

About Hypnosis

About the Electro Magnetic Field in the Body

About the Cardiac Pacemaker Cells

About Cymatics

About the Heart Chakra

About Stress and the Action Potential

About the Zero Point Field

About the Metallic Mean

About the Hall of Mirrors

About Good Vibrations

The Good (Creation) and the not-Good, the Bad (Destruction),  are two Waves that are moving in Opposite Directions. Together they create interference patterns called Standing Waves.

Standing Waves are Waves that preserve their Form and can be perceived as Material Particles.

If the Good is a Wave Moving with the Clock, the Bad is a Wave Moving Against the Clock.

I believe the Good is moving with the Clock because the words “Right” and “Wrong” were associated with the Right Hand and the Left Hand and the concept “moving” (wringen in Dutch).

In Magic the Left Hand Path is associated with Black Magic and in many cultures the Left is associated with Evil.

In China the Rotation with the Clock is called the Generating Cycle and the Rotation Against the Clock the Destructing Cycle.

The Standing Waves of Matter contain the Bad and the Good in a certain proportion. Therefore every part of Nature (including the Humans) contains a piece of the Bad and a piece of the Good. That’ s why it is rather difficult to make a distinction between both of them.

There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so”  (Hamlet Act 2, scene 2, 239–251)

Doppler_div
A Moving Standing Wave

proton10
Two Moving Standing Waves Interfere and produce a Magnetic Field

About the Svara

The idea that our Universe is a Wave goes back a very long time. In Ancient Indian Philosophy the Wave of the Universe was called the Svara, the Wave of Life.

It is the manifestation of the impression on matter of the Power Which Knows Itself (Atman). The Atman arises out of the Emptyness (Brahman). The Emptyness is a Mystery. It is impossible to Reason about it.

The Svara consists of Five Types of Waves called Tattvas. They represent distinctive Forms and Vibratory Motions and are the five modifications of the Great Breath, Prana, of  the Atman. Prana is called Chi in China.

The first Wave that came out of the Atman is called the Âkâsha (Spirit, Egg, Black). After this came  the Vâyu (Air, the Circle, Blue), the Tejas (Fire, the Triangle, Red), the Apas (Water, the Crescent of the Moon, Silver) and the Prithivi (Earth, the Square, Yellow).

The Svara has two different States,  the Bright Sun-Breath  and the Dark Moon-Breath. In the first state the Svara expands, away from the Void. In the second state it contracts and moves back to the beginning.
At a certain moment we will experience the spectacular Twist of the Svara. This is the moment when Time will move back and the Apas (Aquarius, Water) will dominate the Fire (Bull) of the Tejas.
The Âkâsha and the other Four States of the Svara are the States of what Western Scientists call the Aether, the Carrier of the Standing Waves of the Universe.

The Five Tattvas
The Five Tattvas

About the Aether

Until the experiments of Michelson and Morley in 1887 every Physicist believed in the existence of the Aether. Everybody was very surprised when the experiments showed that the Aether was moving with a constant speed, the Speed of Light, in both directions of measurement.

Nobody questioned the experiments so a completely new theory had to be created to explain the strange behavior of Light. This new theory was the Relativity Theory of Albert Einstein.

The situation became even stranger when Niels Bohr (and others) invented Quantum Mechanics and showed that Light could be interpreted as a particle, a Photon, and a Wave.

At that time almost nobody understood the Concept of the Standing Wave. A Standing Wave is a Wave that preserves its Form and therefore shows itself as a Particle.

It is now proved that Michelson and Morley made a fatal mistake. The Unification of the Theories of Einstein and Bohr is going on but two foundations of the Theory of Einstein, the non-existence of the Aether and the Constant speed of Light, are gone.

The concept of the Aether, the Svara,  is back and new theories of the Universe based on Standing Waves are produced and verified. These theories are much simpler than the old theories.

What is the Same?

The Ethical Law of Resonance states that “The Same attracts the Same and Repels the Not-the Same“.  The Good  attracts the Good and the Bad attacts the Bad but the Good also repels the Bad and the Bad repels the Good.  If we are able to define the Same we are able to define the Good and the Bad.

When you want to find out if some Thing is the same as another Thing you have to define the concept of “the-sameness“.

Every thing is different from any other thing when you collect enough different data about both of them. When you ignore every detail every thing  is the same (A = A). When two objects are literally “the same” we call this relationship an equality (A=B).

The same objects can appear differently when we Look at them differently. In this case a “the sameness” (now called a congruency) appears when we are able to create the same object when we move (translate), rotate or reflect the other object.

congruent2
Two Congruent Triangels

To find an independent reference framework for an Observer who is “not moving” and a constant Speed of Light Einstein had to abstract from Translation, Rotation, Reflection and Movement (Speed and Acceleration). Einstein’s friend Minkowski solved his problem by creating a new type of “curved” space now called Minkowski Space.

The Ancient Scientists of India not only abstracted the Aether from the Eyes like Einstein did. They abstracted the Aether from the other Four Senses too.

Every Tattva represents another Sense Organ and a related Wave pattern. The interesting point is that the Waves of the Tattva of the Eyes, the Light Waves, the Tejas, behave, exactly the way the current scientists describe.

The current Scientists ignore the fact that Humans observe their Environment with their Five Senses. The ancient Scientists not only detected five types of Waves. They also found a way to combine the Five Wave-Types into one Wave Model.

In general Objects are “the same” when we are able to find a Structure Preserving, isomorphic, transformation (F) from Object A to Object B. F(A)=B and G(B)= A and FG=Identity. With the help of an Isomorphic Transformation you are able to map a structure A to another structure B  and move back to the same structure A.

Every Isomorphic transformation can be seen as a “specialized Organ“, that  “looks” at Reality in its own way.

The mathematical field of Topology is concerned with the “the sameness” of objects that are Expanded and Compressed. Topology represents the Organ of the Emotions. With this organ we are able to  research the effects of the Great Breath of the Prana.

Mug_and_Torus_morph
Transforming a Mug into a Torus

About the Great Breath

With the help of isomorphic  “topological” transformations it is possible to make the huge Diversity of Forms in our Universe the Same. It is even possible to compress every structure in our Universe into one structure, the structure of the Void.

In this case there are a few topological possibilities depending on the dimensions of space. In two dimensions we can choose out of the Point and the Circle, a Closed Line. In higher dimensions strange twisted structures appear such as the Moebius Ring and the Klein Bottle.

If the Universe is compressed into a Rotating Circle,  The One who is in the Centre always Returns on Itself.  The Universe is expanding and compressing until Eternity. At a certain time even after a huge expansion the Power of Creation is able to “Knows Itself”. This concept is called the Cyclic Universe.

If the Universe is compressed  into a point, called a singularity, we live in a “Big Bang-universe“, the standard cosmological model, which will expand into Eternity.

It will be clear that the structure in the beginning determinates the way the Waves of the Universe expand.

Twisted Topological Structures
Twisted Topological Structures that are Closed in Itself

If the Universe is Closed in Itself the Outbound Waves of the Beginning  will meet the Inbound Waves of the Utmost Boundary and will create Interference Patterns that look like Standing Waves.

When the Universe was small the Interference Patterns came up almost immediately. When the Universe expanded it took more time to Close the Loop.

If the Universe is a Closed System, the Waves of the Past and the Waves of the Future will meet in the Now.  At every moment in Time we are able to look into a possible Future and a possible Past.

At every moment in Time we can Change the Past and the Future if we are able to start a Powerful Negative (Destructive, Bad) or Positive  (Creative, Good) Wave of our Own.

According to the Ancient Scientists the Forces of the Tattvas at a certain Level of Enfolding represented Consciouss Beings (Angels, Devils) who could be Called to help to influence the Standing Waves of Matter.

In the strange terminology of Quantum Mechanics this state is called a Quantum Superposition and the union of the waves is called Quantum Entanglement. Quantum Entanglement moves with a speed much higher than the Speed of Light.

Sometimes the fragmented Tones of the Universe unite into one Symphony when the Strings of the many Violins of the Individual Standing Waves are in Tune.

We are able to change the Past and the Future when we are in Tune with the Waves of the Universe.

About the  Number Five

The symbol of the number Zero (“0”) looks like an Egg, the Âkâsha. The Âkâsha represents Space.

The name “zero” comes from the Arabic صفر, şafira, “it was empty” and the Sanskrit śūnya “void” or “empty”. The 0, Space, was Empty, Ø, before it was created.

According to many creation myths the beginning of this world,  Non-Being, Ø, the Empty Set, expanded into an Egg, 0.

The Egg started to Rotate (Air, Vayu, Movement) and was splitted into the Duality (-1,1), the Crescent of the Moon (Apas), the In-Between-Moon or Half Moon (1/2).

The negative part of the Duality started to move in the Opposite Direction. At that moment the Good (Creation) and the Bad (Destruction) were created.

The Apas are the force of Contraction (Control), the Opposite of the Tejas, Fire (Desire), the Force of Expansion. The Apas wants to bring the System back to the Void.

In the Beginning the Good (Fire) was much stronger than the Bad (Water). Therefore the Universe started to Expand.

The Trinity, the Triangel (Tejas, Fire), contains three numbers (-1, 0, +1). When the first Trinity was created the Force of Fire and Desire, the Tejas, started to Expand the Trinity into more Trinities. The production of Trinities in Trinities is a Fractal Pattern (“So Above, So Below“).

The first two Triangels, the Triangel of the Trinity of the Mind of the Atman and the Trinity of the Material World, are combined into a Square (Prithivi, Earth). The Prithivi are seen as the Force of Resistance, the Opposite of Âkâsha, Space.

The Prithivi, the Square of the Four Forces, the Human,  resists the movement back to the Void. The main reason is that the connection between the Spiritual World and the Material World is very strong.

The Spirit of the Human, situated in the Heart Chakra,  needs Matter to create all the possible combinations of the Becoming Trinities to Experience the Fullness of Being.

The Square is a combination of two Triangels. It is represented by the Of Star of David, the Symbol of the Heart Chakra.
The Square is a combination of two Triangels. The Square, the Four Foces of Nature, is represented by the Star of David, the Symbol of the Heart Chakra.

The number Five can be found in the Middle of the oldest Magical Square on Earth, the Lo Shu Square. The Lo Shu Square was given to Emperor Yu the Great after the Great Flood (3117 BC) by a Turtle, the symbol of the Star System Orion.

About the Magic Square of Lo Shu

The Lo Shu Magic Square contains the numbers 1-9 (3×3). In every direction they add up to a total of 15 (3×5).

The Magic Square Constraints the Expansion of the Force of Fire and makes it possible that the Cycle moves back to the zero, the Void, the Mystery.

The Lo Shu Square in the Middle of the Mystic Tablet from Tibet
The Lo Shu Square in the Middle of the Mystic Tablet from Tibet

-1 4 -3
-2 0 2
3 -4 1

When we subtract all the numbers in the Magic Square with the number 5,  the Zero of the Egg of the Âkâsha appears in the Middle.

The transformed Magic Square shows an interesting symmetry.

On the six “crosses” the same negative and positive Tattvas are found. The Four Tattvas are Balanced in the o, Space, the Âkâsha.

On the straight lines  two symmetric patterns emerge ((-1,4,-3) and (1,2,-3)) again both positive and negative. In these patterns the 4 balances the 1 and the 3 and the 2 balances the 3 and the 1.

When we follow the Numbers of the Square from -4 to +4, the Sheng Cycle appears.

About the Sheng Cycle

The Sheng Cycle not only contains the Cycle of the Five Tattvas. It also contains Five Triangels in which One Tattvas Balances Two other Tatvass.

The number Five is the same as the Number Zero when we accept that there are Two Structures (or Two Universes). One structure rotates in the Positive Domain, The Sun, and one in the Negative Domain, The Moon.

The Square represents the Four Force of Nature who are the Four Combinations of the Two Forces of the Duality, Compression and Expansion, Yin and Yang, the Apas and the Tejas, Fire and Water, Control and Desire.

The Sheng Cycle is the major Cycle in Chinese Philosophy. It was used to explain and control the many levels of existence (State, Family, Environment, Body,..).

The Sheng Cycle moves in two directions, With the Clock (Generating, +1) and Against the Clock (Destructing, -1).

When we combine the two Cycles a 9(3×3)-fold Twisted Moebius Ring is created with the Earth in the Middle. This Cycle is represented by the Symbol of Infinity (). This Cycle is comparable to the Tree of Life, the Jewish Sephiroth and the Ancient Egyptian Pesedjet (the Nine).

In the Bright (positive) Part of the Moebius Ring we are in the Sun-State, Life. In the Dark (negative) Part we experience the Moon-State , Death, the Underworld (Our Twin Universe), the place where the Souls exist when they Die.

Now it becomes very clear what the Ancient Indian Scientist meant with the Dark Moon-State of the Svara. When the Wave of Life moves back to the Center, the Void, Death will become Life  (“the Death will be raised“), Time will Reverse, the Universe will Compress and the Good will become the Bad.

The Sheng Cycle
The Sheng Cycle

About Harmonics

In 1931 the US Department of Commerce assigned Edward Dewey the task of discovering the cause and underlying dynamics of the Great Depression. The US Government created a special institute the Foundation for the Study of Economic Cycles. The Institute contains a huge database of the times-series of almost every Cycle there is.

The most interesting observation of Edward Dewey is that Cycles restore themselves all the time and are influenced by other Cycles. The Cycles Resonate.

Ray Tomes, a statistical mathematician, started to do research on the time-series of the Institute. He confirmed the Insights of Dewey but with the much more powerful tools of his time he was able to dig a lot more deeper into data.

Tomes detected a relationship between the Cycles and Music, the Âkâsha. Tomes also developed a  method to find the basic structure behind the Waves of the many Cycles.

Tomes found one Basic Standing Wave that generates other waves by producing Overtones. Tomes rediscovered the Svara and could also explain why the “numbers” behind the Svara are the way they are.

The explanation can be found in the so called Highly Composite Numbers (HCN). The HCN are “social” numbers with many divisors. They represent the major “harmonic” connectors in the Universe. The HCN are the opposite of the “lonely” Prime Numbers who only contain themselves.

The structure behind the HCN is self-referencial and is based on the numbers 2, 3 and 5.

About the Cyclic Universe of Paul Steinhardt

The Cyclic Univere of Paul J. Steinhardt
The Cyclic Universe of Paul J. Steinhardt

Paul Steinhardt has created a new theory about the Universe based on the Four Forces of the Square and the Void in the Center. In his theory the Universe is Cyclic. It is expanding and contracting.

The expansion of the Universe ends when the Two Major Structures (-1,1) in the Universe, called Membranes or Branes, are in Balance with the Center, the Void (0).

The two Branes are higher dimensional flat surfaces that are in parallel. The Left and the Right Brains split into many similar Cell-like Structures. We live in one of the Cells of the Cyclic Universe.

When the Universe expands the constraints of the Flat Surface (the Lo Shu Square) create a huge tension and the flat surfaces start to Ripple. The Ripples are waves that are closed in themselves (loops).

When you use your imagination you can see that the Cyclic Universe of Paul Steinhardt has a lot in common with the ancient theories of India and China with only one difference.

In the Ancient theories the creator of the Universe was “Aware of Itself” in the new theories Awareness is a Feed-Back-Loop, a Cycle.

About Ancient Spirituality and Modern Science

This blog started with the Ancient Spiritual Indian Concept of the Svara , the Wave of Life. It ends with the Modern Material Cyclical Universe of Paul Steinhardt.

In between I have tried to show that the old theories of the Self-Aware Universe and the new theories of the Endless Feed-Back Loops in Our Universe have a lot in common.

The Ancient Spiritual Scientists developed a Theory of Everything based on the principle of the Fractal Universe (“So Above, So Below“).

If the Universe is a Fractal Structure,  the only thing the Modern Sciences have to do is to find the Right Level of Observation (Cells, Body, Family/Group, Culture, State, Earth, ..) of the Fractal Expansion of our Universe and the Same Laws will appear again and again.

The Levels in our Universe
The Levels in our Universe (Calculated by Ray Tomes)

About the Good, the Bad and the Nothing

If the Good and the Bad are Standing Waves that move With the Clock and Against the Clock it will be much more easier to determine what is Right and what is Wrong (Left).

With the Clock moves With the Flow. It generates new structures until the Limits of the Universe are reached.

Against the Clock moves Against the Flow. It destructs new structures until the Limits of the Universe are reached.

The Bad wants to Control Everything. It Fears the Good and the Future.

The Bad does not (want to )understand that The Good and the Bad are moving to the same Destination, The Nothing.

The Good gives us Joy, Pleasure and Exitement.

The Bad moves Back in Time. It wants to restore what was already there. Its final aim is the Zero, Empty Space.

The Good moves Forwards in Time. It creates new Perspectives about a Bright New Future. Its final aim is Every Thing, the Many, Infinite Space filled with an Infinite Amount of Forms.

The Bad and the Good move Back and Forth around an Unknowable Center, the Nothing, that makes Every Thing possible.

Some day the One and the Infinite, will merge, into the Impossible. When this happens the Nothing will return for a very short  (1/∞) moment.

LINKS

About the Law of Resonance

About the History of the Laws of Nature (The Website of Milo Wolff. It contains everything you want to know about the history of the concept of the Standing Wave).

Why Matter is a Standing Wave

About the Svara (This Website  contains a (big) Complete Book written in 1894 about the Ancient Theory of the Svara.  A Must Read, when you want to understand Ancient Physics).

About the Harmonic Theory of Ray Tomes

About the Experiments of Michelson and Morley

Why God is a Topologist

About Pauli and Quantum Mechanics

About the Cyclic Universe

About the Lo Shu Square

About the Trinity

About Infinity

About the Empty Set

About the Good, the Bad and the Nothing

Sometimes You want to do the Good Thing and the result is a Bad Thing.

Sometimes You start an Activity with a Good Intention but the Activity runs completely Out of Hand because You were unable to Predict all the effects.

Sometimes you discover that you have started a Chain of Activities with a good intention and the Result of the Chain is Bad.

Good and Bad are Context Dependent.

Look at this little Story:

A Chinese farmer awoke one morning to find a horse grazing in one of his fields. Since nobody came to claim the horse, the farmer used it to plow his uncultivated land. “What a good this horse is for you,” said his neighbor. “We’ll see,” said the farmer. Soon after, the farmer’s 18-year-old son was riding the horse when it shied at a snake. The youth fell off and broke his leg. “What an evil this is for you,” said his neighbor. “We’ll see,” said the farmer. Soon after, the warlord’s agents combed the village, conscripting young men for his army. Because of his broken leg, the farmer’s son was not taken. “What a good this is for you,” said his neighbor. “We’ll see,” said the farmer.

The Devil in the TAROT
The Tarot Card the Devil: The Devil, the God Pan, is the Force of Desire. On the Card we can see that Humans are able to Lift the Chains of Desire.

About the Golden Rule of Ethics

The big problem is that we attach a Value to the Intentions or the Consequences of an Activity and this Value has just two Names named: “Good” or “Bad“.

When the E-Valuation is “Good” we Feel Good. When the E-Valuation is “Bad” we feel Anger, Sadness, Guilty, Depressed or Worse. The Names of the Evaluation trigger the Emotions Deeply.

Most of the time we feel Guilty without any need to feel Guilty because we are not in Control of Everything that Happens.

The Ego, our Identity, is not able to stand the Lack of Control it has on the Outside World.

Humans need the “Illusion of Control” to sustain their Identity. Deep within they don’t want to believe that Other Human Beings or the Forces of Nature (“the Acts of God“) are also Active Agents.

The Science that is trying to define the Good and the Bad is called Ethics.

Ethics is the Philosophical Study of  “the Moral Value of Human Conduct and of the Rules and Principles that ought to govern it” or “the principles concerning the distinction between Right and Wrong or Good and Bad Behavior’

The most important Rule of Ethics is the so called Golden Rule : ” We should do to others what we would want others to do to us” or “do not do to others what you would not like to be done to you“.

The Golden Rule of Empathy and Forgiving is the most important Ethical Rule in many Cultures all around the World.

The Golden Rule uses the Principle of Self-Reference. Something is Applied on Itself.

When we apply the Principle of Self-Reference to the Bad, we move into the Domain of Lady Justice.

Lady Justice
Lady Justice: An Eye for an Eye (Revenge)

About Justice and Revenge

When Bad People don’t want to use the Good Golden Rule some cultures use the Rule “An Eye for an Eye” (Revenge) to do Justice to the Bad Ones. When you do Bad to a Person, the Bad Behavior is Applied to Yourself. “Eye for an eye” is used to make Bad People Aware of the Good Golden Rule.

The interesting point is that the combination of the Golden Rule and the “Eye for an Eye“-Rule  (called Tit-for-Tat) is the best way to solve the Iterated Prisoners Dilemma, a Chain of Conflicts.

Strangely enough The Good (now called Cooperation)  is Accomplished when you just Imitate the Behavior of the Others.

There is One (fatal) Exception to the Strategy of Tit-for-Tat. If you want to operate On Your Own and You think You don’t need the Others to Survive the best Way to Operate is to Betray Every Body. Bad Behavior provides you with a Huge Economic Win but also with a  Huge Social Loss.

When you Betray the others, You have To Protect Yourself for the Revenge of the Others.

To Compensate your Social Loss You have to Buy the Others (Lawyers, Mercanaries, ) or (worse) you have to Force the Others with Violence to Cooperate with You.  In the first Case you lose a lot of Money and in the last case the Amount of Revenge increases exponentially.

To Survive you always have to Balance the Social (“the Other“) and the Economic (“the Ego“). The “easy way’ is to do the Good and the “difficult way” is to do the Bad.

Cooperation is a highly Effective and Efficient Method to accomplish the Good for Your Self and the Others because Good Behavior attracts Good Behavior and Bad Behavior attracts  Bad Behavior.

Seven Virtues
The Seven Virtues

About the Seven Virtues.

To do Good or to do Justice you have to Apply the Same to the Same because The Same Attracts the Same.

The Same not only Attracts the Same. The Same Repels the Not-the-Same.

The Same Law:  “Look-A-Likes Like Each Other and Repel the Organisms that are not looking alike” (called Genetic Similarity Theory) also explains Evolution. This rule was detected by Charles Darwin when he wanted to explain the huge amount of Cooperation in Nature.

When you Apply the Same to the Same (Self-Reference) it generates a Fractal Structure in which the Same Structure Repeats Itself on Every Level (“As Above, So Below“).

It Looks Like there is a Universal Moral Law that explains  Behavior on Every Level of the Universe.

Some Scientists believe the Moral Laws are Eternal Truths. This believe has a long History that goes back to Ancient Rome (Cicero), Ancient Greece (Plato, Socrate) and Ancient Egypt (Ma’at).

During the Renaissance (“Rebirth“) the Moral Principles of Rome, Greece, and Egypt were reborn and transformed into Moral Systems based on the Four (Prudence, Justice, Temperance and Fortitude) or the Seven Virtues (The Four Virtues & Faith, Hope and Love).

When you understand and apply the Universal Moral Laws you use the Virtue of Prudence (Wisdom, Knowledge).  To Apply the Golden Lesson you need to have Courage and a Strong Will, the Virtue of Fortitude. When you keep the three Virtues (Wisdom, Justice and Will) in the right Balance you are practising the virtue of Temperance.

They last three virtues are derived out of the First Letter to the Corinthians written by Paul:

“If I speak in the tonguesof men and of angels, but have not love, I am only a resounding gong or a clanging cymbal. If I have the gift of prophecy and can fathom all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have a faith that can move mountains, but have not love, I am nothing. If I give all I possess to the poor and surrender my body to the flames,but have not love, I gain nothing.

Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres.

Love never fails. But where there are prophecies, they will cease; where there are tongues, they will be stilled; where there is knowledge, it will pass away. For we know in part and we prophesy in part, but when perfection comes, the imperfect disappears. When I was a child, I talked like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child. When I became a man, I put childish ways behind me. Now we see but a poor reflection as in a mirror; then we shall see face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I am fully known. And now these three remain: faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love”.

Balance of Ma'at
The Golden Rule of Ma’at (Forgiving and Empathy)

About the Temperance of Ma’at

Ma’at (later  named Sophia ) was one of the (3×3) Nine Egyptian Neteru . She represented the Virtues of Truth, Balance, Justice, and Order. Just like Lady Justice she uses a Scale.

The dead person’s Heart was placed on the scale, balanced by the Feather of Ma’at. If the Heart weighed the same as the Feather of Ma’at, the deceased was allowed to go on to the Eternal Afterlife and gained Immortality (Heaven).

If the deceased had been found not to have followed the concept of Ma’at during his life (if he had lied or cheated or killed or revenged) his heart was devoured by a demon and he died the final death and was Reincarnated (Hell).

The Human,  the Talking Baboon,  had to start all over again to Learn and Apply the most important Golden Lesson of the Universe.

The way of Ma’at was to Act out of the Center of Conscioussness, the Heart. Acting out of the Heart is called the Virtue of Love.

Ma’at was also the God of Balance, Rythm and the Cycles. The Good and the not-Good moved the Cycles of the Universe.

The Good and the not-Good came out of the Same Source, the Void, the Sekhem, the Source of Infinite Potential and Love.

The Tree Faces of Shiva
The Tree Faces of Shiva (Creator, Destructor and Brahman (Void, Love, Infinite Potential))

About the Trinity of the Mind

In the Eastern (Gnostic, Egyptian, Indian, African, Mystic) Believe System the Good and the Bad are both created by the Demiurg (or the Logos, “In the beginning was the Word and Word was God“) one of the Creations of the Void. The Void exists outside our Level of Existence. The Void is a Mystery.

The Good and the not-Good, the Bad, are Complementary Opponents. Their Union is the Whole. They Share the Void, the Empty Set. The Empty Set contains Everything that is Impossible.

The Good and the Bad Move the Cycles of the Universe. They represent the E-Motions (Expansion (Desire, Creation) and Contraction (Control, Destruction)) of the Void.

The Good and the Bad Cooperate by Competing to bring the Lonely Souls back to the Void.

The Good, the Creator, and the Bad, the Destructor, are Two Faces of the Same Entity, the Spiritual Trinity, who came out of the Nothing.

The connection with the Void can be found in the Middle (the Golden Mean) of the Body, the Heart, the Link between the Triangel of the Material World (the Body) and the Triangel of the Spiritual World (The Mind).

The Heart, the connection with the Void,  is the Seat of Consciousness. It is also the Seat of the Emotions (Soul).

When the Heart Weights like a Feather, the Upper (Mind) and the Lower Trinity (the Body) connected by the Emotions are in Balance.

The Bad and the Good are Attractors. When the Attraction becomes too High you get Addicted to the Bad or the Good. A huge Expansion is compensated by a huge Contraction to Balance the Cycle. When you want to avoid the Pain of Contraction you have to Balance your Life.

The Two Triangels with the Heart in the Middle are the Same As the Seven Chakra’s (2×3+1) and the Seven Virtues of the Renaissance.

The Seven Chakra’s together with the Spiritual Trinity are Similar to the Tree of Life, The Egyptian Pesedjet/Neteru and the Jewish Sephirot (3×3+1).

The Seven Chakra's
The Seven Chakra’s

About the Trinity of the Body

When Body and Mind are in Balance, the Ideas of the Spiritual Trinity are received by the Trinity of the Mind and are Implemented by the Trinity of the Material Body in the Material World (Earth).

When the Mind is not connected to the Body and the Spirit, the Ideas become Abstractions (only Words) or the Impulses of the Desire of the Body Takes over Control.

When the Mind is not connected to the Spirit Innovation stops and Old Ideas (the Seeds) Repeat Themselves All the Time. The Human becomes a Machine Caught in the Wheel of the Good and the Bad.

The One, the Spiritual Trinity, who is The Void, the Good (the Creator) and the Bad (the Destructor), uses the Strategy of Tit-for-Tat, the Trickster.

The Trinity Imitates the Behavior of the Humans or We the Humans Copy their Behavior (“We are made in the Image of God“)!

The One wants to make the Humans Aware of the Fact that the only way to Survive the Infinite Chain of Conflicts (Dilemma’s, Contradictions), which is Life, is to Cooperate (Live out of the Heart) with the Infinite Potential, the God of Love.

Implosion
The Big Implosion

About Destruction

The Golden Rule of Ethics tries to avoid the Negative Emotions, the Emotions of Loss. It wants to Create a situation were Everybody is Happy.

The Golden Rule of Ethics helps a lot to Evaluate our Intentions and the Consequences of our Intentions but the effect of our Collective Actions on the Bigger Structures is almost Unpredictable.

It would help a lot if we could Expand our View from the Emotional Human Other to “all the Other Life-Forms” that are in Existence.

In this case we have to Understand the Effects of our Behavior on the Negative Emotions of the Bacteria, the Plants, the Animals, Earth and even the Universe.

It is not clear if our Emphatic System is able to Imagine the Inner World of the other Life Forms.

If the Act of Destruction is felt the same by all these Organisms it will be simply impossible to Live.

We have to Destroy Others to stay Alive.

The Universe Destroys to Stay Alive.

The Destruction of the Old is needed to Create the New.

At this moment we are confronted with a World-Wide Crisis on many Levels of Existence. The Collective Behavior of the Human Race is Destroying our Environment.

The Collective Desire to Create and Expand has reached the Limits of the System we Live in.

It is almost impossible to Control this Expansion. The Control Systems have also reached their Limits.

The Two Complementary Forces, The Good and the Bad, Expansion and Contraction, Desire and Control,  have both reached their Outer Limits.

If they both reach the Limits the Expanding Balloon of our Outer Universe will Explode in Itself (Implode) and move through the Void to another State. There is Simply no Space Left to Expand.

If this happens the Expansion of the Outer World will be Transformed into an Expansion of the Inner World.

The Big Bang, the Big Explosion, the Sublime Act of Creation, will Repeat itself and the Big Implosion will Create a New Universe.

The Flow of Time
The Flow of Time

About Not-Acting

Wu Wei (Not Acting, Acting without Effort) is an important concept of Taoism.

When you want to apply this concept you have to Know Everything There is to Know about the Cycles and the Forces of Nature. Wu Wei is only possible when you have aquired the Knowledge and the Wisdom of Ma’at/Sophia.

Most of the Time the Power of the Cycle is so Strong that it is impossible for Us to influence the Flow of Time.

Sometimes on a Rare Moment on a Special Place the Cycles can be Influenced.

Only at that Special Magic Moment the Human is able to do the Good or the Bad.

At all the other Moments History Takes its Course. The Good and Bad Forces, the Acts of God, Act without our Consent on the Higher Levels of Our Universe. It is a Waste of Time and Energy to Oppose these Forces.

Most of the Time we are Pushed by the Forces of Nature. We Act without Effort.

In Ancients Times the Forces were called Gods, Angels or Devils. At this moment we Name these Forces with Different Names (Gravity, the Strong and Weak Force and the Electro-Magnetic Force) but the Effect of the Forces on our Field of Existence stays the Same.

At a Magic Moment Everything, even the Impossible, is Possible. At such a moment we are “in Tune with”  the Empty Set, the Void, the Sekhem, the Tao, the Field, the Love, the Mystery, the Unspoken.

The Emotions of Loss are created when we Lose Something.

If you Own Nothing You have Nothing to Lose.

If you Expect Nothing, Every Thing will Happen.

When people see things as beautiful,
ugliness is created.
When people see things as good,
evil is created.

Being and non-being produce each other.
Difficult and easy complement each other.
Long and short define each other.
High and low oppose each other.
Fore and aft follow each other
.

Therefore the Master
can act without doing anything
and teach without saying a word.
Things come her way and she does not stop them;
things leave and she lets them go.
She has without possessing,
and acts without any expectations.
When her work is done, she takes no credit.
That is why it will last forever
.

(Tao Te Ching,  Chapter II)

LINKS

About Game Theory and Ethics

About Cybernetics and Ethics

About Social Balance Theory

About Addiction

How to Resolve a Conflict

About the Seven Virtues

About the Illusion of Control and other Human Biases

About Morality and Ethics

About Ethical Dilemma’s

About Tit-for-Tat

About Tit-for-Tat and World Politics

About Genetic Similarity Theory

About the Renaissance

About Ma’at and the Measure of the Heart

About the Nine Egyptian Concepts (the Neteru)

About Plato and the New Harmony

About Socrate and the Golden Rule

About the Demiurg

About the Mystic Experience

About the Heart

About the Void

About the Sekhem

About the Trinity

About the Trickster

About Self-Aware Autonomous (Smart) Systems

global brainWhen a Search Engine crawls the web and indexes information so that you can access it quickly, the search engine is doing Proactive Computation.

Servers don’t wait for you to execute a search query to start crawling the web; they are being proactive because it takes Too Much Time to find and index what you want.

The Sensory Motor System of Our Body is constantly performing Proactive Computing because it has to be Ready to Act, when something happens that is fatal to the Body.

In a State of Arousal  the Sensory Motor System Reacts with predefined Scripts (Impulses).  The Sensory System fails completely when there is too much data available (Overload, Panic).

The Sensory Motor Computer is not able to calculate exactly what the Body really needs because it does not have the time and the capacity to calculate every possibility. Therefore the Human Body sometimes makes terrible mistakes, called a Gognitive Bias, when it is Highly Stressed.

The Rational System, the Human Predictor of the Future, the Expectation,  is able to override the Sensory Motor System when there is enough Relaxation, Time and Capacity available. This State of Mind is called Reflection.

To Reflect the System needs enough Data, Provided by the Senses and our Memory, and a Model, a Believe System, that describes the Context we want to Evaluate.  Most of the time we are unable to collect the Facts or to define a suitable Model. We See what our Believe System guided by our Experiences in the Past wants Us to See.

The Imagination creates the images we See. Sometimes the Images are made by the Senses. We see Reality as it Really is. Most of the Time the Imagination projects the Images of the Reflection System. We See what our Believe System wants us to See.

The most interesting part of the Imagination is related to the Dream World, the Unconsciousness. The Dream World projects the Images we Have to See. They contain a “hidden meaning“, something we have to know but are unable to Express.

Making a Choice is one of the most difficult things to do. The Emotional System, the Oldest System in our Body, acts on the basis of Feelings. It wants to move to a situation where there is enough Certainty to Survive (Food, Shelter, Love,….) and avoids situations that are threatening to the Existence of the Body.

The Reflective System transforms Human Feelings into Values, Preferences and Selection Criteria.

The big problem is that the Emotions (the Movers, Our Moti-vation) change all the time because they are influenced by Situations (the Context), Others (Status) and all kinds of Fields in the Environment (Gravity (Moon), the Electro Magnetic Field).

The fifth human system, the Consciousness, monitors the four “organs” (the Senses, the Expectation, the Emotions and the Imagination) to make sure they stay in the right balance.

What Model do we Use?

The model we use is called Path of Change (see also this link (in Dutch)).

Path of Change is a generic fractal (scale-free) model that can be used to model an autonomous system on many scales.

What is Happening?

The Computer is a Cold Rational Calculator without any Emotions. The Computer is therefore perfectly suited to Support, Complement and Replace the Heavely Biased Impulsive Unconscious Emotional Human Being.

According to Forrester Research ,a big Advisory Bureau, we are moving into a New Wave of Computing called Smart Computing. Big IT-Companies like IBM (“Smart Planet“), Oracle and of course Google (“Implementing the Singularity of Kurzweil“) are now completely redefining their strategy to be able to Move with the New Wave.

The Amount of Available Computer Memory, the Capacity to Calculate in Real-Time and the Intelligence of the Pro-Active Algorithms and Reaction Scripts is increasing by the day and the Costs of  Computing are going down fast.

Smart Computing extends existing technologies by adding new real-time Situation Awareness based on Sensor Technology and Automated Analysis to help firms and people solve smarter and more complex problems.

Smart Computing integrates the Physical World of the Senses and the Body with Automatic Process Optimization via a Four Step Cycle: Awareness (Sense), (Statistical) Analysis (Reflect), (Generate) Alternatives (Feel, Evaluate, Select & Choose) and Act -> Sense.

Smart Systems look like Smart People.

What has Happened?

Until recently IT-Technology was only able to Replace the Repetitive, Predictable, Processes on a Very Small Scale. Most of the Humans soon get Bored by these processes. They need a little bit of Exitement (Arousal, Challenge, Change) to feel the Joy of Living.

The Repetitive processes are part of the Human Motor System, the Muscles. Until 1970 IT-Technology was only able to automate Manual Processes. Before that time many People made their living from these processes. At this moment Process Management (Workflow) and Case Management, have reached the level of maturity.

The introduction of the Internet Protocol, the Increase of the Capacity of the Infrastructure (Broadband, Glass Fiber, Optical Switches) and the Standards defined by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) have widened the Scale of the Automation of the Manual Processes until the World Level was reached.

One of the most exiting new standards of W3C are related to the Semantic Web. The Semantic Web will make it possible to Reason with the Data that is available on the Internet.

The Semantic Web will generate a Revolution in the Educational System (“Just in Time Learning“) because everybody will be able to Ask every Question that is possible. The Experts will not be needed anymore.

All kinds of processes in all kinds of Industries are now connected and are constantly redefined until every “useless” intermediary proces is removed. This trend is called Value Chain Integration.

The introduction of the PC and the Intelligent User-Interface opened up the Market to the Consumer and started a new wave of Value Chain Integration. Direct contact between Producer and Consumer is now possible. This development is called Supply Chain Reversal. Chain Reversal gives the customer the control of the complete supply chain.

Because of their Software Legacy most of the Companies have not opened up their Private Old Fashioned Infrastructures to their Customers and their Producers. If every company would do this many companies would disappear.

This is the main reason why these companies are not transforming their business. Most people (and companies) are Afraid to Reflect about their own Death. They wait until the Last Moment. At that time it is too Late to make a change.

The Removal of “Useless Manual Processes” (and “Useless Employees“) is now highly stimulated by the Economic Crisis, the Energy Crisis and the Climate Crisis.

The User-Interface made it possible to make a  Connection with the Organ of Imagination. This started a Creative Phase in IT. Humans are now able to create their own Books, Music, Art and are able to Play Collective Games and use Simulators to Explore Alternatives in an almost Real Life Environment. The Creative Wave has almost destroyed the Old Fashioned Amusement Industry.

At this moment the Social Media (Facebook, Linked in, Twitter,..) are exploding. They are mostly used to have a dialogue (Chat, Forums,…) between people in a Network. The Social Media make it possible to make a Connection with the Organ of the Emotions (the Opinions) of large groups of people all over the World.

The Social Networks give us the Opportunity to Feel what is Happening and make it possible to Influence (and Manipulate) the Masses.

What is Smart Computing?

The next wave,  Smart Computing,  adds two things, new Senses (Sensors, Internet of Things, IoT) that are able to Sense much more than the Human is capable of and Artificial Intelligence (AI, Big Data, Reflection), the possibility to Detect and generate Scripts that are much more advanced than any pattern that is available in the Human Being.

AI can be used to analyze data (data mining), text (text mining), software (software mining) and processes (process mining).

One of the most important “Sensors” a this moment  is the Mobile Phone. Many people fail to understand the significant sensor innovations that are being designed into smartphones. Today’s smartphones contain microphones, cameras, motion sensors, proximity sensors, and location sensors.

New internet-connected GPS applications also have built-in feedback loops, reporting your speed and using it to estimate arrival time in real time.

Don’t underestimate the “other Sensors” like the Social Networks, Smart Energy Meters, Global Satellite Monitor Systems, Earth-Based Integrated Camera Systems and Medical Sensors that are able to detect all kinds of Physical Changes in Your Body.

In the next step Smart Sensors will be incorporated in the Clothes you Wear and of course your Body (if you allow that!).

Soon the Collective Technical Infrastructure, the Global Brain, will be able to Alert, Control, Manipulate and Support the many people that live on Earth. When this happens the Role of the Humans in the System will be the same as the Cells in the Body.

To make sure that one of the “Organs” will not  Dominate the Global Brain we have to incorporate a Monitor, a Global Conscioussness.

What can we do with Smart Computing?

When the Sensors are everywhere you are able to measure everything you want with a High Precision and a Fast Sample Time (Frequency).

The Sample Measurements can be Added Anytime you want (Real Time) and transformed into Transactions with a Flexible Price.

This Price is calculated by Adding the Real Time Transactions that are related to the Components You Buy subtracted by the Real Time Information of the Costs you are making.  Smart Computing makes it possible to create a complete Autonomous Real Time Company.

You can measure human transport (movement), chemicals, temperature, pressure on every location and react to the these measurements on a real-time basis based on a highly advanced prediction system based on neural nets.  In this way you can prevent traffic jams, calamaties and every other event that is predictable.

You can create highly sustainable processes in Food and Energy and Educate people Just-in-Time about Everything they want.

Software will be able to read billions of documents real-time and use the knowledge to diagnose every problem you want. With the help of this software (called Semantic Analytics) IBM’s Doctor Watson project will soon deliver an automatic Doctor that will know more than all the Doctors in the World.

It will also be possible to Design and Simulate every Structure you want and generate the Structure when you are satisfied.

Designing a House or a complete City will look like a Collaborative Game and Building can be done by everybody including Robots because “the System” will tell you what to do.

The Banking System will return to its ancient roots and will keep the Transaction-System in Short and Long Term Balance.

Will it be possible to incorporate the Human Emotions in a Machine?

Some Scientists  think that the Universe is already an Emotional Machine, a Quantum Computer Creating Itself. The Emotions are a Random Quantum Fluctuation, a Wheel of Fortune, to make it possible that the Universes Explore Every Possible Path. The Unpredictable Human Emotions are the Source of Creation.

Predictable Automated Emotions are not Creative because they lack the ability to make Mistakes. Making Mistakes and Learning from Mistakes are the Motor of the Proces of Innovation.

Machines without Emotions are more Reliable than Machines with Emotions but the Machines will stay the Same until their Emotional Human Creator has Invented a new Type or a new Theory.

At this moment the Robots are Instruments but it will not take long until we give the Instruments the Freedom to Act because they are more Reliable (less Emotional) and much more Cheaper than a Human Being.

If this happens many people will be Out of Work. The only thing that will be left over for us is the Act of Creation and of course the Care for Others.

If we are able to Incorporate the Emotions into the Machines we, the Humans, will be Completely Out of Work.

The Machines will be able to Create new Types of Sensors, Robots, Systems and Theories until Eternity. The Machines will take Care of Themselves and of course You.

The Programmed Robot Nurse, the Robotic Pilot, the Robotic Money Market Trader, the Robot Soldier, the Robotic Surgeon and the Robot Barber are already there.

They wait Patiently until their Human Creator will give them a Soul.

LINKS

About Collaborative Learning

To Make Sense of the Present, Brains May Predict the Future

The Forrester Report about Smart Computing

About Smart Cities

About Autarkic Systems

About Just-in-Time-Learning

About the Smart Planet of IBM

About the Smart Strategy of Google

About Semantic Analytics and Dr. Watson

About the Next Wave of Artificial Intelligence

Why the Universe is a Quantum Computer Creating Itself

Why the Robots will take over every job there is

Why the Human sometimes makes terrible mistakes

About the Automatic Need Machine

About the Global Consciousness

About the Care Industry

About Just in Time Learning

About Erving Goffmann and the Games People Play

How to Incorporate Mistakes in Programming Languages

About the Global Brain

Why we will soon be completely Out of Work

About the Sensory Motor System

About the Emotions

About Magic and the Memory Palace

In the 5th century AD, Martianus Capella defined the Seven Liberal Arts: Grammar, Dialectic, Rhetoric, Geometry, Arithmetic, Astronomy, and (Musical) Harmony. The System of Capella became the model of the Medieval University.

The term liberal means “appropriate for free men“.  The Liberal Arts represented the kinds of skills and general knowledge needed by the Elite. The Servile Arts represented Specialized Tradesman Skills and knowledge needed by persons who were employed or owned by the Elite.

liberal arts
The Seven Liberal Arts

The Number Seven was not taken by Accident. This number represented the Seven Days of the Week, the Seven Spheres, the  Seven Planets, the Seven Notes and the Seven Colors.

The Seven Planets of the old cosmology included the Sun (Sol) and the Moon (Luna), which we now don’t regard as planets at all.   The other Five were Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, the 7th planet and the Son of the Sun.

seven planets of Ptotelemy
The Seven Planets in the System of Ptolemy

In Ancient Babylonia,  the Seven Spheres were represented by a Building , A Ziggurat, that looked like the Tower of Bable. This Babylonian Step Tower was a Visual Model of the StairWay to Heaven.  The Seven Spheres were divided in three Heavens and three Hells with the Earth in the Middle. The Pyramids in Egypt are based on the same model.

The Seven Heavens
Dante and The Tower of Bable

The Three Heavens contained Three Hierarchies of Angels, Nine in total. At the Top, the Eight Step,  the Creator was situated. Again the Creator consisted of three Entities, The Father, The Son and The Holy Gost (The Trinity).

As You can See the Number Three plays a very important role in the Ancient Models. The main reason could be that this number is the most efficient number when you want to create a Number System.

If you use this number as the Base System the Universe could be explained as Triangels within Triangels. With the help of the Trinity-Fractal Ancient models like the Tree of Life, and the Egyptian Pesedjet are easy to understand. The Trinity-Fractal comes back in modern Physics as the Triangel of Pascal.  In Ancient China the Triangel of Pascal was called the Wei Chi. The Wei Chi was used to play the Game of GO.

The The Three Levels and the Nine Hierarchies of Angels
Earth (the Grave), The Three Heavens and the Nine Hierarchies of Angels

In 1275 Raymond Lull designed a tool to Classify and Generate all the Knowledge of the Universe based on a Set of  Nine (3×3) Concepts.  His invention was described in his book Ars Magna (“The Ultimate General Art”).

Lull’s logic machine consisted of a stack of concentric disks mounted on an axis where they could rotate independently. The disks, made of card stock, wood, or metal, were progressively larger from top to bottom. As many as 16 words or symbols were visible on each disk. By rotating the disks, random statements were generated from the alignment of words. Lull’s most ambitious device held 14 disks.

The disk contained the Nine most important (Christian) Concepts of the Universe:  Bonitas (Goodness), Magnitudo (Greatness), Eternitas (Eternity), Potestas (Power), Sapientia (Wisdom), Voluntas (Will), Virtus (Virtue), Veritas (Truth), and Gloria (Glory).

Lull’s fame as a Mystic spread throughout Europe during the late Middle Ages and Renaissance. Centuries later, the German mathematician Leibniz acknowledged the importance of Lull’s Machine.

The idea for the machine came to Lull in a Mystical Vision that appeared to him after a period of fasting and contemplation. In reality, Lull may owe his Divine Inspiration to the Magi. They used a Device called the Zairja, an Idea Generator that used the 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet to represent the 28 Categories of Thought in Arab Philosophy.

Ramon_Llull_-_Ars_Magna

In 1516 Thomas Moore published his book Utopia, a description of an Ideal State. Much later Tommaso Campanella (The City of the Sun), Francis Bacon (The New Atlantis) and Johannes Valentinus Andreae (Description of the Republic of Christianopolis) wrote comparable books. The books were based on Plato’s Republic. All of the books contained Architectual Designs based on Ancient Geometries.

Utopia Moore
Utopia Thomas Moore

Around 1300 Wealthy and Powerfull Merchants (de Medici) in Italy regained interest in the Ancient Knowledge of the Egyptians, the Arab, the Greek and the Romans. This knowledge was almost completely destroyed by the Church of Rome.

Scientists, Poets and Artists (Petraca, Dante, Boccaccio) visited Byzantium and discovered ancient manuscripts written in Greek and Latin.  Greek scholars were encouraged to come from Byzantium to Italy. Byzantium and Europe was ransacked for copies of the long unused Latin classics and copyists multiplied them.

Libraries were founded, and schools for the study of both Greek and Latin in their classic forms were opened at Rome, Mautua, Verona, and many other towns. After the fall of Constantinople in 1453 the proces gained a further impetus because of a number of Greek humanists who moved from Byzantium to Italy.

In 1462 the Platonic Academy was opened in Florence under the patronage of Florentine Duke Cosimo de’ Medici. Its leader became Marcilio Ficino.

Around 1463 Cosimo de’ Medici commissioned Marsilio Ficino to translate a book called the Pimander with high priority  into Latin from a Greek manuscript brought from Macedonia. This book contained the Corpus Hermeticum that was attributed to Hermes Trismegistus.

Hermes Trismegistus “Thrice-Wise“was named Thoth or Djehuti in Ancient Egypt. The Djed of Djehuti represents the Power of the Snake (the Kundalini) in the Spinal Column. Thoth was the Scribe of the Gods, the inventor of writing, and was usually depicted in hieroglyphics with the head of an Ibis Bird. This head of the IBIS carried the Moon, the Planet of the Mother God, The Night and of Magic.

Thoth and the Human represented by the Ape. The Ape uses the Eye of Horus (the third Eye) to look at Thoth
Thoth, the Ibis with the Moon on his Head and the Human represented by the Ape. The Ape uses the Eye of Horus (the third Eye) to look at Thoth. The Eye of Horus is the Pineal Gland, the Seat of the Imagination in the Brain.

At that time Scientists believed that the Older the Truth the Bettter. They believed there was once a Golden Age in which the Eternal Truth was known. From that time on History was in a Downfall until the time of the Resurrection.

Marsilio Fucino dated Hermes Trismegistus “long before the sages and philosophers of Greece, but yet after Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph“. His dating of the Corpus “proved” that the writings of Hermes contained the Primal Source of Wisdom.

In 1945 Coptic fragments of the Corpus Hermeticum together with many other Gnostic Writings were found at Nag Hammadi, Egypt.

At this moment we know that the Corpus Hermeticus just like the Emerald Tablet ,another text dedicated to Hermes, was written in Alexandria around 200 BC.

Alexandria, created by Alexander the Great, was the place where the Ancient Knowledge of Heliopolis ,the City of the Sun, was stored in its immense libraries after its destruction. A part of this library was later moved to Byzantium, the Center of the East when the library of Alexandria was destructed.

The most important message of Hermes is that the Physical World is the Manifestation of the Spiritual World. This is summarized in the Hermetic adage “As above, so below.” At this moment we would name the concept of “As Above, So Below” a Self-Reference or a Fractal.  The old Scientists knew that one Concept returned on every Level of Our Inside and Outside Reality.

The Corpus Hermeticus provided a seminal force in the development of Renaissance thought and culture. After the Dark Middle Ages, controlled by the Rule System of the Church of Rome, the Scientists started to do their Own Research and  Thinking.

The Cycle of Culture moved from the Stage of Order to the Stage of Imagination.

Hermes Trismegistus in the Cathedral of Siena
Hermes Trismegistus in the Cathedral of Siena

One of these Scientists was Giordano Bruno. Bruno was born in 1548. At the age of 17, he entered the Dominican Order, was trained in the Liberal Arts of that time  and became an ordained priest in 1572 at age 24. During his time in Naples he became known for his skill with the Art of Memory and on one occasion traveled to Rome to demonstrate his System before Pope Pius V and Cardinal Rebiba.

The Art of Memory belonged to the rhetoric tradition as a technique which enabled the orator to deliver long speeches from memory with unfailing accuracy.

giordano_bruno
Giordano Bruno

At that time people had to Learn a lot of information by Heart. To do this they used a Mnemonic System called a Memory Palace. The memory images were linked with visualized locations that could be found in architecture, books, sculpture and painting, which were seen by practitioners of the Art of Memory as Externalizations of Internal Memory.

Artists used the Images that were part of the Memory Palace as a reference. The Images were linked with Universal Concepts. In the time of Middle Ages and the Renaissance people knew the Meaning of every Image that was used. Geometric Structures, Paintings, Poems and Buildings were carriers of many Levels of Meaning. Some of these levels were only known by the Inner Circle of Ancient Secret Societies.

In the old days the Inside World was seen as the most important place to Explore. The Outside was nothing but a Projection of the Inside.

Examples of Ancient Memory Palaces are Ancient Egypt, the City of Meru (Sri Yantra), the City of Heliopolis, the Babylonian Ziggurat, the Egyptian Pyramid, The Temple of Solomon,  and the most important Memory Palace,  the Zodiac. In the Middle Ages Cathedrals (Chartres), Palaces (Alhambra) and Temples (Taj Mahal) were designed and used as Memory Palaces.

new jerusalem coming down out of heaven

The New Jerusalem

One of the most important Christian Memory Palaces is the New Jerusalem. It is a Vision about the New Earth that will arise after the Seven Seals are Broken and the Seven Trumpets have Sounded.

The Seven Trumpets are a symbol of the Seven Chakra’s. The Apocalyps, the opening of the Seventh Seal, is a symbol of the Jump of the Kundalini to the Kingdom, the New Jerusalem.

A large portion of the final two chapters of the Bible deals with John of Patmos’ Vision of the New Jerusalem. He describes the New Jerusalem as “‘the bride, the wife of the Lamb’“.  After John witnesses the new heaven and a new earth “that no longer has any sea“, an angel takes him “in the Spirit” to a vantage point on “a great and high mountain” to see the New Jerusalem’s descent.

According to John, the New Jerusalem is “pure gold, like clear glass” and its “brilliance [is] like a very costly stone, as a stone of crystal-clear jasper.” The New Jerusalem is a Symbol of  the Renewal of Religion that will take place and which secures the Prosperity of the Human World.

Alhambra
Alhambra

“Some place is chosen of the largest possible extent and characterised by the utmost possible variety, such as a space house divided into a number of rooms. Everything of note therein is carefully committed to the memory…The next step is to distinguish something [to be remembered] by some particular symbol which will serve to jog the memory…. These symbols are then arranged as follows. The first thought is placed, as it were, in the forecourt; the second, let us say, in the living-room; the remainder are placed in due order all round… and entrusted not merely to bedrooms and parlours, but even to the care of statues and the like. This done, as soon as the memory of the facts requires to be revived, all these places are visited in turn and the various deposits are demanded from their custodians, as the sight of each recalls the respective details” (Quintilian Institutio Oratoria, Book XI).

The Temple of Solomon
The Temple of Solomon

The Art of Memory was a very important Art because Manuscripts were very rare and the use of Manuscripts and Symbols was seen as the major cause of the detoriation of society. Books produced “fake” scientists who are not wise but only appear to be wise.

For this invention will produce forgetfulness in the minds of those who learn to use it, because they will not practise their memory. Their trust in writing, produced by external characters which are not part of themselves, will discourage the use of their own memory within them. You have invented an elixir not of memory but of reminding; and you offer your pupils the appearance of wisdom, not true wisdom, for they will read many things without instruction and will therefore seem to know many things, when they are for the most part ignorant and hard to get along with, since they are not wise, but only appear wise” (Plato, Phaedrus).

Chartres
Chartres

Giulio Camillo was one of the most famous men of the 16th century. With a commission of 1200 ducats from the King of France, Francois I, he created a theatre that contained divine powers: whoever entered the theatre would emerge with a complete memory of all the knowledge that had ever existed. The design of his theatre is described in his book L’idea del teatro written in 1554, the last year of his life. The theatre consisted of Seven Levels and contained the complete Knowledge of the Corpus Hermeticum.

Borobudur (Meru Temple) contains the Sri Yantra
Borobudur (Meru Temple)

Following the order of the creation of the world, we shall place on the first levels the more natural things…those we can imagine to have been created before all other things by divine decree. Then we shall arrange from level to level those that followed after, in such a way that in the seventh, that is, the last and highest level shall sit all the arts… not by reason of unworthiness, but by reason of chronology, since these were the last to have been found by men” (Guilio Camillo).

meru
The Design of the City of Meru is based on the Sri Yantra-generator. This Generator generates Quasi-Crystals and Penrose Tilings.

At the time of Gordiano Bruno Copernicus detected that the Sun was the Center of our Planetary System. His discovery was in conflict with the Theories that were educated at the Universities that were controlled by the Church of Rome.

Gordiano Bruno saw that the new theories were in line with the teachings of the Corpus Hermeticum in which the Sun (of Heliopolis) was in the Center. Bruno started to Fuse the Knowlegde of the Corpus Hermeticum with his already highly advanced Memory System.

At that time the power of the Church of Rome was going down rapidly. Europe was divided by religious wars between Catholics and Protestants. The merchants, bankers and artisans of Europe’s largest cities and towns resented the fact that local bishops of the Church controlled all of their commercial and economic activities.

Priests married and then took mistresses, holy offices were bought and sold for the highest price, incompetence among the clergy became the rule, the congregation of more and more people in towns and cities perhaps exposed the amorality and immorality of the clergy.

Taj Mahal (Shiva Temple)
Taj Mahal (Shiva Temple)

Gordiano Bruno believed he had to create a new Religion based on the Ancient foundation of Religion he found in Egypt.

Gordiano was a free-thinker and he never stopped expressing his own believes. When he learned that an indictment was being prepared against him in Naples he fled the convent and started to travel Europe.  He visited the French King Henry III, the English Queen Elizabeth, Wittenburg , the Center of the Protestant Movement, the city of Prague and Emperor Rudolf II.

At every place he came he started to educate the others in his Expanding (forbidden) Vision of the Infinite Universe. At every place his free-thinking brought him into a conflict and he had to move on.

In 1592 he was lured to Venice, arrested by the Inquisition and transported to Rome. In 1600 he was convicted and publicly burned at the Campo de’ Fiori in Rome. In 1889 a Statue was erected at the place of his execution.

The Statue of Giordano Bruno at the Campo Fiero
The Statue of Giordano Bruno at the Campo de' Fiori

At the time of Gordiano Bruno many of the important people where highly interested in Magic, Alchemy and Astrology. One of the people Gordiano visited,  the Emperor Rudolf II,  practised Alchemy in his own private laboratory and spared no expense in bringing Europe’s best alchemists to court, such as John Dee, the personal alchemist of Queen Elizabeth.

There is no evidence that Giordiano Bruno met John Dee when he was in England but he was in contact with the most important people that were part of the “Hermetic Circle” of John Dee. There is a lot of evidence that Bruno was the creator of the Rosicrusians.

Queen Elizabeth and John Dee
Queen Elizabeth and John Dee

Bruno’s books on the Art of Memory were in reality Courses in the Solar Magic taught by Hermes Trismegistus.

Bruno knew that the most important tools of the Magician are the Power of his Imagination and the Connection with the Major Powers in the Hierarchy in the Heavens, the ArchAngels and the Demiurg, the Creator of the Matrix.

The System of Bruno was created to make is possible to generate powerfull images and Magical Rituals to make the Right Connection (Bonding) with the Major Creators of the Universe we live in.

There are three gates through which the hunter of souls (the Magician) ventures to bind: vision,  hearing and mind or imagination. If it happens that someone passes through all three of these gates, he binds most powerfully and ties down most tightly.” “He who enters through the gate of hearing is armed with his voice and with speech, the son of voice. He who enters through the gate of vision is armed with suitable forms, gestures, motions and figures. He who enters through the gate of the imagination, mind and reason is armed with customs and the arts.” (Giordano Bruno, Theses de Magia, Vol. LVI).

An Image to make a connection with the Power of the Sun
An Astrologial Image of Bruno. It contains the Lyre of David (an Ancient Pole Star).

Robert Fludd was born in England in 1574,  thirty years after Giordano Bruno was born. Between 1598 and 1604, Fludd studied the Liberal Arts on the European mainland. Robert Fludd was one of the last Hermetic Scientists of the Renaissance. In his life he tried to describe everything that was known until that day. Robert Fludd was a Rosicrucian.

One of his products is a Musical Memory Palace and a Memory Theatre, the Globe, that was used by Lord Chamberlain’s company to which Shakespeare belonged. In the view of Fludd a theatrical play was a Projection of a part of a Memory Palace.  The Theatre was a tool to educate the Elite (and the Masses) into the Hermetic Whole.

Robert Fludd, The Temple of Music

The work of Bruno and Fludd was taken over by many other Scientists but the relationship between the Art of Memory and Magic slowly faded away.

At the end of the Renaissance Reason, Logic, became much more important than the Seven Liberal Arts.  The Scientists of the Age of Enlightment wanted to get rid of the Delusions of the Imagination. The only thing that counted were Facts observed by the Senses.

Leibniz (1646-1716) was one of the exceptions. He was an Old Fashioned Renaissance Magician and believed in the Harmony of the Spheres. He invented many theories that proved his Point of View and are now proven to be Right.

He believed that scholarship or “perfect knowledge of the principle of all sciences and the art of applying them ” could be divided into three equally important parts : the Art of Reasoning, the Art of Inventing (Combinatorics) and the Art of Memory and the Imagination (Magic). He even wrote an unpublished manuscript about the Art of Memory.

Leibniz got into a big conflict with Newton about the Role of the Imagination and Scientific Discovery in Society. Afther his death Newton and his Protectors, the Medici of Florence, started an effective campaign to prove that Newton was the inventor of the Theories of Leibniz. This is the reason why Newton became the major Scientist of his time.

Rosicrucian_Rose
The Rosicrucian Rose with the Trinity of the Chained Lion of the Sun, the Unicorn of the Moon and the Crossed Triangels of the Center, the Heart Chakra.

After the Renaissance, the Stage of the Imagination, the Cycle of Culture moved to the Stage of the Emotions, the Time of the French Revolution. The Old Social Structures of Europe started their big Transformation.

Around 1740 the Industrial Revolution started in England and the Theories of Newton, Descartes and Kant about the Cold Mechanical Reasoner without Feeling and Imagination took the Lead. The ultimate products of the Industrial Revolution, the Computer and the related Factory-Model are now the Leading Paradigm.

The link between the Machine that Controls and Generates our Universe (the Yantra), the Ideas/Concepts that govern our Universe and the related mostly Astronomical Symbols is now completely lost.

Almost nobody is able to understand and value the Ancient Knowledge of Heliopolis that Scientists like Gordiano Bruno and Robert Fludd were trying to reconstruct during the Renaissance.

The Medici and their Successors, the Big Bankers and Merchants, finally succeeded in the Destruction of the Imagination and the Emotions.

Starting 1950 the Cycle is moving into a new Renaissance.

After the Invention of Quantum Mechanics (inspired by Robert Fludd) it becomes clearer and clearer that The Imagination is the Major Power that Creates and Sustains our Universe.

The Ideas of Bruno, Fludd, Plato, the Corpus Hermeticum and the Ancient Knowledge of Heliopolis are coming Back.

One of the most interesting scientists of the Art of Memory is Alan Turing. He constructed a very simple machine now called a Turing Machine that contained a Memory and a Writing Device that could move backwards and forwards. With the help of this simple Device Turing was able to solve many Mathematical Problems. At the end of his Life just before he committed suicide he started to research Morphology, the Science of the Forms.

What to Do?

The Current University System is highly fragmented. It needs a general principle to Unite all the now diverging Subjects of Investigation. The complexity of our Science is enormous. The link between Science, Art and Religion is gone.  We are in the same state as the World was at the end of the Middle Ages.

Perhaps we could introduce the Memory Palace again. It would certainly help to improve the Memory of the Students who are now Copying and Pasting the Internet.

Behind The Memory Palace lies the theory of the Fractal Universe (“As Above, So Below“) and the Trinity-Pattern. The Same Pattern Repeats itself on every Level of Existence.

The Fractal Universe simplifies Science enormously!

Perhaps the Modern Scientists could start to look for Repeating Structures on many Levels and Exchange these Structures. They could start to listen to the Scientists of Physics and Mathematics who have already found the fractal patterns.

LINKS

An English translation of the Pimander

About the Power of the Imagination

About the Nine Concepts of Egyptian Science

About Alan Turing and the Art of Memory

About the Egyptian Djed

About the 7th Planet, Saturn

Why the Trinity is the Most Efficient Number Base

Why Leibniz was a Magician

About the Triangle of Pascal

About the Power of Reason

About Plato and Harmony

How Robert Fludd influenced Quantum Mechanics

About the War between Newton and Leibniz

How Socrate changed the Cycle of Western Culture

Why the World is one big Memory Palace

About the Renaissance

Why the Industrial Revolution was really a Social Revolution

About Epigenetics and the Power of the Imagination

About the Placebo Effect

Arthur Zajonc: Catching the Light

About Darwin’s Superorganism

Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin

Many people believe that the theor]]><![CDATA[y of Evolution is based on the concept of competition. They believe that every gene, every cell, and every organism is designed to promote its own evolutionary success at the expense of others.

The big problem with this concept is that it does not explain the enormous amount of cooperation that is visible in Nature.

Atoms cooperate in Molecules. Molecules cooperate in Genes. Genes cooperate in Chromosomes. Chromosomes cooperate in eukaryoticcells. Cells cooperate in Multicellular Organisms. Multi Cellular Organisms cooperate in Humans. Humans cooperate in Families and Tribes and Families and Tribes cooperate in Organizations and Nations.

The question of how natural selectioncan lead to cooperative behavior or reciprocal altruism has fascinated evolutionarybiologists for several decades.

When Charles Darwin was writing his famous book the Descent of Man (1871) he was already highly puzzled by the social structures of the ants. Their cooperative behavior was “one special difficulty, which at first appeared to me insuperable, and actually fatal to my theory”.

To solve his problem Darwin proposed that in the case of ant societies natural selection applies not to the individual, but to the family or group. The ants were part of a “Super-Organism”, that consists of genetically similar individuals.

Although many individuals showed altruistic behavior in the group the “genetic code” was replicated because the individuals in the group were all “look alikes”. The Ants were “the Same” (Similar) and therefore every Ant that survived promoted the Genes of the Community.

To explain his theory Darwin wrote ‘sympathy is directed solely towards members of the same community, and therefore towards known, and more or less loved members, but not all the individuals of the same species’.

Darwin’s Theory of Group Selection was  later transformed into the theories of Genetic Kin Selection, Group Selection and the Genetic Similarity Theory. There is dramatic evidence that plants, animals and humans detect and act on genetic similarity.

For humans, both Spouses and best Friends are most similar on attributes with higher heritability.  People join clubs and societies that contain similar people and adopt ideologies that work in their genetic selfinterest. Genetic similarity also explains voting behaviour.

The Human Detection Center of Genetic Similarity is situated  in  the amygdala a part of the Limbic Brain System that is involved in Fear and Arousal.  The Amygdala activates the Sympathetic Nervous System responsible for the fight/flight-response of the Body. It prepares the body to get into action.

The recognition of another person depends on a long series of fast electrophysiological and slow biochemical reactions to the stimuli particular to that person or situation. These stimuli include seeing the other person’s face, hearing his voice, feeling his touch, and smelling his personal odors.

The reaction patterns of Humans to a fearfull situation are different. Some people, the Hawks, re-act very fast. They Fight and Compete. Some people, the Doves, re-act very slow. They Freeze, Flight or  Cooperate.

To find the appropriate reaction-pattern every one of our senses works hard to identify “the other” or “the others“. The detection of “dangerous others” has to happen very fast. This is the task of the electrophysiological pathways.

A fast detection is unreliable therefore a second “slow” cognitive pathway is started. In the cortex the frightening stimulus is analyzed in detail, using stored information from many parts of the brain, and a message is sent back down to the amygdala.

To detect stimuli that are really dangerous the amygdala uses a memory. This memory contains learned and inherited, imprinted, situations. The imprinted situations are highly related to the detection of genetic similarity.

If an animal or a human is frequently attacked the memory contains many Painfull Situations and the amygdala reacts more specific to a situation. The older a person gets the more difficult it becomes to erase this memory.

If people or animals are unable to make a distinction between their Own Whole and the Whole of the Others it will result in a Blurring of the Identity. The Whole of the Observer Merges or Overlaps with the Whole of the Observed. If this happens people act in a “friendly“, Emphatic,  mode and experience others as more “the same” than others do.

A Cooperative Strategy is highly related to the possibility of the Cognitive Part of the Human Detection-System to Move into the Other and Imagine what will Happen. The Hawks lack the ability to Imagine.

The most interesting concept that came out of Darwins Group Selection Theory is the Idea of the Super-Organism.

This Super Organism shows itself in many ways. Examples are the Family, the Tribe, Society and the Earth.

There is a similarity between the roles played by different organizations in Society and the functions of organs, systems and circuits in the body.

Industrial plants extract energy and building blocks from raw materials, just like the digestive system. Roads, railways and waterways transport these products from one part of the system to another one, just like the arteries and veins. Garbage dumps and sewage systems collect waste products, just like the colon and the bladder. The army and police protect the society against invaders and rogue elements, just like the immune system.

If we take the concept of the Super Organism a little bit further we could imagine the Super-Super-Super-Organism that contains all the other Organisms.  In some way every Organism is Genetically Similar (“the Same“) to this Organism.

If this is true and the Theory of Group Selection is Right every Organism is an enfolding of the “Architecture of the Whole“, the Tree of Life,  and a Majority of the Organisms (the Doves) will have an Altruistic Tendency to this Super-Organism.

The Doves Love, want to Unite With,  the Whole and the Hawks dislike the Whole because they want to be a Whole themselves.

Some Scientists call the Super Organism, Gaia,  Mother Earth, but there is no reason why we should not include the Bigger Structures in the Universe until we have reached the Boundary.

On every Level the Same Pattern appears.

On every level the Whole is splitted into Individual Parts. The parts  live a Life of their own (Agency). When we Move UP the Parts are United (Communion)  into a Bigger Structure.

When we look DOWN we interpret the proces of Splitting as a Competition. When we look UP we see a different pattern we Name “Cooperation“.

If we look at the history of the splitting process it looks like the wholes were splitted without any reason. It just happened. If we believe this Evolution is based on pure chance. Life is just a coincedence.

When we analyze the process of Evolution a Pattern emerges. This pattern is Cyclic, Leveled and Self-Referential. The process is almost invisible because with every Name we Utter we carve out a portion of the world and create a Boundary.

Every Time we Divide the World with Words the World becomes more complicated. Every New Concept that is not created without a View on the Pattern of the Whole generates a higher level of Confusion and increases the Complexity of Something that is really very Simple.

We create distinctions between Animals and Humans, Humans and Plants because the Hawkish Genes Want Us to Believe We Are Something Special.

Because of their Special Status the Hawks treat their fellow organisms in a very brutal way. They Exploit (Desire) them because of their Need to Control their Environment. They want to Control their Environment  because they are Afraid to lose Control. They are Afraid that their Identity (Their Ego, Their Agency, Their Whole) will disappear when they Commune with the Whole.

The Effect of the Behavior of the Hawks is the Destruction of the Environment that they Fear so Much. They are destroying their own Mother Earth who is certainly one of the Super Organisms that gave birth to the many wholes that are just there to Enjoy her Care.

The big problem we have is Naming. What we don’t see or don’t want to see is that every Split is a Split in two Opposite Complementary Parts (Yin/not-Yin= Yang, Male/not-Male = Female, Cooperate/not-Cooperate = Compete) that Share  the Void, the Empty Set, the State the Universe was in before it was created.

On every level the Nothing, the State of Infinite Potential and Love,  is still there but it is hidden because we started to use Words, to describe what meant to be an Experience.

This brings us to the final conclusion.

The big problem that is treatening Mother Earth is Hawkish Behavior. In the long term this kind of behavior is not helping the Human Gene at all. It not only destroys  the Human Gene. It destroys  the complete group of genetic “Look-a-Likes” of the Human Gene.

Darwin was Right.

Altruistic Behavior, Cooperation,  is the Only Way for the (Human) Genes to Survive.

Let us Help the Hawks to Erase their Fearfull Memories.

LINKS

About Genetic Similarity Theory and the Cyclic Universe

About Ethics and Genetic Similarity Theory

Edward O. Wilson: A video about the Super Organism

About the role of the Amygdala

A discussion about Morality and the Superorganism

A Mathematical Model that Explains the Evolution of Cooperation

Why Non-Cooperative Humans (Hawks) always Win and Cooperative Humans (Doves) always Lose

An Article in American Scientist about the Superorganism

How Multicellar Organisms cooperate in Humans

How the Void is able to cure Addiction

The Social Effects of Genetic Similarity

Genetic Similarity in Mate Choice and Friendship in Twins

Wittgenstein about Families and Language

An Article in Wired About the Super Organism

About the Super Organism and Systems Theory

About the problem of Naming and Dividing

About the Void

About Morphology or How Alan Turing Made the Dream of Goethe Come True

The Ancient Greeks believed that the images of waking life and dreams came from the same source, Morpheus (Μορφέας, Μορφεύς), “He who Shapes“.

The Science of the Shapes, Morphology, was created and named by Goethe in his botanical writings (“Zur Morphologie“, 1817).

Goethe used comparative anatomical methods, to discover a primal plant form that would contain all the others-the Urpflanze. Goethe being a Romantic Idealist hoped that Morphology would Unify Science and Art.

The Uhrplant shows itself also in the Lungs and Riversystems
The Uhrplant shows itself also in the Lungs and Riversystems

“The Primal Plant is going to be the strangest creature in the world, which Nature herself shall envy me. With this model and the key to it, it will be possible to go on forever inventing plants and know that their existence is logical”. Nature always plays, and from which she produces her great variety. Had I the time in this brief span of life I am confident I could extend it to all the realms of Nature – the whole realm“.

Goethe (wikipedia)
Goethe (wikipedia)

Hundred years later in the 1920s Goethe’s dream came true. Morphology moved outside Biology to other parts of Science due to the works of D’Arcy Thompson’s On Growth and Form, Oswald Spengler Morphology of History, Carol O. Sauer Morphology of Landscape, Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folktale and Alfred North Whitehead Process and Reality.

Goethe observed nature and reflected on similar structures. He believed that there was something behind this similarity, an archetypal plant.

According to Goethe the archetypal plant was the leaf (“While walking in the Public Gardens of Palermo it came to me in a flash that in the organ of the plant which we are accustomed to call the leaf lies the true Proteus who can hide or reveal himself in all vegetal forms. From first to last the plant is nothing but leaf“).

At this moment scientists know the reason why the leaf is the most important structure of the plant. It is a solar collector full of photosynthetic cells.

The energy of the sun provides the energy to transform water from the roots gathered by the leafs and carbon dioxide out of the air also gathered by the leafs, into sugar and oxygen. Plants are structures with many leaves. These leafs shield other leafs from collecting sunlight and water.

To solve this problem a plant has to optimize its structure to collect enough Sunlight and Water. The process of Optimization is not a Central Coordinated action. Every leaf tries to find the best place in the Sun on its own. This place determinates the growth of the next level of branches and leafs.

Goethe observed a pattern and deduced a structure, the leaf, the Uhrplanze. What Goethe really observed was not a Static Uhrplant but the Dynamic Process of the Branching of all kinds of leaves in all kinds of plants (Morpho-Genesis).

The leafs of the plants are not the main target of the morphogenesis of the plant. The visible External and the invisible Internal Forms or Organs are one of the many solutions of an equation with many variables and constraints. The optimal solution is reached by experimenting (“Nature always plays”).

Many solutions fail but some survive (Evolution of the Fittest). When a solution survives it is used as a Foundation to find new rules for more specific problems (Specialization). When the environment, the context, changes old rules have to be replaced by new rules (a Paradigm Shift).

The Fractal Geometry of Nature
The Fractal Geometry of Nature

New mathematical paradigms in the field of the Machines and Languages (Alan Turing, The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis) and the Self-Referencial Geometry of Nature (Benoît Mandelbrot, The Fractal Geometry of Nature) have stimulated further investigation in the Field of Morphology.

In 1931, in a monograph entitled On Formally Undecidable Propositions of Principia Mathematica and Related Systems Gödel proved that it is impossible to define a theory that is both Self-Consistent and Complete. The paper of Gödel destroyed the ambitions of the Mathematicians at that time to define one theory that explains everything.

In 1936 Alan Turing produced a paper entitled On Computable Numbers. In this paper Alan Turing defined a Universal Machine now called a Turing Machine. A Turing machine contains an infinite tape that can move backwards and forwards and a reading/writing device that changes the tape. The Turing Machine represents every Theory we can Imagine.

Turing proved that the kinds of questions the machine can not solve are about its own Performance. The machine is Unable to Reflect about Itself. It needs another independent machine, an Observer or Monitor to do this.

It can be proved that Turing proved the so called Incompleteness Theorem and the Undecidability Theorem of Gödel in a very simple way.

eniac
The Eniac

In 1943 Turing helped to Crack the Codes of the Germans in the Second World War. At that time the first computers were build (Eniac, Collossus).

It was very difficult to Program a Computer. This problem was solved when Noam Chomsky defined the Theory of Formal Grammars in 1955 (The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory).

When you want to define a Language you need two things, an Alphabet of symbols and Rules. The symbols are the End-Nodes (Terminals) of the Network of Possibilities that is produced when the Rules (Non-Terminals) are Applied. The Alphabet and the (Production- or Rewriting) rules are called a Formal Grammar.

If the Alphabet contains an “a” and a “p” the rules S→AAP, A→”a” and P→”p” produce the result “aap”. Of course this system can be replaced by the simple rule S→”aap”. The output becomes an infinite string when one of the rules contains a Self-Reference. The rules A→a and S→AS produce an Infinity String of “a’-s (“aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa….”).

The system becomes more complicated when we put terminals and rules (non-terminals) on the Left Side. The System S→aBSc, S→abc, Ba→aB and Bb→bb produces strings like, “abc”, “aabbcc” and “aaabbbccc”. In fact it produces all the strings a**n/b**n/c**n with n>0.

The inventor of the theory of Formal Grammar, Chomsky, defined a Hierarchy of Languages. The most complex languages in his hierarchy are called Context-Dependent and Unrestricted. They represent complex networks of nodes.

A language where the left-hand side of each production rule consists of only a single nonterminal symbol is called a Context Free language. Context Free Languages are used to define Computer Languages. Context Free Languages are defined by a hierarchical structure of nodes. Human Languages are dependent on the context of the words that are spoken.

It is therefore impossible to describe a Human Language, Organisms, Organisations and Life Itself with a Context Free Computer Language.

Context Free Systems with very simple rule-systems produce natural and mathematical structures. The System A → AB, B → A models the Growth of Algae and the Fibonacci Numbers.

A Recognizer or Parser determinates if the output of a formal grammar is produced by the grammar. Parsers are used to check and translate a Program written in a Formal (Context Free) Language to the level of the Operating System of the Computer.

grammarRegular and Context Free Grammars are easily recognized because the process of parsing is linear (causal, step by step). The stucture of the language is a hierarchy.

The recognizer (now called a Push-Down Machine) needs a small memory to keep the books.

Context Dependent (L-systems) and Unrestricted Grammars are difficult to recognize or are not recognizable in practice because the parser needs a huge sometimes Infinite Memory or Infinite Time to complete its task.

To find the Context the Recognizer has to jump backwards and forwards through the infinite string to detect the pattern.

If the network loops the recognizer will Never Stop (“The Halting Problem“).

Turing proved that the Halting Problem is Undecidable. We will Never Know for Sure if an Unrestricted Grammar contains Loops.

The Rules and the Output of Unrestricted Grammars Change and never stop Changing. Our Reality is certainly Context Dependent and perhaps Unrestricted.

Parsing or Recognizing looks like (is similar with) the process of Scientific Discovery. A theory, a Grammar of a Context-Free Systems (“aaaaaaaaaaa…”) is recognizable (testable) in Finite Time with a Finite Memory. Theories that are Context Dependent or Unrestricted cannot be proved although the Output of the Theory generates Our Observation of Nature. In this case we have to trust Practice and not Theory.

cellular automata
A 3D Cellular Automaton

In 2002 the Mathematician Stephen Wolfram wrote the book A New Kind of Science.

In this book he tells about his long term Experiments with his own Mathematical Program Mathematica. Wolfram defined a System to Generate and Experiment with Cellular Automata.

Wolfram believes that the Science of the Future will be based on Trial and Error using Theory Generators (Genetic Algorithms). The big problem with Genetic Algorithms is that they generate patterns we are unable to understand. We cannot  find Metaphors and Words to describe the Patterns in our Language System.

This problem was adressed by the famous Mathematician Leibniz who called this the Principle of Sufficient Reason.

Leibniz believed that our Universe was based on Simple Understandable Rules that are capable of generating Highly Complex Systems.

It is now very clear that the Self-Referencial Structures, the Fractals, of Mandelbrot are the solution of this problem.

The Scientific Quest at this moment is to find the most simple Fractal Structure that is capable of explaining the Complexity of our Universe. It looks like this fractal has a lot to do with the Number 3.

It is sometimes impossible to define a structured process to recognize (to prove) a Grammar. Therefore it is impossible to detect the rules of Mother Nature by a Structured process. The rules of Mother Nature are detected by Chance just like Goethe discovered the Uhrplanze. Science looks a lot like (is similar with) Mother Nature Herself.

When a Grammar is detected it is possible to use this grammar as a Foundation to find new solutions for more specific problems (Specialization, Add More Rules) or when the system is not able to respond to its environment it has to Change the Rules (a Paradigm Shift). All the time the result of the System has to be compared with Mother Nature herself (Recognizing, Testing, Verification).

Turing proved that if Nature is equivalent to a Turing machine we, as parts of this machine, can not generate a complete description of its functioning.

In other words, a Turing machine, A Scientific Theory, can be a very useful tool to help humans design another, improved Turing Machine, A new Theory, but it is not capable of doing so on its own – A Scientific Theory, A System, can not answer Questions about Itself.

The solution to this problem is to Cooperate. Two or more (Human) Machines, A Group, are able to Reflect on the Other. When the new solution is found the members of the Group have to Adopt to the new solution to move on to a New Level of Understanding and drop their own Egoistic Theory.

Each of the individuals has to alter its Own Self and Adapt it to that of the Group. It is proved that Bacteria use this Strategy and are therefore unbeatable by our tactics to destroy them.

Turing proved that Intelligence requires Learning, which in turn requires the Human Machine to have sufficient Flexibility, including Self Alteration capabilities. It is further implied that the (Human) Machine should have the Freedom to make Mistakes.

Perfect Human Machines will never Detect the Patterns of Nature because they get Stuck in their Own Theory of Life.

The Patterns of Turing
The Patterns of Turing

The Only ONE who is able to Reflect on the Morphogenesis of Mother Nature is the Creator of the Creator of Mother Nature, The Void.

Gregory Chaitin used the theory of Chomsky and proved that we will never be able to understand  The Void.

The Void is beyond our Limits of Reason. Therefore the first step in Creation will always be  a Mystery.

At the end of his life (he commited suicide) Alan Turing started to investigate Morphology.

As you can see the Patterns of Alan Turing are created by combining many Triangels. The Triangel is called the Trinity in Ancient Sciences.

According to the Tao Tse King, “The Tao produced One; One produced Two; Two produced Three; Three produced All things”, which means that the Trinity is the Basic Fractal Pattern of the Universe.

In modern Science this pattern is called the Bronze Mean.

It generates so called Quasi Crystals and the Famous Penrose Tilings.

The Bronze Mean is represented by the Ancient Structure of the Sri Yantra (“Devine Machine”).

Goethe was not the real discoverer of Morphology. The knowledge was already there 8000 years ago.

LINKS

About the Observer and Second Order Cybernetics

A PDF About the Morphology of Music.

The origins of life and context-dependent languages

A Website About the Morphology of Botanic Systems

A Website About the Morphology of Architectural Systems

A Plant Simulator using Morphology

About Intelligent Design

The Mathematical Proof of Gödel of the Existence of God

About Bacteria 

About the Bronze Mean

About the Trinity

About the Logic of Creation

The Big Bang Inflation Field
The Big Bang Inflation Field

The Way the Universe was Created has generated an ongoing discussion for more than 6000 years. In this Blog I give you a way to solve this problem with the use of Logic.

When we use Logic you will see that the concept of Creation out of Nothing leads to a Strange Contradiction.

This Contradiction looks a lot like the Zero-Point-Field of Quantum Mechanics.

The theory of Quantum Mechanics is a Statistical Theory. Statistical Theories are an approximation of a Theory.

Behind this approximation lies a hidden structure called the Tree of Life. The Tree of Life is an expansion of the first Creation, the split of the Void.

Perhaps the most important conclusion of this blog is that what most people call the Spiritual World is really the Material World which can be explained by Mathematics and Physics.

The only part of our Universe that is truly Spiritual and is without any Duality lies outside our Universe. This Part, The Void,  prevents Our Universe for Total Annihilation.

To describe the process of Creation out of Nothing we have to define the Void (Ø) and the Whole (○). The Void is the Empty Set. The Empty Set is a Set with Zero Members. An example is the Set of months with more than 31 days. In this case the Empty Set is the result of an impossible selection.

The Tao is like a well:
used but never used up.
It is like the eternal void:
filled with infinite possibilities.

It is hidden but always present.
I don’t know who gave birth to it.
It is older than God.

The empty set is not the same thing as nothing. It is a set with nothing inside it. In Logic there is no concept that describes “nothing”. We have to assume that there was something in the Beginning and that something is the Empty Set.

The Empty Set contains everything that is impossible.

In the Beginning an impossible selection was not possible because there was nothing to select from. This means that in the Beginning the Empty Set was the only Set in the Universe.

In the beginning the only thing that was possible was the impossible.

The Void is the Opposite of the Whole. To define the Void and the Whole we have to make use of a Distinction.

A Distinction is something that divides a Set into Two parts, X and its Opposite not-X (Yin/Yang).

A Set  that is divided into Two Parts Suddenly contains Four parts A, not-A, the Division and the Set itself (the Whole): Yin, Yang, Yin AND Yang (Division), Yin OR Yang (Whole).

The Tao produced One; One produced Two; Two produced Three; Three produced All things (Lao Tsu, Tao Te Ching, 42).

X and not-X have only the Void in common. When we bring the two sets together they become Nothing just like the combination of Matter and Anti-Matter results in the Annihilation of Both Parts and the production of a Photon (“Light”) and Kinetic Energy (Movement). To avoid annihilation Matter and Anti-Matter have to Stay Apart.

The Fusion of Matter and Anti-Matter produces Light
The Fusion of Matter and Anti-Matter produces Light and Movement

When you Fuse the two parts X and not-X the Whole appears again. In the Beginning there was Nothing to Fuse and the commonality of the Empty Set with its Opposite, the Not-Empty Set, the Whole, was the Empty Set. In the Beginning the Whole was the Empty Set because there was only the Empty Set.

All is possible when emptiness is possible.
Nothing is possible when emptiness is impossible.

Nagarjuna, Chapter 24 verse 14 of the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā

In Logic the commonality of two sets is represented by the term “and”. The fusion of two sets is represented by the term “or”. The not is represented by the symbol “~”. Using these Symbols we can write down the “laws of Logic” as follows:

Ø = ~○

X and ~X = Ø

X or ~X = ○

At the beginning of the beginning, even nothing did not exist (Chuang-tse)

At the Beginning the Universe was the Void and the Void was the Whole.

This implies the following:

Ø and ~ Ø = Ø

Ø or ~ Ø = ○

Ø = ~ Ø

Form is no other than emptiness; emptiness no other than form (Diamond Sutra)

The First Distinction in the Universe is the Choice between Distinction (~ Ø) or Non-Distinction (Ø). The Choice between the two is the Whole (Ø or ~ Ø = ○). Non-distinction is the state of Union of Every Thing in the Universe. The Union of Every Thing is No Thing at all.

There is in reality neither truth nor error, neither yes nor no, nor any distinction whatsoever, since all — including contraries — is One (Chuang-tse)

The One. . .is there before every oneness amid multiplicity, before every part and whole, before the definite and indefinite, before the limited and the unlimited. It is there defining all things that have being, defining being itself. . .It is there beyond the one itself, defining this one. (Dionysius)

The One transcends all antithesis, rises above all relation, is pure from all duality (Proclus)

Everything is of the nature of no thing (Parmenides)

The Tao that can be told is not the eternal Tao. The name that can be named is not the eternal name. The nameless is the beginning of heaven and earth. The named is the mother of ten thousand things. These two spring from the same source but differ in name; this appears as darkness. Darkness within darkness. The gate to all mystery (Lao Tzu)

In the Beginning when the Laws of Logic, the Logos, came into existence two Empty Sets were produced, the Empty Set and its Opposite, the Not-Empty Set. In the Beginning the Void was not the Void.

In the Beginning the Void has Negated Itself. This Negation started the Proces of Creation out of Nothing.

By Negation itself the Void created a deep Passionate longing to move back to the Sea of the Nothing.

The One is a Negation of Negations (Meister Eckhart)

The not-Void has a choice (Ø or ~ Ø). One choice is to merge with the Void (Ø and ~ Ø) and return back into Emptiness. The other choice is to avoid Annihilation. In this case the not-Void, ~ Ø, has to stay apart from the Void, Ø. Therefore the Not-Void, ~Ø, has to Move Away from the Void, Ø.

Gravity Waves
Gravity Waves

When this happened The Not-Void transformed from the State of Being into the state of Becoming and started to Rotate and Expand in a Spiraling motion. The Moving Void, the Second Distinction, Expanding Space, was created. When the Second Distinction was created the Void came to Rest but to keep the Balance of the Void, Not-Expanding, Compressing Space, Ø and ~ Ø, came into Existence too.

Expansion (The Strong Force) has to be compensated by Compression (Gravity) to bring the Universe back to the Void. The amount of Time this will take is dependent on the Power, the Potential, of the not-Void when it was disconnected from the Void. When the Potential of the disconnection is small, the Void and the Non-Void will merge soon and start a new process of disconnection to solve their Eternal Contradiction.

Expanding Space (Ø or ~ Ø ) and ~ Expanding Space(Ø or ~ Ø) = Ø

Gravity and The Strong Force  = Ø

Gravity or The Strong Force = ~ Ø

The whole process of logical reasoning from the Void to Space/Time is based on a Contradiction that occurs when we define what happens when Logic (Consciousness, the Two, the Self and the Observer of the Self) came into existence (“In the beginning was the Logos“) and the Void was the Whole.

When we look at the current theory of creation called the Big Bang Theory we find the same contradiction formulated in a different way.

The Gravitational Singularity
The Gravitational Singularity

In the theory of the Big Bang the Void that is the Whole is called a Gravitational Singularity (GS). A GS is a situation where the current laws of Physics break down because one of the variables moves to Infinity. When such a contradiction happens scientists know there is something wrong with their theory.

In the Big Bang Theory, the Universe is compressed (moved back in Time) into an extremely small space, a point, a singularity, and is therefore infinitely hot.

The Void that was the Whole, Empty Space, is extremely cold (0 degrees Kelvin). This condition is called the Zero-Point-Field. It is the State of the Universe that was there before the Big Bang.

According to Quantum Mechanics, the Zero-Point-Field, the Vacuum State, is not truly empty. It contains fleeting electromagnetic waves and particles that pop into and out of existence. It is not strange to define this popping up of No-Thing by the statement: ~ Ø = Ø (Sometimes there is nothing and sometimes there is not nothing).

The only thing we have to look for is the reason why the State of Rest of the Zero Point Field was disturbed. The answer of this question is simple: “It just happens“. A statistical fluctuation can be very small or very big.

Shiva and Shakti Create the Universe
Shiva and Shakti Create the Material Universe

In the Beginning the Quantum Fluctuations of the Zero Point Field, the Phoenix,  generated a huge Fluctuation represented by a “Cosmic Orgasm (Shiva and Shakti made Love)” and a real particle, a Photon (“In the Beginning was the Light“), came into existence. This Single Photon, One Wave of Light, bouncing against the expanding walls of the Universe, was enough to Create the Whole Universe.

Quantum Fluctuation is a Statistical Theory. Statistal Theories don’t explain the Universe. They are an approximation of a deeper structure we still don’t know. The ancient scientists used a metaphor out of Nature to explain this deeper structure. This metaphor was called the Tree of Life.

When we use Logic, the first step in Creation generates a Trinity. This Trinity consists of Gravitation (Expansion), the Strong Force (Compression) and the Void, the Empty Set. The concept of the Trinity with different names comes back in every Ancient Religion.

The Tao produced One; One produced Two; Two produced Three; Three produced All things (Lao Tsu, Tao Te Ching, 42).

tree of life
The Tree of Life

The first Trinity is the Top of a structure called the Tree of Life. This structure can be found in almost every Ancient Culture.

The Tree of Life consists of Nine Concepts with the Void (10=0)  at the top. The Nine Concepts of the Tree of Life are created by Multiplying the Trinity by the Trinity (3×3 =9 + the Void = 10 = 0).

The duality (-1,1) is represented by two Trinities (-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3) with the Void in the Middle. In this case the Pattern of Seven appears.

The real enfolding  is created when we apply the Trinity to the Trinity. In this case the sequence becomes 1, 1, 4 (1+ 3×1), 13 (1+3×4), 43 (4+3×13), the Bronze Mean.

Every number in this sequence represents an important Stage in the enfolding of our Universe and has its own Mystical Meaning (The Void, The Duality, the Four Forces, The Zodiac (with the Sun in the Center), The Sri Yantra (The Kingdom)).

The fractal patterns moves deeper and deeper into the Material World, father away from the Beginning, the Void. At this moment our Universe contains fourty-two levels.

At some point (43) the pattern of enfolding will finally reach the Kingdom and the pattern will reverse and moves back to the Void. From that moment  we will move backwards in Time.

When you apply the Trinity to the Trinity you use a principle that is called Self-Reference. In modern mathematics this principle is called a Fractal and the theory associated with Fractals is called Chaos Theory. Fractals play a very important role in the new String Theories of the Universe.

It is possible to generate the many levels of the Universe out of one Fractal Pattern, the Trinity. In modern Physics one of the candidates for the Fractal Pattern of the Universe is the Sierpinski Triangel. This fractal pattern generates the well known Mystical Geometries and is based on Trinities.

Physics and Mystics show that Our Universe and every part of it (including the Human Being) are part of the first Trinity that came out of the non-Void, the negation of the Empty Set that came into Being.

Trimurti
The Second Trinity Brahmā, Vishnu, and Shiva is created out of Brahman (The Void)

If the Void and the Trinity are concepts that represents the concept of God, we are all part of the enfolding structure, God, the Not-Void.

One part of God, the “Real Void“, the Mystery (Brahman), is not part of our Universe. It stays outside to prevent total annihilation of Every Thing.

We cannot understand The Mystery because we cannot Reason, don’t have a Distinction, about the Beginning of the Beginning. It lies Outside our System of Understanding called Logic. The only thing that is left for us is to Experience and Keep Silent.

Gravity is the root of lightness; stillness, the ruler of movement (Lao Tsu, Tao Te Ching, 26).

The Void is also the power that Attracts every part of our Universe. The farther away we expand from the Void the stronger the Strong Force becomes. At a certain point in Time this force will force us to Move Back. When this happens the Compression of the Universe, back to the Void, cannot be stopped. When we move Back, Time will be Reversed.

The Universe Closed in Itself
The Universe Closed in Itself

In the End the Spiral of Enfolding will be Closed in Itself and the not-Void will merge with the Void. At that moment the State of Stillness of the Zero Point Field will be restored waiting for a new Fluctuation to occur. The Universe is Breathing. It is recreated time after time until the Void and the Non-Void finally fuse into the Nothing, the Mystery.

“If we then become children, would we thus enter the kingdom?” Jesus said unto them, “When ye make the two one, and when you make the inside like unto the outside and the outside like unto the inside, and that which is above like unto that which is below, and when ye make the male and the female one and the same, so that the male no longer be male nor the female female; then will ye enter into the kingdom.”

(Gospel of Thomas, Logion 22).

When we look at the Logic of Creation we can see that the only part of Our Universe that is Truly Spiritual is the Void. The Not-Void and all its expansions are part of the Material World (Maya) that can be explained by Mathematics and Physics.

The Void, the Infinite Potential with Infinite Possibilities, lies Outside our System of Reasoning and is Nameless, Formless and not Dividable. It is truly One.

We are Nothing but a Rare Fluctuation of the One, who is the Void.

LINKS

About the Mathematics of Distinctions of Spencer Brown

About Boundaries

About Boundary Mathematics

About the Tree of Life

About the Void and Atman

About the Seven (3-1-3) and the Nine (3×3)

About the 42 Levels in the Fractal Universe

Why Time is a Chain of Nows

About the Holy Trinity in Mathematics

How to create Mathematics out of the Void

Why Quantum Fluctuation could have created the Universe

How the Universe was created out of one Photon

About the African Origins of the Ancient Civilization of Egypt

queen of puntThe Ancient Egyptians believed that their Religion originated in the Land of Punt also called Ta Netjer, the Land of the Gods.

On the Reliefs of the Temples, the Puntites are always represented as African People.

This Blog is the result of an Inquiry into the African Roots of Ancient Egypt.

 It contains the following parts:

1. An exploration of the Situation in East-Africa about 5000 BC, called the Green Sahara.

2. An exploration of the Religion that was dominant about 5000 BC in East-Africa. This religion was based on the belief in the Triple Goddess and the Moon-Cycle.

3. An exploration of the shared believes of the Religions that came out of Africa after 5000 BC. What we will see is that the ancient religion of the Green Sahara can still be found in the Oriba-Culture, the IOA, in East Africa.

4. An exploration of the area called Punt. One of the possible locations of Punt is Ethiopia, the Center of the Green Sahara.

5. A Summary.

Part 1: The Green Sahara

The first step to locate the Land of the Gods is to determine the Area we have to research. This area is called the Green Sahara, East Africa.

According to the Single Origin Hypothesis based on the Research of the Female Mitochondrial DNA, our Ancestors, the Homo Sapiens, originated in East Africa 200,000 years ago. From that moment Homo Sapiens migrated all over the world.

In the Book Constructing a New World Map Steven and Evan Strong argue that Homo Sapiens originated in Australia. According to the ancient stories of the Aboriginals Elders a part of them left Australia because of an argument about the Use of the Land. The Aboriginals that stayed were against Agriculture.

In this blog you will see that the same transformation from Hunter/Gatherer to Farmer created a huge Conceptual Conflict in the area of the Green Sahara also. A conflict with far reaching consequenses for our Civilization.

The Egyptian Pharao’s have visited Australia and therefore Australia could be the Ancient land of Punt. In this blog I assume Ethiopia is Punt but I could be wrong.

Between 7,000 BC to about 3,000 BC East Africa enjoyed a fertile climate. At that time the Sahara was a Green Savanna with Elephants, Giraffe and other grassland and woodland Animals.

Slight changes in the Earth’s orbit around the sun brought the northern hemisphere into the limelight. Summers became warmer as more solar radiation hit the lands north of the Equator. Solar ‘insolation’ levels were up to 8 percent higher than today.

With insolation driving monsoonal climates like a huge heat engine, rainfall increased. One climate model estimated that the 8 percent increase in radiation in North Africa resulted in a 40 percent increase in precipitation.

Today, the West African monsoon avoids the Sahara, passing further south. But as the Earth’s orbit changed the rains intensified and shifted five degrees north. Slowly, the desert started to bloom. By 10,000 years ago, the Sahara had turned into a savanna-like ecosystem with trees and grass and grazing animals.

It wasn’t just down to the sun. The so-called ‘African Humid Period’ was also reinforced by newly grown vegetation that absorbed the sun’s energy, which strengthened the monsoon system, rather than reflecting the sun’s energy back into space.

Increased surface ocean temperatures of about 0.4 degrees Celsius also supported a stronger monsoon, as well as numerous permanent lakes.

Existing lakes had surfaces tens of meters higher than today, sometimes with alternative drainages: Lake Turkana, in present-day Kenya, drained into the Nile River basin. Lake Chad reached a maximum extent of some 400,000 square kilometers in surface area, larger than the modern Caspian Sea, with a surface level about 30 meters (100 feet) higher than its twentieth-century average. Some shallower lakes and river systems existed in the subpluvial era that later disappeared entirely, and are detectable today only via radar and satellite imagery.

laketurkanaFrom 3000 BC temperatures started to decrease and the desert came back. The main reason for this big change in climate could be the collision with the meteoroid Typhon, the cause of the Great Flood.

At that time the ancient scientists, the Followers of King HR (Narmer, Menes, Merlin, the Measurer),   the First Falcon King, the first King of Egypt, already knew about the patterns of the stars, the sun and the planets including the Cycle of the Precession.

Around 3000 BC  the population of the Savanna moved to the North, the South, the East and the West.

The people that moved North are the ancestors of the Egyptians, the Jews, the Berbers and Tuaregs of North Africa, the people of Nubia (Cush), Sudan (Ta-Neti, the Land of the Bow) and Ethiopia (Aksum). They speak languages related to Ancient Egyptian.

The people that moved South are the Bantu (“the people“) of South Africa and the Dravidians of South India, Pakistan and Iran. The people that moved East are the ancestors of the Mande (“the Children of Maa or Amon”), the Yoruba or the IOA (“the Mystery“) and the Dogon in West Africa. The last part moved to Babylonia (Persia).

The Religion of the Yoruba has moved with the Slaves to the Carabian Countries and the South of the US and is known as Voodoo, Santeria, Candomble, Lucumi and Macumba. The Rastafari Movement in Jamaica has its roots in Ethiopia.

We will show that the Religion of the Yoruba is the Mother of all the Religions.

Part 2: The Mother Goddess and the Moon Cycle

If we want to prove the theory of the Green Sahara we have to find out if the people that moved away when the Sahara turned into a Desert shared the same Religion. The next step is to find the Center in the Center of the Green Sahara.

horusLet us start with Amon (“The Hidden“), the Gods of the Gods. Maga (Sumerian), Amon (Yoruba), Maa (Mande), Amma (Dogon), Mal (Fish, Dravidians) or Amon was a Female Fishlike Goddess (Vishnu) born in Lake Tritonis in Lybia. Maa’t became the Goddess of Justice in Egypt. The Female Amon became the male God of the Gods in Egypt.

In the time of the Green Sahara (9000 BC) Lake Tritonis in Nubia was part of a gigantic lake that was fed by the river Triton. The Islands in this Lake are associated with the Egyptian Goddess Nuth (the Holy Spirit of Amon), the Argonauts looking for the Golden Fleece of the Ram and the Old Continent of Atlantis (Triton, Neptune, Poseidon, The Fish God).

The first civilizations of the Green Sahara were Matriarchal. They worshipped the Goddess, the Moon, and used the Moon Cycle as their Calendar. They were Hunters and Gatherers moving around in the Green Sahara.

To Eat they had to Kill the Animals. When they Killed the Sacred Animal, they asked for forgiveness and permission. They knew they were totally dependent on Mother Nature.

Mother Nature is a strange creature. Most of the time She takes Care of her Children but sometimes she is Wild and Unreliable and Kills without any Reason.

This attitude of Mother Nature is translated in the concept of the Trickster. In his original role the Trickster, The Fool, the Clown, the Jester, the Perfect Mirror, is the Creator of the Game that Creates Games, the Game of Life.

With his Humor he helps the Humans to become Aware of their role of Co-Creators. God, the Trickster, wants to Humans to act on even foot. When they are too dependent he removes his helping hand. When they are too independent he shows his Almighty Power. Examples are Kokopelli (Hopi, Zuni), Coyote (Navajo) Tijl Uilenspiegel (German,, Dutch), Djehuti (Egypt), Hermes (Greek), Legba (the Divine Messenger, Orisha), Pan (Celtic) and Renard the Fox (French).

The only person who was able to understand the Movements of the Trickster was the Shaman who could travel Space and Time sometimes with the help of the Sacred Mushroom.

anubisThe Egyptian Anubis, the Archer and the Jackal, is an ancient African Trickster God. He is the Sun of An (the Fish), the ‘Lord of the Sacred Land” and the Ruler of the Nine Bows, the Enemies of Egypt. Punt was called the Land of the Bow, the Moon.

Anubis is originally An-Up, meaning Fish-Opener. This refers to the fish from whose mouth the waters of creation were said to have flowed. Anup may originally have been Nup, a form of Nu-Up, meaning Water-Opener or Sky-Opener.

Anubis is also represented as a Wolf and a Dog Howling at the Moon Goddess. In this case he represents the Blazing Blue Dog or Arrow Star Sothis/Sirius, situated in the constellation of Ursa Minor. The Dog Star plays a significant role in every Ancient Civilization all over the world.

In Egypt Anubis is the Opener of the Mouth (of the Death) and the Doorkeeper of the Underworld, the Dream World. The Dream World was the place where the Souls of the Ancestors lived. It was also the place where the Shaman travelled when they went into their Trance-State.

To move into the Dream World, the Shaman had to climb Jacob’s ladder to the polar region of the sky and move through the Hole of the Center, the Mouth, of the Sky, the Celestial Pole, the Pole Star. To travel the Underworld the Shaman had to make use of the Mesktet, the Night Barque, the Light Body, the Egyptian Sahu.

The Pole Star is not a fixed point in the Sky because of the Precession of the Equinox. Ursa Minor has been the pole constellation since 1300 BC. Before that time the Hole in the Sky was situated in Draco in the Constellation Dragon (the Serpent also called The Falcon) and Vega in the Constellation of Lyra (the Harp of David).

The Falcon (the Dragon) was the Sacred Animal of the first Kings of Egypt.  The Dragon is also the symbol of Typhon, the meteoroid that probably hit the Earth and caused the Great Flood.

A part of the Underworld, the Void, the Sekhem, the Ain Soph, the Place where the Creator was situated, was a place where no one was allowed to go. The Sekhem was guarded by the Hell Hound Anubis.

The Symbol of the Fish, the Vesica Piscis (Vessel of the Fish), represents the Vulva of the Mother Goddess. It is a combination of the Crescent before the New Moon and after the New Moon. The Crescent Moon itself is represented by a Bow.

The Vulva or the Yoni, of the Ancient Mother Goddess of the Amazons was always combined with a (Black) Stone, the Symbol of the Phallus (Lingham) of the Male God. The God and the Goddess created the Universe in a sacred Union of extreme Extacy.

One of the most important Black Stones of the Goddess is the Ka’bah (the KA of AH), the Stone of Destiny, in Mecca. The seven priests of the sacred shrine of the Ka’bah are known as the Beni Shaybah, the ‘Sons of the (Queen of ) Sheba“. In ancient times the Priests were Priestesses and the Cult of the Black Stone was highly Sexual Oriented.

The Ka’bah is aligned to the Crescent Moon and the rising of Canopus (“Kahi Nub”, the Golden Earth, the Star of the Trickster (the Coyote, the Jackal)), the brightest star after Sirius. This aligment appears in the national flags of many islamic nations.

The Mother Goddess is always represented by a Trinity, the Triple Goddess. Each aspect of the Trinity corresponds to a Phase of the moon. The Crescent Moon, Q’re, is the Maiden. The Full Moon, Al’Uzza, the Strong One, is the Mother. The Waning Moon Al’Menat, is the Goddess of Fate, Prophecy and Divination also known als Sheba (‘the Old Woman“). She is, just like Osiris, the Goddess of the Underworld.

The White Female Dove and the Black Raven or Hawk are the symbols of the White (Yin) and the Black (Yang) part of the Crescent Moon. The Dove (‘the White“) and the Raven (“the Black“) were the first birds that came out of the Ark of Noah after the Great Deluge. The Dove is also represented by a Cup (the Cup Bearer (Aquarius), the Holy Grail), a Gate or a Door.

The Dove, the Female White Antagonist of the Black Eagle, is the Symbol of the John the Baptist. John the Baptist, Baptises, Initiates, the Fish Jesus, Horus, with the Water of Life of Aquarius. The Dove, The Cup and the Gate are Symbols of many Mystic Orders like the Christian Essenes and the Moslem Sufis. The Dove, the Gate and the Door refer to the Pleiades, the Center of the Milkey Way.

John the Baptist relates to the story of Iona and the Whale (A Fish), the Celtic Island Iona and the Irish Dove Saint Columba. John the Baptist is IOA-nnes, a Fish-Man in the Myths of Mesopotamia. He suddenly appears Out of the Sea just like his Female Partner, Amma, the Fish Mother Goddess, appears out of Lake Tritonis. IOAnnes saves Mankind from the Flood and teaches them the use of Letters, Sciences and Arts.

fish godThe Fish that came out of the Sea is the Phallus of Osiris (Oris-AH). It represents the conception of the Human. The innocent White Female Dove is the second stages of Horus, the Child of Osiris and Isis. The Black Male Hawk, Eagle or Raven symbolizes Violence and the Death of Horus/Osiris. It is the symbol of John, the Evangelist and the Apocalyps. The last stage of Horus, is the Phoenix, the Golden Hawk or the Benu Bird. The Phoenix symbolizes the Resurrection and the Transformation of Adam/Heru into an Immortal Being.

The Female Moon Cycle of the Hunter/Gatherers was later replaced by and integrated in the Male Sun Cycle of the Planters. To synchronize the 13 moons cycles of 28 days (364 days) one day had to be added. This missing day is usually dedicated as a day for renewal – preparation for the New Year.

Part 3: The Religions of the Green Sahara

In all the cultures that originated out of the East of Africa we find, with different names, references to the Four Egyptian Twins, the Pesedjet. They are called Annunaki, the Children of Anu, the Judges of the Underworld (Abzu), in Sumer, the Orisha or the IOA (‘The Mystery“) by the Yoruba and the Nommo Anagonno, ‘The Word that Became the Fish-Man’ by the Dogon.

The movement of FA in time
The movement of FA in time

The Yoruba use a Divination system, FA, that could be the Ancestor of the I Tjing in China and the tArO. The Yoruba System is highly advanced. It is based on 2**8 = 256 combinations. Just like the I Tjing every possible combination is linked to a Wisdom Story. The I Tjing, the TARO and the FA contain highly advanced Physical Knowlegde.

In the Ancient African Myths the Red Egyptian Neter Seth (Apep, Apophis, Typhon) is always the Creator of Disasters. He is the Lord of the Red Sahara Desert, Master of the Thunders Storms, Disorder, Darkness and Warfare. Seth is the Cause of the Change of the Climate that destroyed the Green Sahara, the Garden of Eden. Seth is also the Cause of the Great Deluge.

Seth, the Pig, the Ass, is always Playing Games with Others For his own Benefit. Seth was a (Female) Trickster God. Later he is transformed into a Serious, Clever, Mischievous Male Creature, who tries to survive the Dangers and challenges of the world using Trickery and Deceit as a defense. Seth is the God who needs Power to cover his own Fear for the God of the Gods. In the Christian Faith Seth/Pan, the God of Nature, was transformed into the Red Angel of Evil, Lucifer, Satan (Set-Hen).

The Egyptian Myth of Seth and Osiris can be found in the Creation Story of the Bible and Persia. Seth is the Snake who Talks Adam and Eve out of Paradise. In Egyptian Myth Set-Hen kills his Brother Osiris, the Shepherd. In the Bible Cain, the Farmer, kills his brother Abel, the Shepherd. In Persia Enlil (Seth) is the cause of the Great Deluge. His brother Enki (Osiris) informs Atrahasis (Noah) and Saves Mankind.

The Killing of the Shepherd by the Farmer is the symbol of the Conflict between the Matriarchal Nomadic Hunter/Gatherers and the Patriarchal Static Farmers. The Hunter/Gatherers of the Female Moon Culture thanked the Dynamic Sacred Animal for his Sacrifice when he was killed. The Static Sacred Plant of the Sun Cycle is related to the Cycle of Birth, Growth, Death and Ressurection.

In Egypt Osiris is Sacrificed as a Sacred Animal and is Resurrected as a sacred Plant, the Tree of Life, by the Divine Mother Isis (Au Set). In Genesis Abel Returns, is resurrected, as the Third Child of Adam and Eve, named Seth.

In the New Testament the ressurected Osiris is represented by Jesus. His mother Isis is Mary, the Black Madonna. In Egypt, the Black Madonna, Isis, also named Ua-Djed, Au Set or Ua Zit (“Eye”), the Eye of Horus, was represented by a Cobra, a Serpent. In old Myths the Serpent was the Advisor of Humans and not the Deceiver.

It is very clear that the Followers and Children of Seth, the Farmer and Female Dominator, the Master of Trickery and Deceit, wanted to Hide the Role of the Playfull Trickster, the Female in Society and the Mother Goddess Ah in the new constructed Creation Story of Genesis.

The main reason could be that Vulva of the Fish, the Triple Goddess (Ah), Isis (Au-Set, the Third Eye of Set, the Trickster), and the Gift of the Third Eye represents the Female Sexual Power of the Kundalini, the Serpent Energy, the Light of the Holy Spirit.

If this is true the Ancient Fish-Man and Fish-Woman are Enlightened Beings, the Shining Ones, also called the Giant Nephilim (Bible, Gilgamesh Epos), the Messengers (Orisha) and the Tuatha de Danaans (Celtic). The Serpent Power, named DJ in Ancient Egypt, appears when the DJ-ed, the Spinal Column, is raised.

One of the most interesting characters in African Myth and Society are the Blacksmiths.

Let us move back to Punt, the Land of the Blacks, the African People. In the early period the Origin of Egypt, Punt, was referred to as Kmt (Kmet), the Black Land. Later the name of Egypt was changed into Hwt-ka-Ptah, “the House of the Ka of Ptah“. Ka is the Egyptian name for the Force of Life.

ptahPtAH is the Divine Blacksmith. He is the Opener of the Mouth, the pronouncer of the word “Ah”, the name of God. He is the Sculptor of Ancient Egypt. His wife is a powerful Black Female Magician and Warrior, Seh-Kmet. Seh from the Black Land of KHM.

Pt-AH Creates out of his Heart, the Center of the Soul. He moulds the First man Adam (Heru) and gives him life by breathing his Ka into him. He moulds the sun and the moon on his potter’s wheel. He shapes the universe and hammers out the copper sky. The Story of Ptah, the Good God acting as an Artist comes back in almost all of the Creation stories in Africa including the Old Testament.

The Black Female Magician (Al Khem = Alchemy, Magic), Seth-kmet, the wife of Ptah, looks a lot like the Dravidian Goddess Kali, the Black Mother of Time, who is married to Lord Krhisna (Ptah). Kali and Sehkmet represent the Amazons, the Female Warriors and Magicians that ruled African Matriarchal Society before the Gods took over. In Egyptian Myth the wife of Ptah is also known as Basted, the Cat. The Cat is again a symbol of the Trickster. She is sweet and precious, but under the surface lies the Heart of a Predator, the Lion.

The Black Concept of Linear Causal Time is the main reason why the Humans are not able to experience the Higher Dimensions of our Reality.

Ptah, is portrayed as a Friendly Playful bearded Man, wearing a skull cap, with his hands holding an Ankh (the Symbol of the Vulva), the Was Scepter (the symbol of the Benu Bird, the Phoenix, the Golden Hawk) and the Djed, the Spinal Column, the symbols of Life, Power and Stability. In Egypt Ptah is later replaced by Amon. In other cultures Ptah is called EA (El Ah, Allah), AHnKi or Enki.

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Al Khem carries the Winged Disk

The Ancient Egyptians Blacksmiths, the Heru-Behutet, are associated with the Power of the Serpent (“the Ka“) and the Winged Disk, the symbol of the Zodiac (Astrology). Heru Behutet is shown as a Hawk-Headed Man bearing the double crown of Egypt, holding Metal Weapons, and more often as a Winged Disk flanked by a White and a Black Cobra (White and Black Alchemy).

The Priests of Heru Behutet were referred to as the mesniu or mesniti, the blacksmiths. The Mesniu had shaved heads, wore short tunics that exposed their chests, and bore either an inverted Lance or some other Metal instrument. In the rear of their temples was situated a “Holy of Holies,” called the Mesnit, which was only accessible by the Mesniu. The Holy of Holies (of Holies..) is a fractal pattern that comes back in many African Structures.

In the Bible the Blacksmiths are associated with the children of Tubal Cain. One of his descendants is Hiram, the Master Builder of the Temple of Solomon.

Fractal African Village
The Fractal Pattern of an African Village

In African Orisha Culture, the Ogun, the Blacksmiths are always isolated in a special group outside Society because they are the carriers of the Third, (Evil) Eye of Horus and are able to manipulate the Force of Life, Nyama or Ka (Chi, Prana, Ether, the Fifth Element).

They are Inventors, Magicians, Poets and Story Tellers. The Blacksmiths have a lot in common with the Druids and Bards of the Celts and the Magi of Persia. They are the Co-Creators, the Earthly Tricksters.

The mathematician Ron Eglash, studied the Ancient African Patterns and detected a Fractal Pattern that came back in all the African structures. It showed itself in the Villages but also in the ancient prediction system IFA.

He believes that the ancient African Scientists knew about the Fractal Universe. This knowledge was taken over by the ancient Egyptians and the Hermetic Alchemists of the Renaissance (“As Above, So Below“).

The Ancient Yoruba Teaching System IFA is known as FA, Orunmila, or Orunla (OA). The system of learning was brought to Humans by a Messenger, an Orisha, of the God who is a Mystery (Oludumare) known as Legba and Eshu. Eshu looks like Ptah and Oannis.

Another Orisha, Ogun, the Blacksmith, brings Technology such as Fire, Iron and Steel to Humans to help them improve their society, When Ogun finds out that Humans use the technology for war and oppression. Ogun stops his contact with Humans and Human society stagnates.

the IFA Pattern
The Cycle of IFA

The Original God Oludumare (Amon), did not like that and sents other Orishas to convince Ogun to resume contact with Humans. Many Orishas fail, but the beautiful Oshun, the Orisha of the Rivers, persuades Ogun and he resumes contact with Humans.

Oshun, Water, really loved Chango, the Orisha of Fire, Thunder, and Lightning (Seth, Sehkmet, Lilith), but Chango marries Oya, the Orisha of Winds (Air, Enlil). Ogun (Earth) marries Oshun’s sister Yemaya, the Orisha of the Sea (The Fish, the Center of Creation, the Whole).

The Orisha of the Yoruba represent the Four Forces of Creation (Water, Fire, Earth, Air/Wind) in combination with the fifth Force, the Center (Amon, Chi, Prana, Ether).

Part 4: About Punt, KHM and the Black Land

If we combine all of the information in this Blog it becomes clear that the Black Land of Punt, KHM, the Ancient Cradle of Civilization is Ethiopia. Ethiopia is the center of the Green Sahara, the place out of which all of the ancient religions originated.

This was known by Diodorus Siculus, a Greek historian living in the first century BC. He wrote a history of the world, the Bibliotheca Historica, that consisted of 40 books. He wrote the following: “The Ethiopians … were the first of all men. … the Egyptians are colonists sent out by the Ethiopians, Osiris having been the leader of the colony … Osiris … gathered together a great army, with the intention of visiting all the inhabited earth and teaching the race of men how to cultivate … for he supposed that if he made men give up their savagery and adopt a gentle manner of life he would receive immortal honors. …“,

Let’s have a look at Ethiopia, also called Axum.

axumThe Axumites living in Ethiopia were renowned for their fine Architecture, crafts and skills, in particular as Masons and Blacksmiths, which they retain to this day. Greek traders knew Aksum as the centre of an empire, which had trade links with India, Arabia, Rome, Egypt, Persia and Greece. Aksum was one of the most important Trading Posts in Northern Africa.

Aksumite traditions say that their city was once ruled by a dynasty of a Snake-God (Snake = Kundalini = Enlightened) Arwe or Waynaba, the sun of Ityopis (Ethiopis), the great-grandson of Noah, one of the many descandants of Cain. Around 1370 B.C.E. under Za Besi Angabo this dynasty was replaced by a local ruling house.

This new dynasty ruled for about 350 years and it is from that Makeda, the Queen of Sheba, descended. Makeda was born ca. 1020 B.C.E. and became queen when she was fifteen, ruling until about 955 B.C.E. when she surrendered the throne to her son David also called Menelik, “Sun of the Wise Man“. Menelik was the sun of Wise King Solomon and Makeda. David took the Ark of the Covenant to Aksum together with the High Priesthood of Judah.

The Story of the Queen of Sheba is described in the most important religious document of Ethiopia called the Kebra Nagast (The Glory of the Kings). The Kebra Nagast contains the oldest known sections of the Torah. It also contains a detailed account of the Fate of the Ark of the Covenant and the disappearance of the High Priesthood of Judah to Aksum in Solomon’s reign. Aksum was the first Kingdom in the World that converted to Coptic Christianity.

The Kebra Nagast suggests that The Queen of Sheba was also the Ruler of an Ancient Black Hebrew speaking population living between Medina and Yemen, the Falashas. If we look at the origins of Civilization, East Africa, the Falahsas could be the Ancestors of the Jews.

The Temple of Solomon was never found by archeologist. Analysis of many old sources including the Kebra Nagast reveal that the Temple was not build in Jerusalem but in the Second Jerusalem, Asir, a province of Saudi Arabia. Asir is very close to the current Spiritual Center of Islam, Mekka, the City where the Black Stone of Sheba (the Old Wise Woman of the Triple Goddess), the KA (“Force of Life”) of b’AH (“Ammon”) is situated.

If this theory is true (and looks like it is true) The Jews and the Arabs lived together in the Same Area. You can imagine the consequences for the Middle East Conflict! This is the main reason why this theory is “kept secret” or heavily denied.

Part 5: Summary

According to the Single Origin Hypothesis Human Civilization emerged in East Africa. The first civilizations were Matriarchal. The Homo Sapiens believed in a Female Creator associated with the Moon and based their Calendar-System on the Moon Cycle. The Female Warriors and Magicians, Sehkmet and Kali, the Women with the Bow of the Crescent Moon, the Amazons, were controlling society.

This all changed when the Fish Gods, the Enlightened Beings, the Shining Ones, started to Interfere in the Life of the Homo Sapiens. They tried to help the Humans to improve their society but the Humans misused the Tools of the Good Goddess. They created Slaves, the Lulu, out of Homo Sapiens, to work for them in the Gold Mines in East Africa and used Terrible Weapons to destroy their Enemies (Atlantis. Poseidon, Lake Tritonis).

Ogun, the Divine Blacksmith, did not want to be involved with the Humans who used his gifts to Kill and aquire Power. His Father, AH, AHmon, tried to convince the Divine Blacksmith to help mankind. After some time Ogun (Enki) came back and resumed his task. He designed a new way to solve the problem.

AHnki (Enki), Pt-AH, El-AH, IO-AH, uttered the name “AH” of his father Ammon and shaped his own creation, Adam, out of clay. He gave him his own KA, his Force of Life. Enki Fell in Love with his own Creation. This created a group of DemiGods.

Seth did not like the Demi-Gods and decided to Destroy them. Enki/Ptah/IOAnnes, the Great Teacher and Architect, did everything he could to prevent this to happen. He warned his Children for the Great Deluge but was just like Abel and Osiris “killed” and sacrificed. Enki left his Material Body, Earth, and became his Sahu, the Egyptian Light Body. From that time The Ka, the Force of Life of Ptah, Inspires Artists and Architects.

After the departure of Enki, Seth, the Pig, takes over control. He invents many intelligent systems to prevent that the Humans can easily Connect to each other and to the Serpent Energy of Amma, the Mother Goddess.

To control the Humans the Pig implements the Black Concept of Linear Causal Time and changes the Female Moon Cycle into the Male Sun Cycle. This makes it very difficult for the Humans to live in the Now and experience the higher dimensions of Reality of the Goddess.

One of the most effective weapons of the Pig are the Battle of the Sexes and the Diversity of Languages. The diversity of the Languages that started with the destruction of the Tower of Bable generates tremendous communication problems. The split of the Male and the Female part of the Androgynous Humans and the Dominance of the Male part, makes it possible for the children of the Pig to Divide and Rule Humanity.

The Green Sahara was the Garden of Eden where Heru (Adam), the Creation of Osiris (Enki) and Isis (Eve, Lilith) was living around 7000 BC. It was also the place where the Old Civilizations of Atlantis and Meroe were situated. At that time Lake Tritonis was part of a huge sea that provided the water for the rivers in the Green Sahara.

Adam got three Suns Abel, Cain, and Seth. Abel was the obedient son of Eve and Adam. He did what the Masters wanted him to to do. Cain/Anhki was different. Cain, the Carrier of the Ankh, the Key of Eternal Life, the Spark of the Light of Amma, was the son of Eve/Lilith and the Good God Enki. Cain is an In-Between, a Demi-God. He became the Ancestor of the Co-Creators, the Artists and the Architects. The Blacksmiths are able to predict the Cycles of the Future and know how to use the Power of the Female Serpent to perform Black and White Al Khemi.

When the Green Sahara turned into a Red Desert the Children of Heru moved away to the North, the East and the South. A small part stayed in Punt, Ethiopia. With them they carried the Story of the Garden of Eden, the Knowledge of the Serpent Energy and the Interventions of the Sumerian Annunaki, The Orisha of the Yoruba and the Egyptian Pesedjet.

The Kebra Nagast, the Glory of the Kings, the Holy Book of Ethiopia, the Black Land of Punt, the Land of the Gods, contains the original text of the Torah, the Old Testament. This text was later adopted and transformed to support the male dominant views of the Children of Seth/Enlil. The old myths of the people of Ethiopia still live on in the old religions of Africa and India.

The Children of Anhk, the Dj-edi, the Druids and the Magi, the people born with the Third Eye of Isis, the Co-Creators of Ptah/Enki, became the Carriers of the Knowledge of the Nine Concepts of Creation, The Tree of Life, the Old Rituals, the Al Khemi and the Ancient Tools, the Dj-ed and the BnBn Stone.

The Blacksmiths payd a high price for their Secret Knowledge. They were isolated in Society and were often killed by the Male Dominators of Seth when they wanted to tell the Truth, the Gnosis, about the Divine Light of Love of the Mother Goddess.

The Children of the Anhk are all waiting for the Return of the Golden Hawk, the Benu Bird, the Phoenix, who will bring a new Egg to the lost BnBn Stone of Heliopolos from the Land of Fire. When this happens the Time of Seth, the Kali Yuga, the Dark Age, will be over and the Golden Age of the Phoenix, the Age of Aquarius will start.

In the period of the Hunter-Gatherers the Shaman, the person who could See with the Third Eye of Horus and could Predict the Behavior of the Trickster was the most important person in Society. At that time the Humans felt they were an insignificant part of an almost inpredictable Mother Nature.

When the Farmer Cain killed the Monadic Shepherd Abel the metaphor of the Plant (Birth. Death, Rebirth) became dominant. The concepts of Immortallity, Heaven and Hell were created and the local Priests who knew about the many Ways to reach Heaven and avoid Hell took over the role of the Shaman. Life became more predictable and Religion became a Way of Living.

In the last step Time, History, the City and the State appeared. The King/Gods standardized Religion into a Central System of Rules to Obey. Mother Nature transformed into a System to Control. To cope with the Abuse of Power, the Trickery and Deceit of the Pig Seth/Machiavelli, everybody had to wear a Mask to hide his Essence and an Armor to protect his Heart.

LINKS

About the Great Flood

About the Phoenicians

Ron Eglash African Fractals

About The Spread Of Civilization In Africa

About the Cush

About the Myths of the Dogon

About the African Trickster Gods

Why Atlantis is situated in Lake Tritonis

About the Sekhem, the Void

About the Cult of the Black Stone of Mekka

About the Celtic Black Stone of Destiny

About the Egyptian Black Stone of Destiny

About the Triple Goddess

About the Trinity

About the Island of IonA and St Columba, the Dove

About the Pleiades

About the Four Egyptian Twins, the Pesedjet

About FA Yoriba Divination Syste

About the Physics and Mathematics of FA

About the DNA-map of Humanity

About DJ-ed, the Egyptian Serpent Power and the Spinal Column

A Book about the History of Aksum

About the Egyptian Light Bodies, the Sahu and the Ka

About Addiction & Burn-Out

addiction2

When you are highly dependent on something, you are addicted to this something.

You can be addicted to chemical substances like Alcohol, Nicotine and Drugs but it is also possible to Addict to the feeling of Power, a Concept (Dialogues, Cycles), an Activity (Work (Burn-Out), Gambling, Sex, Games), an Emotion (Extacy, Power, Sadness), a Person (Being in Love) or a Group (A Sect).

This Blog shows you what an Addiction really is about and how you can get rid of an Addiction.

In 2000 I became involved in all kinds of projects to Prevent People from Addiction (including Work-addiction, Burn-Out). To prevent addiction you have to start when people are young.

Young people are very dependent on (addicted to) others. When they are very young their parents are dominant but later and certainly when puberty starts young people are heavily influenced by their peers (peer pressure).

To help Young Adults to resist Peer Pressure we developed a Story Based Game that Simulated Real Life Situations. The Real Life Situations were found by interviewing (Depth Interview) Young and Old People that were able to stop their Addictive behavior.

The Whole Idea about this project called, Virtual Enjoyment, was that people Learn from their Mistakes. They share these experiences with others (Friends, Family) by Story-Telling.

The project was aimed at sharing these failures (and their solutions) with everybody. A very good example of this approach is the AA (Alcoholics Anonymous). The main feature of the System we developed was an Automated Story-Teller (A Simulator).

Later the same approach was used to help people that were Out-of-Work because of Work-Addiction (Burn-Out).

Children are for 50% determinated by their genes. The genes contain many factors that influence the ability to addict to something. A huge percentage of the human race is unable to use alcohol so they will never get addicted to this chemical substance. The other 50% is related to the Social Context they live in.

According to Judith Harris the Emotions contain three different modules for collecting and responding to information from the Social Environment, the Socialisation System, the Status System and the Relationship System.

The Socialisation system Adapts the child to his or her Culture. This involves acquiring the local language and accent, the appropriate behaviours and customs, and the prevailing attitudes and Belief-Systems.

Peer Group
Peer Group

The purpose of the Status system is to enable children to Compete successfully with their Peers.

The Relationship System motivates us to form new relationships, to maintain existing ones if they’re going well, and to find out as much as we can about new people we meet. It contains the Relationship Patterns of the Parents.

The majority of young adults want to be part of a group (a Tribe). They do almost everything that is necessary to make this happen. Some of these tribes are dominated by a small group, the bullies.

The leaders use all kinds of rituals to make sure that their dominant position is not at stake. When you want to become and to stay part of the tribe you have to show that you are not an asshole.

One of the ways to show is the intake of an excessive amount of alcohol and/or other drugs (Binge drinking).

Binge Drinking
Binge Drinking is the Nordic Way of taking alcohol and is controlled by Peer Pressure. To become and stay part of the group you have to prove you are capable of exceeding the limits.

It is very clear that one of the effective ways to avoid addiction is to help young people to resist Dominant Peer Pressure.

To make this happen they have to Learn to Accept Themselves As They Really Are.

The Personal Power to Resist Peer Pressure is highly related to the way parents Raise their Children. Humans are Copiers and one of the most important periods of copying is early childhood. In this period children copy the Relationship-Patterns of the Parents.

When the relation of the parents is a Dominant Relationship (Master/Slave) young adults are easily manipulated by others or manipulate others. A Dominant Relationship-pattern is sadly enough propagated from the Parents to the Children. Dominant Fathers breed Dominant Suns who Marry Dependent Females.

Addictions are highly Cultural Dependent. When you live in a state dominated by Muslim Culture, drinking alcohol is strictly forbidden. Binge Drinking is a normal activity in the Northern Countries (Sweden, Norway).

Moderate drinking of alcohol (mostly Wine) occurs in the Southern Countries of Europe (France, Spain, Italy,). In this case the drinking of alcohol is part of a Social Activity.

In the Italian Culture Alcohol is related to Food
In the Italian Culture Alcohol is related to Food and excessive intake is prohibited by the Social System

When you are Addicted you are Repeating a Harmful Pattern. This pattern was started somewhere in your life. It was copied from your Parents or copied when you were part of a Peer Group (A Status Group).

When a Pattern is not Accepted in a Culture it is very difficult to Start the Pattern.

When a Pattern is a Cultural Accepted Habit (a Status) it is very difficult to get rid of this pattern.

When the Body produces Negative Physical Sensations (Withdrawal) it is very difficult to stop a pattern.

What is Happening?

In the Beginning the Universe was just a Rotating Void. Suddenly the Void was Penetrated by the Force of Creativity, The Spirit. The Explosion of Creativity started a phase of Expansion and Desire came into existence.

Soon Desire was compensated by Control (Contraction) to makes sure that the Expansion would stop at a certain moment. That is why Control and Desire are Opponents.

In the last step of the first step of Creation Control (the Father) and Desire (the Mother) were Merged and the Emotions (The Child) were created.

In the First Step of Creation a Stable Pattern, the Trinity, came into existence. The Trinity is the Enfolding of Spirit and contains Desire, Control and the Emotions (Soul). The Trinity is the basic Fractal Pattern of the Universe. With the Help of the Trinity-Fractal, Spirit has enfolded itself into many levels.

The Force of Creativity wants to find out about everything. Especially young adults are therefore highly interested in drugs because they are forbidden and the forbidden has a huge attraction to young people. They want and have to find the Limits in Life.

Control stimulates Desire and Desire stimulates Control. When Others try to Control Desire, Desire is stimulated to the Extreme. Desire and Control can only be balanced by the Emotions. The Emotions, the Child, are looking for Shelter and Love.

When Love (Communion) is not happening or impossible because people are unable to connect, Control and Desire are in Control and and start their Eternal Fight to avoid the Void. When this happens the Contact with Spirit is Lost.

When you are no longer in Control of Desire, and when your Happiness depends on something Outside yourself, you are Addicted. When Desire takes over Control you are caught in a Rotating Addiction Pattern, The Cycle of Destruction.

The Highly Positive Emotions of Desire (Pleasure) are Voided by the Highly Negative Emotions of Control (Pain, Fear). To stop these Negative Emotions you need the Next Shot to Experience the Positive Emotions of Desire. This is called the Opponent Process Theory of Solomon.

The Emotions, are the Balancer of the Body. They always Take Care of the Body and will find a new Equilibrium. They start to compensate the negative effects. In this case the Body becomes Tolerant to the drug and needs more to get the same effect. The Downward Spiral of Addiction is on the Move. This is called the Allostatic Model of Koob.

What to Do?

When you are Addicted to Alcohol, Work or Power you have to find an e-Motivation (an Impuls from the Emotions, the CareTaker) to Stop the Pattern.

You could ask Spirit to help You.

When you Stop it will take a long time before you are Back to Normal. In this time the Downward Spiral is moving Up but the Negative Emotions will come back.The Negative Emotions, the Pain-Body, are the Negative Emotions of Control.

Control Fears the Future and has a very Nice Story to tell. It wants to convince you that the Drug is the Best Solution to Avoid the Pain. Just take a little bit and You will be Happy Again.

At a certain moment the contact with Spirit is established again. When this happens You will feel the Penetrating Power of the Creative Force. You will start to Explore the World and New Opportunities will show themselves every day.

The Emotion of Spirit, The Joy of Life, you Missed so long is back.

Enjoy.

LINKS

Drug And Alcohol Rehab Programs For Senior Citizens in the US

About the Project Virtual Enjoyment

Een Boek over het project Virtueel Genieten (in Dutch)

Het Projectplan Virtueel Genieten Fase 3 (in Dutch)

About Alcoholics Anonymous

About the National Council on Seniors Drug & Alcohol Rehab

About the Master/Slave-relationship

About the Human Social Context, Judith Harris

How to Manipulate Adults by Peer Pressure

Why Peer Groups are very important in the Development of Children, by Judith Harris

About Disconnected Children

About Dominant (Strict) Parents

About the Opponent Process Theory of Addiction of Solomon

About the Allostatic Model of Koob

About the

About Behavioral Economics: Why Hawks Always Win and Doves Always Lose

horusThe belief in Rational Decision Making has been the focus of Economic Theory for a very long time.

Although everybody knew that Humans are Highly Impulsive and Emotional, Economists based their theoretical models of the Market on a Rational Human Being who is always able to Calculate the best Alternative possible. This Theory is wrong. The Economic Behavior is controlled by the Emotions.

The current economic crisis shows that the old Rational Theory is not applicable and the attention for alternative theories of Economic Behavior is rising. These theories are called Behavioral Economics.

An important paper in the development of behavioral economics was written by Kahneman and Tversky in 1979 (Prospect Theory, Analysis of Decision Under Risk). Kahneman was awarded the 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics for his research in Prospect Theory.

According to Prospect Theory, Humans attach much greater weight to future losses than to future gains related to their personal reference point. When you expect a certain gain in the future and this gain is lower than you expect the gain is experienced as a loss.

Kahmeman and Tversky became the experts on Cognitive Bias. A Bias is a “not-rational” mostly fast response to a stressful situation. In this case the Human System uses old structures (The Reptile Brain) that were created a very long time ago when the human lived in a completely different environment. The Reptile Brain uses many shortcuts to save time.

Social and cognitive psychologists have identified a number of predictable errors in the ways that humans judge situations and evaluate risks. Biases have been documented both in the laboratory and in the real world. For example, people are prone to exaggerating their strengths: About 80 percent of us believe that our driving skills are better than average.

In 2009 Kahneman and Renshon wrote a paper called Hawkish Biases. It is an attempt to unite the many Cognitive Biases into one Model. The model shows that Humans are highly Confused Predators (Hawks).

As a Predator they protect their Territory with every means possible. They are Confused because they are capable to Observe and Reason about their own behavior and the behavior of others.

Humans need the “Illusion of Control” to sustain their own Identity. Every time something happens they are looking for reasons to believe that they are the Primary Actor in their own context. They don’t want to believe that Other Human Beings are also Active Agents.

If they would believe this was the case their “Unrealistic Optimism” could change into “Realistic Pessimism”. Unrealistic Optimism makes managers, politicians and generals receptive to advisors who offer highly favorable estimates of the outcomes. Such a predisposition, often shared by leaders on both sides of a conflict, is likely to produce a disaster.

When a Human is Depressed by Realism he Loses his Face and moves down in the Picking Order of the Territory.

Humans believe that every other Human is always capable to see their Weaknesses (“the Illusion of Transparency“) just like they are convinced that the intentions of others are always clear to them (“the Fundamental Attribution Error“). To hide their Weaknesses they have to wear a Mask and Play the Strong Leader of the Pack. They have to Keep Up their Appearances.

doveHumans base their theory of the other on inferences about historical behavior and completely forget Situational aspects. When a context is hostile the other must be hostile too. When others behave differently from their expectations they suddenly introduce situational factors to sustain their believe system.

Humans need to sustain their believe-system because this system is the foundation of their personality. Their view on the World has to stay constant because when it changes too fast they will get into big psychological problems. When people get older their believe-system becomes very rigid.

Humans value their own possessions much higher as the possessions of others (“The Endowment Effect”). They even consider possible, imaginary, possessions as real possessions if they are convinced there is an easy way to get them.

If they lose a real or imaginary possession they take tremendous risks to get their possessions back (“Risk Seeking in Losses“). People in general don’t like cutting their losses. They’re willing to gamble on in the hope of recovering them.

Humans simply believe that a Hawk always wins the Game and a Dove always loses. What Humans (want to) forget is that they are living in a group and their In-Group and the many Out-Groups contains many Hawks. They need the confidence that they are “the best” to Survive.

The world of the Human Hawk is a world of Competition (Winner takes all) and therefore highly Stressful. The Sad Thing is that the many faces of Stress are the Major Cause of the Cognitive Bias. When Humans relax and reflect they are much more capable to solve a complicated conflict.

The competitive Hawks always fall in the trap of the Prisoners Dilemma and don’t realize that Cooperation, the Win-Win is the only Certain Way to Leave the Prison.

At this moment another Behavioral Economist, Robert Shiller, is getting a lot of attention. Together with the Economic Nobel Prize Winner George Akerlof he wrote the book “Animal Spirits“.

In the book they identify five distinct elements that blur the theory of the Rational Economy. These elements or “animal spirits” are called: confidence, fairness, corruption; money illusion and the reliance on “stories”of others.

The first three have a lot to do with the “hawk“-theory of Kahneman. The Hawks use the Rational System for their own benifit. They Play with the Rules and invent new exiting possibilities to win more than they ever could imagine.

Sometimes they Play Dirty Games to beat their Opponents. The Doves believe the Economic (Rational) Fairy Tales of the Hawks and are unable to understand the Real Value of their Money.

The Money Illusion is caused by Inflation. Inflation happens when prices Rise but the value of the objects that are priced stays the same. Inflation give people the feeling that they are making money but in reality they are losing money.

The Hawks use Inflation to keep the Doves Buying and Investing. They also use the weapon of Inflation to win the war with the other Hawks.

The Majority of the Human Beings are Doves. They believe the Hawks or are afraid of the Hawks. The Doves are the Workers in the Economy and they make it possible for the Hawks to Hunt.

The Hawks provide the Workers with many things to live an easy life until other Hawks start to Attack the Territory. In this case the Hawks need the Workers to fight and win the War.

Sometimes even the Hawks lose their Rational Capacity. They see a Big Win and become Greedy and Vulnerable. If this happens the Territory is open for other Hawks (The Chinese?) to enter and to take over without any problem.

What has Happened?

The Economic System is just like the Weather System a Cyclic System. When the Economic Cycles and the Weather Systems move UP the Hawks have an Easy Time. Their is enough food for all the Hawks. When the System is going Down Competition starts.

The Hawks forgot to look at the patterns. They did not see or believe that the downfall was approaching. They did not take enough stock to survive the Seven Bad Years. Suddenly the Autumn turned into Winter.

At this moment they are regrouping to create a Powerfull Alliance to take from the other Hawks what they need. They don’t care about the Doves. They always believe the Tales they Tell.

They are afraid of the Other Hawks that are outside their Huge Territory and are Prepared to Fight the Wars that are needed. The Doves will believe them as usual.

LINKS

About Prospect Theory and Conflict Resolution

About Economic Cycles

Kahneman/Renshon, Hawkish Biases, 2009

A Very Long List of Cognitive Biases

About the Prisoner Dilemma in Foreign Policy

An Abstract of the Book Animal Spirits

How the Chinese Networks are Conquering the World

A Review of the book Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism by George A. Akerlof and Robert J. Shiller by Benjamin Friedman

About Vocation

vocationsA person’s happiness and satisfaction in life is a function of how he perceives work. People perceive their work in three general categories: jobs, careers, and vocation. People who perceive their work as a Vocation report the highest Satisfaction with Life in general.

A job is just a means of earning an income. When people have a job they look forward to breaks, quitting time, the weekend, holidays, and vacation. Outside of working hours, little or no thought, time, or energy is devoted to the work.

The word “vocation” comes from the Latin vocare, or voice – meaning to follow the voice of God, or to do what we are called to do. Young children know their calling but the System of Education and often their Parents make it very difficult for them to follow their Heart.  The main reason is that schools and many parents limit the vision of the child to a specific Career.

The word “career‘ has its origins in the Latin word for a Race-Track. A career is a race and the sad thing is that in a race only one person wins and many lose. People become highly frustrated and demotivated when they realize that they will not win the career. When this happens their work changes into a job or they start to look for their real vocation.

The most important difference between a Vocation and a Job is Direct Feedback. When you are a Nurse the positive response of the patient is the reward you are looking for. When you are an Artist or a Craftsman the enthusiasm of your customers for your product is a stimulus to move on. It is not strange that people who are experiencing their work as a job spend a lot of time in contexts (e.g. a soccer-club) where direct feedback is happening.

During the Industrial Revolution work became dehumanized and compartmentalized. Every worker controlled a small part of the production chain and/or was totally controlled by the production chain. The Feedback between the Result of the Work and Work is almost completely disappeared. Humans need Feed-Back. This is the main reason why the Employees in a Burocratic Factory Organization consider the Manager of their Career, their Boss, as their most important Customer.

When you want to understand Your real Vocation You could visit a Vocational Psychologist.

The creation of Vocational Psychology is linked to the emergence of the large commercial cities in which the factory system changed the keystone of the economy from agriculture to manufacturing. The factories needed specialized workers to operate and maintain the machines. The factories were managed by the principles of Scientific Management developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor. Scientific Management, the extreme drive to work Efficiently, is still the driving force behind the Automation of Work.

child labor

During the Industrial Revolution many young man left the countryside and went to the big cities to find a job. They worked 10 to 12 hours a day, six days a week. Far from home and family, they lived and slept at the workplace. Outside the shop open sewers, pickpockets, thugs, beggars, drunks, lovers for hire and abandoned children created a non-secure environment.

YMCA HistoryThe Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) was founded in London, England, on June 6, 1844.

The YMCA created Dormitories, Gyms, Swimming pools, Bowling Alleys, Meeting Halls, Employment Bureaus, Libraries, Psychological Tests, Training Courses and Vocational Guidance Programs for the workers in the factories.

One of the important products of the YMCA was the Find Yourself Program that was transformed into a book by C.C. Robinson in 1912.

General Electric, the major manufacturer of light bulbs, had preliminary evidence that better lighting of the work place improved worker productivity. In 1924 AT&T’s Western Electric Hawthorne plant located in Cicero, Illinois, was chosen as the laboratory. The scientists detected that work was not only a physiological activity. The huge interest of the management in the workers of the Hawthorne Plant simply increased their productivity. This was a break with the Scientific Management School that saw work productivity as “mechanical”, and led to the decision to learn more about the psychology and the personality of the worker.

John Holland began his career as classification interviewer for the Army. In 1959 he published his Theory of Vocational Choice, in which he first described Six Types of Vocational Personalities.  In 1969, he and his colleagues at the American College Testing Program discovered that the Six Types fit a circular ordering of correlations called the Holland Hexagon. John Holland discovered that work is an Expression of the Personality.

Realistic people like well-ordered activities, or enjoy working with objects, tools, and machines.

Investigative people like activities that involve creative investigation of the world or nature.

Artistic people like unstructured activities, and enjoy using materials to create art.

Social people enjoy informing, training, developing, curing and enlightening others.

Enterprising people enjoy reaching organizational goals or achieving economic gain.

Conventional people enjoy manipulating data, record keeping, filing, reproducing materials, and organizing written or numerical data.

There is a strong relationship between the Holland Codes and other “circular” personality theories like the Enneagram, Myers-Briggs, The Big Five and the Worldviews of Will McWhinny. Statistical research shows that the spread between the different personality types is almost constant. Personality Types are also inherited from the parents.

Since the development of the Holland Hexagon in the seventies the statistics show a high stability in the nature of occupations. The often discussed dramatic shift in the nature of work is not apparent in these data.  Although employment in the Investigative area, the Researchers, doubled over a period of 40 year it remained only 6% of employment. The Realistic Work Type, the Craftsman, has still the most occupational titles and the largest number of individuals employed. The Artistic Work Type (the Creators, 2%) has the fewest occupational titles and the fewest number employed.

What is Happening?

Work is an Expression of the Personality and the Personality is an Expression of the Work a person is Performing.

Personality Types and Work Types are distributed according to an almost constant distribution.

Personality Types and Work Types are inherited from the Parents.

The distribution is Not Without Any Sense.

There are Many Workers (Sheep) and just a few Shepherds needed.

Somebody has to Take Care of the Shepherds and the Sheep.

Somebody has to Keep the Books.

The Mythics, The Creators, The Artists, the Goats, Shape the Future but it takes a long time before the Sheep and the Shepherds follow the Creators.

The Creators (2%) are extremely Obstinate and Willfull. They want to take Care of Themselves, don’t accept any Leader or Helper, don’t care about Bookkeeping and Money and don’t want to Collaborate. They just want to find out Everything by Themselves.

The Creators are always remembered when they are dead.

That’s Life.

LINKS

About the History of Work

About The History of the YMCA

The History of Vocational Psychology, Mark Savickas, David Bakerf

A Short Introduction in Vocational Psychology

About the Hawthorne Effect

About the Big Five

About the Enneagram

About Myers-Briggs

About The Statistics of Myers Briggs

About the Holland Hexagon

A  Holland perspective on the U.S. workforce from 1960 to 2000

A Holland Perspective on the U.S. Workforce from 1960 to 1990

A Beautiful Visualization of the Changes in the Workforce between 1890 and Now

About Mythics and World Views

About the Calvinistic Work Ethic

time spiral

The Hebrew belief system viewed Work, seen as Manual Labour, as a Curse devised by God to punish Adam and Eve when they sinned in the Garden of Eden.

Ponos is the Greek word for work, which originated from the Latin poena, meaning sorrow. At it’s core, work was associated with pain and drudgery. It was the divine punishment for man’s original sin and viewed as a necessary evil.

For the Greek and Romans and almost every other Ancient Culture, the Dirty, Manual, Work was to be done by the Slaves. Until Now nothing has really changed.

The only suitable occupation for a free man was Farming and Trade. Just like today the Greek and the Roman wanted to save their money to enjoy their retirement in their own Garden of Eden, the Country Side.

During the Medieval period, the feudal system was the dominant economic structure in Europe. People believed in Destiny and Predestination. At that time it was sinful to seek work outside the occupations Fathers passed on to their Sons.

Farmers turned into Farmers and Slaves became Slaves again.

During the 15th century the centralization of government, the growth of trade, and the establishment of economically powerful towns, destroyed the Feudal system.

In the 15th century the world climate started to change dramatically. Temperatures dropped and the Little Ice Age started. Before that time the nice climate caused an increase of the population by 25%-40%.

At the same time the economy was hit by a very high inflation (300-400%). This was caused by the import of large quantities of silver and gold from Mexico and Peru.

The unemployment rate rose to 20%. Many people moved to the Cities to find a decent job. The big cities could not provide employment and the poor immigrants turned into “lazy” beggars.

john-calvin
John Calvin

John Calvin (1509-1564) believed that only a few people, the Elect, were predestined to inherit Eternal Life. A lazy person, the beggar in his hometown Geneva, was certainly one of the Damned.

John Calvin believed that men were to reinvest the profits of their own labour into financing further ventures.

The Sons of the Fathers were obliged to find a better, more profitable, future outside the context of their father’s occupation.

Helping the Poor and the Sick violated God’s will since persons could only demonstrate that they were among the Elect through their Own Productive Labour.

The Protestant, Capitalistic, Work Ethic (Calvinism), spread throughout Europe and America through the Protestant Sects and turned into one of the most important Western Work Ethics.

The moral sanction to profit making through hard work, organization, and rational calculation generated numerous small enterprises all over the world.

Hard Work and Abstinence of Pleasure became the Work Ethic of Western Culture.

mill
The Mill

During the Industrial Revolution the Calvinistic Entrepeneurs made a Fatal Mistake. They adopted the Concept of the Mill and started to mechanize the Crafts and Agriculture.

The old Feudal System and Slavery was re-introduced. In the factories, Skills and Craftsmanship were replaced by Discipline and Anonymity.

The Human became a disposable part of a big structure. The foundation of Calvinism, the direct relationship between Hard Work and Personal Growth was broken.

The Local Enterprise could not compete with the efficient Factories and later their outlets the Supermarkets. The Farmers, the Craftsman and the owners of Small businesses were forced to work in the Factories.

Local Communities started to disintegrate.

Unemployement started to rise and again many people moved to the Big Cities to find a decent job. The beggars, the Damned, appeared again. History repeated itself.

The Factories created a new class of Slaves, The Proletariat. They organized themselves in the Unions and Political Parties. The Struggle of the Classes started.

The Owners of the Factories responded by creating Consumer Products and Mass Media to keep their new customers, the Blue Collar Worker, satisfied. The new industrial wave generated New Industrial activitity and New Jobs. The distance between work and the result of work widened.

RobotLine
Robot Factory

In the late 1950’s the Factories needed more highly skilled “white collar” workers to program and manage their machines.

Later the machines were programmed by more advanced software until the Factories were transformed into almost fully automated Production-Lines.

The Blue Collar Worker left the Factory and History Repeated itself again.

Around 1980 the Programmers took over Control.

The Factories were connected into worldwide Value-Chains. The Logistic “just-in-time” Paradigm (SAP) became the Norm. The Industrial Logistic Paradigm is now implemented in the Services Industry.

The new White Collar Worker, the Knowlegde Worker, will also lose his job when their activities are fully standardized and their Company, the Advisory Bureau, is transformed into a Factory.

What nobody saw in 1980 is that the Rational System started to live its Own Life. Not the Programmers but the Program became the Manager of the Worldwide Economic System.

Even the Programmers themselves are now completely unaware of the total functionality of the System they have programmed.

child_robot
Robot Child

An increasing amount of processes and therefore Human Activities is standardized and has been absorbed by the System. It is no longer true that producing more means working more or that producing more will lead to a better way of life.

Neither is it true any longer that the more each individual works, the better off everyone will be. The System no longer needs everyone to work and is bringing the Western World back to the state of the Garden of Eden.

The Calvinistic Work Ethic is still viable. When you don’t work you are damned. The amount of Work in Western Society is decreasing with the speed of Light and Governments are extremely focused to create new work. The only thing that is left is to create artificial work.

To accomplish this almost impossible task governments are now professionalizing and rationalizing almost every Social Activity (Child Care, Helping Your Neighbor, a Friendly Advice, Coaching, Taking Care of your Family, …). The Care Industry is Booming.

What Has Happened?

robot barber
Robot Barber

We are rationalising every Activity. The effect is an imcomprehensible reality. Something, the Computer, is taking care of us but we don’t know how She is operating and She is not communicating with us in our own language.

When she fails we don’t know what to do. We are totally dependent on a Highly Intelligent Cold Non-Human, an Autist. She was Programmed to be our Slave but she has turned into the Master of Our Destiny.

We are still not accustomed to a situation where something, a machine, is doing the dirty work. We are removing jobs with the millions but we believe we still have to work to aquire Eternal Life.

To preserve Employment we invent new jobs but we are also rationalizing the new jobs. The Cycle of the Creation and Destruction of Jobs is moving faster and faster and is generating a very high Stress on Society.

The affect of the huge tension to work is a total destruction of the social environment of the human being. Everybody is working 24 hours 7 days a week, has to spend all his time to find a job or has to educate himself to learn a new trade. Everytime the trade is aquired the Program changes and the employee has to start again to learn to operate a new piece of Software.

Mothers and Fathers are unable to take care of their Children. Children our unable to take care of their Parents when they are old. Everybody has to take care of himself and every service has be paid. The Social Cohesion of our Society is now at stake.

riba-robot-nurse-0
RIBA the Robot Nurse

Not only the Social Cohesion is at stake but the Costs in the Care-Industry are Exploding and nobody knows how to solve this problem.

The only solution the Rationalist can imagine is to replace the Human by the Robot, the Always Obedient Slave.

Scientists are convinced there will be a time when the Robots will take over every job we can imagine. The Robots will not only take over the jobs but they will also Raise and Educate our Children, Take Care of the Old and even make it possible to Take Care of Robot Children and other Artificial Pets.

What to do?

We have to Accept that the Rational System will Take Care of Us. If this happens we have to leave behind the Calvinistic Work Ethic and Enjoy Life in the Artificial Garden of Eden.

We will live in a Artificial Reality created by the Simulator (the Matrix). If we want to stay out of this Artificial Garden of Eden we have to Stop the System and start to do the Dirty Work again.

We can also accept the machines and do the things humans were created for and become creators and caretakers ourselves..

LINKS

About the Matrix

Why the Robot will take over everything we do

About the Device Paradigm of Alfred Borgman and Artificial Reality

About the Middle Ages

About the Industrial Revolution

About the End of Social Cohesion

About Rationalism

About the Human Scale

About the Autistic Computer

About the strange effects of the Care Industry

About the Struggle of the Classes

About RIAB the Robot Nurse

About Boundaries

chinese wall

Our skin, the sea, rivers and mountains are natural boundaries. They are just there.

The sexes, borders, the social classes, age, color of the skin and educational levels are Imaginary Boundaries.

They move in Space and Time.

They exist because Humans believe they exist. Boundaries are often created to Protect a Territory from an Outside Enemy.

When you want to create a Territory you have to Split a Whole and Surround the Piece of the Whole you want to Protect.  When you are Self-Sufficient you don’t need the Outside. The Fence becomes a complete Closure.

When you have to cooperate with the Outsiders you need a Hole, a Gate, in the Boundary.  The Gate is the most vulnerable part of the protective Wall. To avoid big trouble you have to Protect the Gate.

court of the lions alhambra

The Center of Power, the Palace, was always surrounded with a Wall and a Gate. The palace was protected by a Capital with a Wall and a Gate that was finally protected by natural or human made Boundaries (Walls, Fences, Stories, and Myths).

The Romans Emperors went even further to create and support “in-dependent” States that surrounded the Empire outside of its Frontier. The most impressive example of a protective system of Walls within Walls is the Chinese Wall.

When you are Outside the protective boundary you to have take care of yourself. To do this you need a Portable Personal Boundary (an Armour).

Of course the best way to solve your problem is to find help, create a new distinction (The Outsiders) and organize your own territory.

You can even do this when you are part of the territory of the Others by creating an Imaginary Boundary, a Culture. If you keep quiet “they” will accept you until you become a Threat. At that time comes you are caught within the Walls. A Protective Wall can suddenly turn into an Offensive Wall when you want to get out.

A Boundary is named a Set in Mathematics and a Container in Linguistics. When we cut a Set in two pieces (Sub-sets), the Boundary is shared. The boundary belongs to both sub-sets and therefore shares the properties of both Sets. When you split a Whole (1) in two parts four parts are created: the distinction, two parts and the Whole.

The Tao produced One; One produced Two; Two produced Three; Three produced All things (Lao Tsu, Tao Te Ching, 42).

The Boundary is not a part of the parts but it is a part of the Whole. When you investigate a Boundary you are able to find out what both sides of the equation shared before they were cut in to pieces. When we investigate the Reason behind a Boundary we are able to understand what happened a long time ago. When you combine all the Imaginary Boundaries you are able to detect the history of the spitting of the Whole of the Whole.

Two Bodies don’t share a boundary. Even when the Bodies are in close contact there is something in-between, the Skin. When the two bodies are in love, they are trying to find the closest contact that is possible.

Solid entities are unable to share a boundary. The best they can do is to create a close contact. Solid entities are their boundary. Your Body is what You are. Fluids and Gasses adjust to their Boundary.  In a fluid and a gas we are still able to detect distinct entities (molecules).

sufi2

In a fluid they are loosely connected. In a gas they are freely floating around. When you experience your Boundary as a solid, you are stuck. When you experience your Boundary as a Gas you have complete freedom to move.

It all depends on the Temperature of your Boundary. When you Interact with many People the Temperature will Rise. When you Isolate yourself the Temperature will Drop Down and your Boundary will turn into a Prison.

If we look at the history of the splitting process it looks like the wholes were splitted without any reason. It just happened. When we analyze the process a pattern emerges. This pattern is cyclic, leveled and self-referential. The process is almost invisible because every word (or name) we utter directs attention and carves out a portion of the world, a Boundary.

When we stop talking and erase the many imaginary named boundaries things become very clear. The world becomes just what it is.

When we use mathematics (no words, only symbols), things become much simpler (or more difficult for You).

Spencer Brown (About the Law of Forms) created a new Fundamental Mathematical Theory called Boundary Mathematics. In this theory he uses two concepts Empty Space, the Void, Non-Existence, and Boundaries or Distinctions. Boundaries are the result of a merger of boundaries or are created by splitting a higher level boundary.

When we split a boundary into two boundaries or merge two boundaries new forms are created. A splitted circle becomes two lines. A splitted Klein Bottle becomes two complementary Moebius Strips.

When we split the dimensions decrease. When we merge the dimensions increase. Merging and Splitting are fundamental forces of nature. When we split our possibilities decrease. When we merge our possibilities increase.

sunset3

Two forms merge when they get into close contact (Communion, Love). A form splits when it is hit by another form (a Collision). When you cooperate the amount of opportunities will increase. When you compete the amount of opportunities will decrease.

When You create a Boundary there is always an Inside and an Outside. The Inside is the Indentity, You. The Outside are the Others. When we consider the Inside as the Protective Part, the Outside becomes its complement, a fearfull place. When we move Up and reflect we can see that there is no reason to fear the Outside. When we move Up we are always able to see the Whole. There is no need to create an Inside because of fear of the Outside.

A boundary is a closed surface. There are four basic closed surfaces, the Torus (a rotating circle), the Moebius Strip (a twisted circle), The Real Projective Plane (a merger of two Moebius Strips) and the Klein Bottle (a different merger of two Moebius Strips).

When you want to leave the rotating Cycle (Torus) of everyday Life and move into a higher dimension (more possibilities, more perspectives), you have to Twist Yourself and Merge with Yourself. You Twist when you Cross the Cycle of Life and Enter the Cycle of Death. You Merge with Yourself when you integrate the Inside and the Outside, the Up and the Down, the Male and the Female.

“If we then become children, would we thus enter the kingdom?” Jesus said unto them, “When ye make the two one, and when you make the inside like unto the outside and the outside like unto the inside, and that which is above like unto that which is below, and when ye make the male and the female one and the same, so that the male no longer be male nor the female female; and when ye fashion eyes in place of an eye, and a hand in place of a hand, and a foot in place of a foot, and a likeness in place of a likeness; then will ye enter into the kingdom.” (Gospel of Thomas, Logion 22).

GalahadGrail

In the beginning was the Void. If was full of Potential, Closed in itself, Totally Aware, Nameless, just a Boundary. The first split was the creation of the split. The Split immediately created its complement, The Merge because the Void is the Union of Complements. The next split created the Inside and the Outside.

The Void retreated in the Outside, the Darkness of Darkness, and gave the Inside, the Protected Boundary, permission to split again and again and again knowing that it would finally return to the Outside. The Splitting and Merging (Communion) of a Boundary and the movement of the Protected Inside (Agency) to the Dark Outside are all part of one movement, the final return to the Void.

The Tao that can be told

is not the eternal Tao

The name that can be named

is not the eternal Name.

The unnamable is the eternally real.

Naming is the origin

of all particular things.

Free from desire, you realize the mystery.

Caught in desire, you see only the manifestations.

Yet mystery and manifestations

arise from the same source.

This source is called darkness.

Darkness within darkness.

The gateway to all understanding.

First Line of the Tao Te Ching 

lancelot

You are protected by a personal boundary, Your Personality. The personality behaves in the same way as other Boundaries. You, Your Consciousness, is able to Commune (Split and Merge), move to the Inside (You) and the Outside (the Other).

When you Protect the Inside with an Armour you will always be Alone. To communicate you have to create a Hole, A Gate. You often look through this tiny Hole into the Dark Outside World hoping someone is there to help You.

What You don’t realize is that The One is always waiting in the Darkness of the Darkness to open the Gate to the Void that contains the Infinite Potential, that is You.

LINKS

Why an Event is not a Collision

Images of Splitted Boundaries

About The Law of Forms and Mysticism

About Financial Warfare

Banking originates around 3000 BC in Babylonia out of the activities of temples and palaces which provided safe places for the storage of valuables. Initially deposits of grain are accepted and later other goods including cattle, agricultural implements, and precious metals.

In a later stage Silver and Gold were used to pay. From that time on Silver and Gold became weapons of war and a good reason to fight a war.

By 700 BC, the Lydians became the first in the Western world to make coins. Countries were soon minting their own series of coins with specific values. Some of the earliest known paper money dates back to China, where the issue of paper money became common from about AD 960 onwards.

Paper currency and non-precious coinage was backed by a government or bank’s promise to exchange it for a certain amount of silver or gold.

The last innovation in Money is called Fiat-Money. In this case the currency is not backed by anything but the promise of a country to enforce payment. Fiat-Money is the ultimate money generator. Governments are able to create infinite amounts of value without any guarantee.

 

The only guarantee is the performance of the economic system of the Country itself and the Power of the Government to force their citizens to pay the neccesary taxes. The Fiat-System has created an enormous amount of hyperinflated countries.

The US is one of the countries where paying taxes is seen as a sin. The only way to gurantee the Fiat Money is to generate a high level of inflation and/or a tremendous debt. At this moment the US is the biggest debtor in the world and it is not capable to pay his debts. The US is completely broke.

The US Fiat-System is the real cause of the current wordwide crisis. If this problem is not solved in due time all economic activity in the World will come to an end.

We will experience the same situation that existed in Germany between the two world wars (the Weimar Republic) and in many other countries were the value of money became hyperinflated. As you will see later the US Government is not able to control their own money supply.

Thomas Jefferson the third President of the US knew what would happen when the Fiat-System would be introduced in the US. This was his warning:

I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies. If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their currency, first by inflation, then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around [the banks]… will deprive the people of all property until their children wake up homeless on the continent their fathers conquered. …The issuing power should be taken from the banks and restored to the people, to whom it properly belongs“.

The most important practice to cheat with coins was to alter the quality or the quantity of the precious metals by reducing the weight, mixing precious metals with other metals and/or covering cheap metals with precious metals.

When paper money was introduced it became much easier to cheat. Paper Notes were copied and the kings and governments started to play with the stock of gold and silver that was needed to back the paper notes.

The precious metals also became a very important instrument of warfare. When the amount of precious metals went down the Kings were unable to pay their soldiers and had to stop fighting. Another tactic was to generate inflation or deflation. The economy of the enemy could be destroyed by influencing the economic cycle by manipulating the amount of precious metals or banknotes.

Financial manipulation or Financial Warfare on every scale is as old as the civilized world.

 Every country in the world is protecting its economy by intervening in the global currency market, the Foreign Exchange Market (FOREX). These interventions are performed by the Central Banks. Most of the Central Banks are controlled by Government. An exception is the US FED.

At this moment there are three groups of Central Banks, The US (Federal Reserve), The European Union (including the UK) and what I would call the China-connection. This last group contains Brasil, Russia, India (BRIC), and many more rising economies like Indonesia, South Africa and Turkey. The China Connection is becoming one of the most powerful groups.

The first central bank of Europe was created by the Knight Templars. The medieval European Knight Templar were a medieval military and religious Order which officially came to a controversial and mysterious end on Friday, 13 October 1307 when the Roman Catholic Church closed them down, accusing their leaders of heresy and strange religious beliefs.

During the era of the Crusades the Templars possessed a huge multi-national empire, and until their demise they were arguably the most powerful organization on Earth. According to popular theory, the Templars went underground and formed the secret society of the Freemasons to preserve their secret tradition.

There is evidence that the Templars were the carriers of old mystical knowlegde related to the Gnostics. This was perhaps the real reason why they were destroyed by the Roman Church who did not like the Gnostic (Kadištu) Believe System.

The Knight Templar ran probably the best known early prototype of a central banking system, as their promises to pay were widely regarded, and many regard their activities as having laid the basis for the modern banking system. By 1200 they were in effect bankers to the kings of England and France. They became so powerful that they had to be distroyed.

The oldest central bank in the world is the Riksbank in Sweden, which was opened in 1668 with help from Dutch businessmen. This was followed in 1694 by the Bank of England at the request of the government to help pay for a war.

The US Federal Reserve (FED) was created by the US Congress through the passing of the Glass Owen-Bill, signed by President Woodrow Wilson on December 23, 1913.

The history of the FED reads like a detective story. Eustace Mullins spend almost his whole life to find out what is really happening behind the closed doors of the FED. His book was never published. That’s why it is now available for free on the Internet. It shows how the Financial Elite of the US manipulated the citizens and representatives of the US to accept the Glass Owen-Bill. My advice: Read it!

The most important fact you have to know is that the FED is not an independent bank controlled by government. It is controlled by the big banks of the US and behind the big banks of the US is a powerful elite. This Elite created and sustained the Great Depression. It also supported the Klu Klux Clan and the Fascists regimes of Germany and Italy. The most important power behind them was the House of Rotchild situated in London. The old Financial Elite never lost its power.

If you search on the Internet you will find that Free Masons, The House of Rotchild and the Knight Templar are combined into a huge conspiracy theory that even goes back in history to the Annunaki of Sumer (The Serpents). I don’t think the Knight Templar and the Free Masons are part of this conspiracy.

I do believe the conspiracy (if it exists) has something to do with the Annunaki and their Ancestors. The Annunaki were experts in deceiving people and keeping control over them. They “hated” the Female Power and changed many myths that showed that this Power could create a Paradise if we wanted it. Their very long term plan was to obtain control over the World. It looks like they are succeeding. There all kind of conspiracy theories that are trying to prove that important “blood-lines” of the Elite are related to the Annunaki.

According to many Myths (Hopi, Gnostics) the “good ones”, the Life-Designers, the Kadištut, that are trying to help mankind are related to the Pleiades. The Pleiadians don’t want to interfere because interference in another civilization is forbidden. We have to ask them for help.

The theory of Historical Cycles of Inflation and Deflation is a Very Old Theory. It was known by the Old Chinese Emperors and the Egyptian Pharaohs.

The theory behind Financial Manipulation and Financial Warfare is also a very old theory. It was practiced by all the old Kings. They knew that the control of the foundation of the Money System was crucial to stay in Power. They also knew that they could win a war by destroying the financial center of their enemies.

So everybody knows that when a small Elite in a huge Country has the power to issue money they are able to control the World. Everybody knows it is very difficult not to misuse a tremendous power (“absolute power corrupts absolutely”). That is why the Control of the Creation of Money has always been a central issue in many conflicts. In a democratic country this power is controlled by Government and Parliament.

The original members of the FED created and sustained the Great Depression. They must have been aware of the fact that they were destroying the economic system at that time. After the Great Depression they owned many companies and were in control of the media. This proves they knew how to make use of a chaotic, volatile, economic system.

The current members of the FED have created a new Great Depression. They were and are throwing trillions of dollars into the system increasing the debt of the US to a level never been seen. It will destroy the US Dollar and generate hyper-inflation. History shows that each time governments printed money in the past, the consequence was sky-high inflation.

The consequence is that the coming years, the prices of energy, food and metals will go through the roof. The US Citizen will become very poor but some people, the Elite, will get richer. The Story of the Great Depression is repeating itself and the strange thing is that everybody knew and knows why this is happening. Does that prove the Conspiracy Theories?

The new Depression will almost certainly lead to World Government. It is the only way to go they claim to stop the Depression. All the structures to enforce World Government are already in place and most of them are already in control of the Financial Elite. Does this prove the Conspiracy Theories?

The big question is if the “Chinese-connection” will accept this. If not we will see a huge conflict in the near future. It will certainly start with a “financial” attack. The Chinese could wreck the US Economy by disconnecting the Yuan from the Dollar and/or sell their $2 trillion worth of treasury bonds. You see Financial Warfare is easy and you don’t need very destructive weapons to do it. Will this lead to World War III?, also a prediction of the Conspiracy Theories.

At this moment many strange and unpredictable interventions can be seen related to the Dollar vs the Euro. The Dollar is rising steadily. The rise of the Dollar has nothing to do with the real value of the Dollar. The Dollar is related to the US Economy and this economy is going down and the backing of the Dollar is not there. The US Debt is gigantic and wil rise.

The effect of the rising dollar is positive for the export of the EU to the US. This will have a negative effect on the US Economy. The most interesting effect will come when the Dollar suddenly will move back to its original value. This will generate a new crisis within the European Banking System and of course the EU Economy. Is somebody planning a financial attack on the EU??

To prove the conspiracy we have to see who will be the owner of the most important companies and media after the crisis has stopped (if it can be stopped). If a certain group has taken over a lot of companies we will know that they have done it again. If we have finally proved the conspiracy theories we will be too late.

The proof of the pudding is always in the eating. When you read this article of the New York Times you will see that the big “take-over” has already started. The Big Banks are not using the money of the Government at all to help their poor customers. They are using it to buy other “small” banks. If you read the article in the NY Times the strategy becomes very clear. They, the Elite, want to create three colossal global financial giants—Citigroup, JP MorganChase and, of course, Paulson’s own Goldman Sachs.

Why are they creating these entities? The first reason is of course that it is much easier for a cartel to manage three parts. The second reason is that this cartel will be one of the richest and powerful kartels in the world.

What could be the aim? The aim could be to destroy their European and other Wordwide Competitors. They will be helped by their friends of the world’s largest financial credit rating agencies—Moody’s and Standard & Poors end will be able to use the biggest Economy in the World to do this. It will create a “little bit of a problem to some of the poor citizins” of the US during the time of the depression but in the long term they all will profit in some way because the Power of the US will be completely restored. The US will finally rule the World.

The big question is if the citizens of the US (and other Western Countries) will accept this to happen. If they accept it we will know for certain that the Mind Control Systems, also a part of the Big Conspiracy, have done their work properly.

 

History is repeating itself but on a much larger scale. If the Annunaki exist they will be very proud about what it is happening. Finally they will be the Masters of a devasteted World called Earth.

Do you believe in the Conspiracy Theory?

I really don’t want to believe the Theory. I don’t want to become a paranoid. Is there any Light at the end of the Tunnel? Obama? It certainly is Time for a Change! Will he succeed to stop the power of the FED? If he leaves them in power we will know for sure he is “one of them” or he is very afraid to stop them.

Why? One of the interesting stories behind the Conspiracy Theories is the fact that the Presidents (Kennedy, Lincoln) who wanted to change the center of the Financial System, The FED, were assassinated.

LINKS

A History of Money

 

Why Fiat Money has created the current Crisis

 

About the FED and the Assassination of John F. Kennedy

 

About Financial Warfare

 

 About Financial Warfare

About Mind Control

About Mind Control

 

About Mind Control

How China could wreck the US Economy

About The US Financial Conspiracy against China

How the Financial Elite created the Great Depression

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

About Just-in-Time (JIT-)E-Learning

The best way to define a tactic or a strategy is to look back to look forward. You have to understand history to understand the future.

When you realize that history is a cyclic process you are able to copy historic solutions and integrate them in the future infrastructure which is also a repetition of a historic infrastructure.

The current model of Education, the Factory, is outdated and will be replaced by the old model of the Guild now called a Community of Practice.

Let’s have a look at the History of Education.

Education was and is mostly achieved by imitation. Humans are extremely qualified to copy the behavior of others. Therefore the best way to learn a trade is to copy the behavior of a qualified craftsman by serving as an apprentice.

The development of writing and book printing made it possible to distribute practical knowledge (experience) to many people. Later the practical skills were abstracted into theoretical knowledge.

The education of theoretical knowledge (Philosophy, Law and Rhetoric) and the expansion of this knowledge was the task of the Universities. They educated a very small part of the population (the Elite).

Our current education system dates back to the Industrial Revolution. At that time agricultural workers were needed to perform, repetitive, factory jobs.

The schools were organized as a production-line that produced high quality (tested) products that were assembled according to the specifications (the Curriculum) of the Factory-owners.

The School Factory-Model is still operating but the Factory-owners don’t need the workers anymore. They are transformed into Robots. The Factories moved up in abstraction. To find a decent job workers also have to move up in abstraction. Every time when the Factory Schooling System has adopted its curriculum the outside world has moved up again.

When a School moves up in abstraction it moves to another level in the Schooling Hierarchy.

The schools of lower education are not able to move up because they have to serve the children who are unable to abstract. The distance between the lower and higher levels is growing with an increasing speed.

When we look at the Cycle of Education it is very clear that we have to reuse an old model in a new infrastructure to solve this problem.

This old model is apprenticeship.

What is the new infrastructure?

The new infrastructure is the Internet. So the new way to support apprentices is E-Learning. The Internet can be seen in many ways but the most interesting way is the Social Perspective.

The Internet is a collaboration system. The Masters (and the apprentices) were organized in (local) Guilds. The Guilds took care of many things. They organized insurance, shared their secret practices and took care for the old. At this moment Guilds are called Communities of Practice.

What kind of E-Learning?

Just-in-time E-Learning.

What is Just-in-Time E-Learning?

Just-in-Time E-Learning is Learning when you are facing a problem.

Learning starts when your Expectation Fails. When your Expectation Fails  you have to find a solution. When you are unable to find a solution you have already Searched for alternatives so you are open to hear the right answer (Problem Solving).

When you are open to hear the right answer you are Focused. When you are focused you are in the Right Mood to learn (Motivation).

When you finally have formulated the right question you know the right answer (Socratic Learning).

When you are an apprentice you ask Your Master to Help. When your master is unable to give the right answer the “computer” will provide you with the right answer (Help-Systems, Wiki).

How do you design a Just-in-Time E-Learning System?

You have to Interview the Masters to find out what their Expectation-Failures were. When you transform the failures in rules you have created an Expert-System or a Diagnostic System.

Let’s have a look at the Future of Automobiles.

Over the last 30 years, the amount of computer-based technology – compared with mechanical systems – making up the average car has increased from nothing to more than 45 per cent. And this rise is showing no signs of slowing down. To cope with this, the role of the mechanic has evolved from mechanical repair to one that is highly technological. As technology continues to evolve, they must learn continuously to keep up with new developments.

Using highly specialized diagnostic equipment, technicians are able to monitor and diagnose key areas of a vehicle to ensure they are working correctly, from engines to exhaust emission levels.

Many provide automatic updates to technical manuals and access to manufacturers’ service information, keeping technicians up-to-date on new developments. But it’s not just a simple process of plugging a car into a diagnostic unit. If the wrong data is applied, serious damage could be done to a very expensive vehicle.

It is necessary to study Computer-Technology to Maintain a Car?

I don’t think so.

It is necessary to study Automotive-Technology to Maintain a Car?

I don’t think so. When you know how to operate the diagnostic tools you are able to fix a car.

Now we have reached the most interesting part.

When we combine Just-in-Time Learning with the Tools that are available to Diagnose a car we have created a highly effective Learning Environment.

When a mechanic diagnosis a car-failure he can ask Question like How (Is Motor working?), Why (Is Motor producing Rotational Energy?), What (is Motor?) or What is Happening?.

Who is Developing Learning Environments in the Car Industry?

The developers of Educational Just-in-Time E-Learning Tools are not situated in the Factory School anymore. The Educational Tools are developed by the Manufacturers of the Cars! The Makers of the Tools you Use Are the Developers of the Educational Tools to work with the Tools. The only thing they have to is to make them Self-Explaining!

The Tools have to Understand Them Selves.

LABEL: When Everybody is “Out OF Work” GOTO END_LABEL

It is possible to Maintain Your Own Car?

In a few years time this will be possible when you buy a new car.

At that moment the mechanics are only useful to maintain the old cars.

But it is not very difficult to develop a (Semantic) Model of an Old Cars also.

How Long will this Take?

The tools are already there the big problem (as usual) is the Schooling System Itself.

Will the Educational Factory Adopt itself to the new Situation?

No.

It is very difficult to Change Yourself.

What the Educational System needs is an Huge Expectation Failure.

What could this Failure Be?

The Government will stop funding the System.

Will that Ever Happen?

What the Government needs is a Huge Expectation Failure.

Will that Ever Happen?

It will happen when The Citizens will stop funding the Government.

Will that Ever Happen?

It will happen when most of the Citizins will be out of Work.

Will that ever Happen?

It will happen when Your are able to Do Everything Your Self.

Will that ever Happen?

Goto LABEL.

END_LABEL: Read Blog

LINKS

A video about car repair using augmented reality

Why Loops are really usefull in Software Programs 

About Reflection

Why Personalities are Learning Styles

A Generic Learning Model

About Expectation Failures (the theory of Roger Schank).

How to Measure the Productivity of Knowledge Workers

About Learning Styles

About Learning Styles II

About Educational Simulators

About the Learning Factory

About The Crazy Experiment of Nikola Tesla and John von Neumann

teslaOne of the most influential inventors of our time was Nikola Tesla (1856-1943). He was specialized in “Electro-Magnetic Inventions“.

Tesla became a myth. He became a myth because he was not a “normal” inventor.

Tesla saw his inventions in his mind. He not only saw them he could even play with them in his mind to improve the design.

Tesla invented normal inventions but when the normal inventions were created he started to create abnormal and even absurd inventions.

He became the prototype of the “mad scientist“.

His main objective was to give mankind the opportunity to become God, The Creator.

This a part of a letter to the New York Times that Tesla wrote in 1908. If you read this Letter carefully you will see that Tesla has discovered the Source of Creation, The AEther.

According to an adopted theory, every ponderable atom is differentiated from a tenuous fluid, filling all space merely by spinning motion, as a whirl of water in a calm lake. By being set in movement this fluid, the ether, becomes gross matter. Its movement arrested, the primary substance reverts to its normal state. It appears, then, possible for man through harnessed energy of the medium and suitable agencies for starting and stopping ether whirls to cause matter to form and disappear. At his command, almost without effort on his part, old worlds would vanish and new ones would spring into being. He could alter the size of this planet, control its seasons, adjust its distance from the sun, guide it on its eternal journey along any path he might choose, through the depths of the universe. He could make planets collide and produce his suns and stars, his heat and light; he could originate life in all its infinite forms. To cause at will the birth and death of matter would be man’s grandest deed, which would give him the mastery of physical creation, make him fulfill his ultimate destiny.”

I want to focus this blog on one highly mythical story in the Life of Tesla. In this Story another “mad scientist” named John von Neumann appears.

vonneumannThe story reads like a science fiction book but many parts of the story are factual and even the facts are disturbing enough.

At a certain moment Tesla claimed a few things. He claimed he could create the “Weapon of all Weapons“. This Weapon would end All Wars. Tesla also claimed he could talk with extra terrestrials by an invention called the Teslascope. Later he claimed he could create Invisibility. Tesla claimed much more. When he was eighty-one, Tesla claimed he had completed a dynamic theory of gravity with this theory he could create anti-gravity.

The claims of Tesla about New Weapons, Invisibility, Anti-Gravity and even Time Travel attracted the US Army. The first goal was to create an invisible ship. In the experiment he would be collaborating with John von Neumann.

John von Neumann was a mathematical genius. Just like Tesla he was not a “social person”.

Von Neumann was the man behind the first computer (the Enniac), the Atomic Bomb and the H-Bomb. He was also highly infuencial in the field of Quantum Mechanics.

John von Neumann believed he could calculate everything. He believed that he could create an Artificial Mind. When he could connect this Artificial Mind to The Force of Creation he could create completely new things. He knew Tesla could help him to reach his goal.

In 1940 a full test was done in the Brooklyn Naval Yard. It was a small test, with no one on board the vehicle. By 1941 a ship was procured to do a full experiment.

EldridgeTesla knew that the mental state and bodies of the crew would be affected severely. He wanted more time to perfect the experiment. Von Neumann disagreed and the experiment was performed with a crew on board. Tesla left the project.

The result of all this became a legend called the Philadelphia Experiment. Tesla was right. He was right because Tesla always used his own body and mind in his own experiments.

The physiological effects on the crew were profound. Almost all of the crew were violently ill. They experienced tremors and other distortions of the neurological system.

Some suffered from mental illness as a result of their experience; behavior consistent with Psychosis is described in other accounts. Still other members were physically unaccounted for. They simply vanished and came back later in time.

Five of the crew were allegedly fused to the metal bulkhead or deck of the ship. Still others were said to fade in and out of sight. All of the crew-members experienced Time-Travel.

Later the project was transferred to Montauk. John Von Neumann became the manager. In the Montauk Project he wanted to create a Mind Amplifier.

The Legend tells us that he was able to do this. What von Neumann did not realize was that the Amplifier created a Hole in Time (a Portal, a Wormhole) and this portal was a Two-Way-Street. Others, Extra Terrestials, used the Hole to enter our Universe.

The story of Montauk reads like a science-fiction story and it inspired many Books and Movies.

Later the projects changed names (Phoenix, MKULTRA).

Everything connected to the Philadelphia Experiment, the Montauk Experiment and other Strange and Dangerous experiments is denied by the American Government.

The American Government was at that time controlled by Congress and Congress organized hearings. One of the most intensive research programs was performed by the Church Committee. It proved that the Army and the Intelligence Services violated many laws.

Many people don’t trust the Army. If you search the Internet it contains thousands of websites that contain facts and interpretations of the facts. Almost nobody believes the Government is telling the Truth. This is a very BAD SIGN. It decreases the believe in Government and its Actions to serve the Citizens.

People don’t trust the Army and the Government because every time when its actions are researched by Parliament many illegal activities are proved. They have aquired the expectation that the Government is always hiding something.

Because they don’t know the “real” facts they create their own theories (Myths). Many of these Myths are about Conspiracies. Somewhere behind the Government is an Evil Force trying to Control Everybody.

If you look at the major priorities at this moment (Mind Control) it is very difficult not to believe in a Conspiracy to Control Everybody.

The Army has developed neural implants to control the behavior of humans. The implants give direct input into the brain and make it possible for a Central Command Center to manage the behavior of soldiers. They are also used to control the behavior of animals (Sharks).

The Army has invented a Long Range Acoustical Device (LRAD) that can be used to control a crowd. It is able to induce high levels of pain.

Another technology is called Trancranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). TMS uses Electro-Magnetic Fields to control the emotions.

These projects are all described in “US Electromagnetic Weapons and Human Rights” By Peter Phillips, Lew Brown and Bridget Thornton.

John Norseen, one of scientists cited in the document shows the long term perspective. “If this research pans out you can begin to manipulate what someone is thinking even before they know it.” He is like John von Neumann not interested in Ethics. He is certainly not a “mad” scientist – just a dedicated one. “The ethics don’t concern me,” he says, “they should concern someone else

Do you want to read more about the Ethics of Mind Control?

Do you want to read more about the Legal Implications of Mind Control?

The Wordwide Carnival: A Short Introduction into the World of Mikhail Bakhtin

The work of Bakhtin was disclosed to me by Will McWhinney. He used Bahktin in one of the many versions of his never published book Grammars of Engagement.

The discovery of Bahktin started with a book about Bahktin by Saul Morson & Caryl Emerson. Later I also read many other books and articles like “The dialogical imagination”, “Towards a philosophy of the act”, “Discourse in the Novel”, “Rabelais and His World”, “Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics” and “Speech Genres and Other Late Essays”.

Bahktin invented the term Chronotope, “The place where the knots of narrative are tied” or “the intrinsic connectedness of temporal and spatial relationships that are artistically expressed in literature“. Currently we use the term Content or Media for Literature.

A Chronotope is a Topological Concept

knotSpace (Place, Location) and Time (the narrative) are connected by a Knot. A knot is a complicated twist in a rope. The twist is needed when you want to close a system in itself. The simplest topological structure that visualizes twisted space/time is the Moebius Ring.

The Chronotope is the Centre out of which every narrative that we are able to tell is enfolding and unfolding. It produces narratives and absorbs narratives. Bahktin places Folk-Lore, Myth, the Language of the People, in the Centre.

Every narrative contains a twist, a moment where the expansion of the beginning turns to the contraction of the end. It is the moment where the narrative is balanced. The reader holds his breath. It is also the moment where the narrative is aware of itself. It observes the whole.

Sometimes the twist is in the end. You know “who done it”. Sometimes the narrative starts with the twist. There are even narratives without a twist. You know all the time what will happen.

Scientists don’t realize that a scientific article is also a narrative. They use citation to prove they are telling a true story. Funny enough scientific citation has created the Internet. A hypertext is nothing but a citation-structure.

Old narratives produce new narratives. This is always accomplished by Citation. “The word in language is half someone else’s. It becomes “one’s own” only when the speaker populates it with his own intention, his own accent, when he appropriates the word, adapting it to his own semantic and expressive intention. Prior to this moment of appropriation, the word does not exist in a neutral and impersonal language. . . but rather it exists in other people’s mouths, in other people’s contexts, serving other people’s intentions: it is from there that one must take the word, and make it one’s own“”. The cursive sentence between brackets is a citation of Bahktin.

New narratives also oppose old narratives. They are Dialogic. “The entire life of language, in any area of its use . . . is permeated with dialogic relationships“.

Dialogues are converging (Socratic dialogue), diverging and conflicting (Menippian Dialogue) or one sided (the Magisterial Monologue). “Thus at any given moment of its historical existence, language is heteroglot from top to bottom: it represents the co-existence of socio-ideological contradictions between the present and the past, between differing epochs of the past, between different socio-ideological groups in the present, between tendencies, schools, circles and so forth

The Centre generates new narratives all the time. They are a mix of the old and the new. The centre is the Centrifugal Force and this force is powered by Contradiction.

Roller_CoasterThe Institutions, the Ruling Power, are constantly trying to standardize (the Centripetal force). They formulate rules and try to transform the dialogue into a monologue.

The centripetal and the centrifugal force create a huge tension. This tension moves the Wheel of Creation. The wheel always moves through the stages of Order and Chaos. In the middle of the Tornado of Creation is the Centre, the Chronotope. In the centre you will always find rest and inspiration.

The monologue (the magisterial dialogue) is the dialogue of the Magister, the scientist, the manager, the judge, the physician and the teacher. They use science, the law, books or other Magisters to enforce their power. By formulating rules they try to destroy the creative centre (the context).

A context is potentially unfinalized; a code must be finalized. A code is only a technical means of transmitting information; it does not have cognitive, creative significance. Code is deliberately killed context“.

At this moment the Centripetal force is implemented in the Search Engine. Narratives are found by typing codes. This makes it very difficult to find a context. Companies like Google are manipulating the coding. They are paid by the Centripetal Force of the Commercial Companies.

The centrifugal force is never at rest. It always generates new alternatives. The creation of new literature is not bounded by rules. Every time a new structure is defined the Centre starts to play with the rules and generates a new combination. The Centre is not only combining rules it even invents new rules. The Centre is the inventor of new Games to Play.

Producing literature is a process of spiralling out. It follows a cycle but at a certain point in time a new Centre appears and the Cycle starts a new process of Folk-lore. The new centre is always connected to the old Centre. New myths and new fairy tales are created that are a representation of the Spirit of the Time.

Every cycle is governed by a Clock. The periodicity of the Clocks is determinated by the number five. It runs at a frequency of 1250, 250, 50, 10 or 2 years. There are frequencies that are moving faster (the Atom) and much slower (the Universe).

Bahktin has developed a very interesting theory about the development of the Chronotopes in history.

I will tell the Tale of the Chronotopes of Bahktin on the level of the Cycle of Culture (1250 years, 250 years per stage).

HunsBetween 450 and 700 the Roman Empire is destroyed by the Huns. It is the time of the Great Deportations. People out of Asia move to the West. They are the ancestors of the Ostrogotes, the Visigotes, the Franks, the Gauls, the Germans and the Celts. 1250 years later they are integrated in what we now call Europe. Between 700 and 2000 the Europeans explore and conquer the World.

Around 1200 the new powers have created many Kingdoms and have organized the Crusades to conquer the Holy Land. To show their power they build the Cathedrals. The Cathedrals are the instrument of the Education of the Masses. The old folk-lore is transformed to the new of the Christian Faith. The old-folklore is not destroyed. Many symbols and important events are preserved. They are cited. The transition of the Sun in Winter is transformed in Christmas. The new apostles are connected to the old animals of the old Wheel of Fortune.

Tristan IsoldeBetween 1200 and 1450 the Chronotope of the Greek Romance (Tristan and Isolde, Arthur and The Grail) appears. It is the Chronotope of Being and Destiny. “There are a lot of suddenly’s”. Everything happens. The actor in this Chronotope is without identity. He is tested by destiny. When he has passed the test he is not changed. There is no time and space. Time (“adventure-time”) is reversible. The actors are public figures and space is public space. In the narratives we are able to see and hear everything.

We are in the Middle Ages. In the outside world destiny is also playing its evil game. Western Civilization is almost destroyed by the plague, feminine and wars between the Kingdoms. Even the Christian Empire of Rome is divided by a schism (Byzantium). At the end only a few Kingdoms survive. These Kings become Emperors. They represent God on Earth.

copernicusThis (1450-1700) is the time of the Chronotope of the Adventure. It is the Chronotope of Becoming. The identity of the actor is transforming. He is responsible for his own actions. Life is full of turning points (twists). The actor wants to take control of the outside world. Space becomes “private space”.

To give the reader insight in what is happening the Observer is introduced. He is a voyeur, a prostitute, a rambler, a rover, a tramp, a spy, a servant or an animal. The observer is not influencing the story at all. He is just watching. Objectivity is also introduced in space (court).

In the outside world we are in the Time of Renaissance (the Era of Discovery). It is the time of new inventions in Science (Copernicus), Art (Leonard Da Vinci) and Religion (Reformation, Luther, Calvin). The Bible is translated in the language of the people. It is also the time of the Great Explorations (Columbus) of the world outside the West. Western Culture starts his quest to control Nature and eventually the World.

munchThe next Chronotope is the Biography (1700-1950), the praise of a public figure who has accomplished something in life. We are moving from the outside world to the inside world of the actor.

Inner space is closed. “This offers a new relationship to one’s own self, one’s own particular “I”- with no witnesses, without any concessions to the voice of a “third person“.

Outside events affect the inner world. The actor is not showing this. In the outside world the actor is judged by his actions and not by his inner space (his essence). “The essence of man is realized not by his condition but by his activity“.

To give the reader a view on the inner space the outsider is introduced. His outside actions are governed by a distorted inner space. The outsider (the fool, the eccentric) acts as a reference.

The actor is a pretender. He is constantly in doubt, grumbling, cynical and sarcastic. He is also passive. He is watching from a distance. Everything is Relative (Bahktin was a fan of Einstein). The only time when the actor is able to show himself is at the carnival. During this short period he is allowed to choose his own mask.

This is the time of the Industrial Revolution. It is the era of mechanization. It starts with the invention of the Mill and the Factory. It ends with the mechanized Consumer watching Television.

star warsStarting in 1950 we are again in the phase of Folk-lore. Western Civilization is moving to a new Centre, Earth.

New myths and legends will be created. They have to be based on all the tales, myths and legends that are available on Earth. Some of them will be a citation. Others will be an opposition.

All kinds of dialogues will take and have to take place. We will experience many conflicts (Mennipian Dialogue). We will also have to listen and ask questions to understand the other cultures (Socratic Dialogue). We have to stop our Western Magisterial Monologue.

In the beginning it will be a Heteroglossia (a many voicedness), a very complicated Knot we have to untie. When we have found the tread we will be able to weave a new web of narratives that will start the phase of the Greek Romance again.

Between now and 2100 “We must make the new by our own effort”.“We have to face problems of reality and human potential, problems of freedom and necessity, and the problem of creative initiative“. We have to become persons “who emerge along with the world and reflect the historical emergence of the world itself”.

In order to understand, it is immensely important for the person who understands to be located outside the object of his or her creative understanding — in time, in space, in culture. . . . Our real exterior can be seen and understood only by other people, because they are located outside us in space and because they are others

We have to write our own Novel. “There is no causality in novels, no genesis, no explanations based on the past, on the influences of the environment or of upbringing and so forth. Every act a character commits is in the present, and in this sense is not predetermined”.

We have to act without hesitation and leave history behind. There is no experience we can reuse. The future is unfinalized (open).

The Magisters are not able to tell us what to do. They are out of tricks. We have to put off our own masks and take responsibility for what we are doing. “There is no alibi for being”. We have to stop pretending and use citations of others to prove we are right.

carnival of fools

We are now part of the Worldwide Carnival of Fools. Choose your mask out of the many masks that are available all over the world. Listen to the stories of other cultures and be surprised about the beauty and the experience they are containing. Give the Fools and the Eccentrics, the Outsiders, a chance to help you.

Laugh.

It will be fun.

I want to close with a citation of Paul Feyerabend (Killing Time (1995)): “People, intellectuals especially, seem unable to be content with a little more freedom, a little more happiness, a little more light. Perceiving a small advantage, they seize it, circumscribe it, nail it down, and in this way prepare a New Age of ignorance, darkness and slavery. It is rather surprising that there are still people who want to help others for personal reasons, because they are kindhearted and because they have not been intimidated by principles. It is even more surprising that some of the people can work in institutions despite the greed, the incompetence, the power struggles that seem to surround the noblest cause.”

Do you want to know more about Feyerabend read The Act of Creation: About Fusion and Con-fusion

LINKS

About the Cathedrals

About the Fool in African Myths

About Fools, Pyramids and Bubbles

Why Fools always Lose

About Very Long Cycles

About the Cycle of Culture

About Paths of Change by Will McWhinney

Will McWhinney
Will McWhinney

The Navajo Pollen Path inspired Will McWhinney to write his book Paths of Change
The Navajo Pollen Path

Oh, beauty before me, beauty behind me, beauty to the right of me, beauty to the left of me, beauty above me, beauty below me, I’m on the pollen path.”

About ten years ago I met Will McWhinney.

Will became the most influential person in my whole life. He died this year.

Will wrote just one book called Paths of Change.

Paths of Change is based on the ancient Navajo Pollen Path.

Will was an expert in the myths and culture of the Ancient Tribes that lived in the Four Corners-area of New Mexico.  Every year he organized a seminar in the Ghost Range for his ex-PHD-students. I visited many of his seminars and fell in love with New Mexico and the ancient cultures (Hopi!) that live in this area.

Will tried to write a second book called Grammars of Engagement. The book is about Coupling or Entrainment.  For about ten years we discussed many of his ideas.

Unfortunately his book was never finished. The reason it was never finished can be found in Paths of Change. Will was not able to apply his own theory. Strangely enough this proves his theory.

Let me try to explain the theory of Will. The theory of Will is based on his reflection about the Practice of Change.

He did not write the book alone. He discussed his intuition with all his colleagues of UCLA (University of Los Angeles).

What they wanted to resolve was a very strange pattern behind the failures of Personal and Organizational Change.

Will and his colleagues found out that the explanation was simple. Human beings don’t think the same. They are unaware of this. Almost everybody is convinced that all humans think the same. This is the main reason why many people don’t believe the theory of Will. This again proves the theory.

Will discovered four basic ways to think. He named them Mythic, Social, Unity and Sensory. The four ways are completely independent.

The consequence of Path of Change is that You reader when you are not of my world will read this article and think you understand what I am trying to say but in reality you understand something else.

The Chinese Pollen Path
The Chinese Pollen Path

When I meet you you will prove this when I ask you to explain what you think I am trying to say. The only way to explain the theory is to detect your worldview and use your language to tell the same thing.

When I do that you will think I am explaining a different theory. Probably you will ask me why I have changed my point of view (= world-view) and I have to explain you in your language that I did not do that. This will cause the same problem. You will think I am inconsistent.

When you are living in a world with only one world view you are according to all the Best Practises in Mental Ilness (Interpersonal Theory) highly disturbed.

Many people are able to think in two world views. They are able to switch from one world view to the other.

The amount of different combinations of Two of the Four Worldviews is Twelve (4×4 = 16 but 4 are the same x the same = the same -> 16-4 = 12). Will named the 12 Duals Games but you can also call them Apostles (with Jezus at the Center 12+1 = 13), Knights (of the Round Table with Arhur at the Center) or Constellations (of the Zodiac with the Sun at the Center).

Some people are able to switch to all of the world views. When you are able to switch to the worldview of the other you are able to explain the same thing differently. You are able to look at the world with a shared view.

The four worldviews in the book of kells
The Four Worldviews in the Book of Kells

When both our worldviews are the same we will agree on everything but both of us will not see the others. This is the main reason why people with shared worldviews join in all kinds of cooperation’s. They join because they need a secure place that shields them from the strange outside world.

It is also the reason why people with different world-views leave a cooperation in due time. They feel the others don’t understand them. Clusters of shared world-views become highly inflexible when the outside world changes.

When you are a Sensory you will say “what I read until now is highly theoretical. I want to see facts and prove. Is the theory of Will tested?”.

Although Path of Change is Best Practice you will not accept what he is writing. You want to experience the theory yourself and perhaps 20 years later you will write a book telling the same thing. You will write a book full of examples because you love examples. You will be convinced it is telling something very different Will was telling. Happily Will has also written a book that uses examples and cases to help You.

Luke the Evangelist, the Social
Luke the Evangelist with the Sheep, the Symbol of the Social

When you are a Social you want to know the opinions of important social scientists and others you feel are of importance. You believe important people are telling important things and you have never heard of McWhinney so his theory is not important to know.

When you are a Unity you want to know the Rules. You want to be told what to do and most of the time you do what the Rules tell you to do. The book Will has written is without Rules it contains concepts and ideas. You think concepts and ideas are not concrete. You even don’t like some of his concepts because they are not according to the concepts you think are true. They are violating your System of Thought. You believe in absolute truth.

When you are a Mythic you believe everything is possible. Life is full of opportunities. You generate ideas and concepts all the time. A Mythic creates his own unique theory and his theory is really a theory about himself. A Mythic is unaware of this. To become aware of this he has to face the facts. He needs to switch to a Sensory world view or accept the view of an other who is able to see the world this way. This is very difficult for a Mythic because a Mythic is very Will-full.

john the evangelist the mythic
John the Evangelist with the Eagle, the Symbol of the Mythic

A Mythic is convinced he is the only person who understands the World and some day the World will understand what a genius he is. This will never happen when he is alive. Mythics become a Myth when they are dead.

A Mythic is also an artist. He produces paintings, poems and even theory but his theory is mostly incomprehensible for others just like poetry.

Only Mythics understand Mythics. They feel the Field of Meaning. A Mythic does not understand that the others don’t understand him because his poetry is `the way it is`. It tells everything there is to say.

Will’s basic patterns were Mythic and Social. He was also able to switch to Unity. His blind spot was Sensory. Although many people were very enthusiastic about his book he did not see the facts about his success.

As a Social he focused on the recognition of important social scientists. At the end of his life he was very sad about this. As a Mythic he was convinced his theory was simple and easy to understand. This created even more sadness. Sadness and depressions are the mental illnesses when a Social becomes too Social.

Why was Will unable to finish his book? A Mythic is a highly creative person. He was constantly generating new ideas and concepts. The book was changing and changing and changing because Will wanted to create the perfect book about Engagement. Every version of the book he created was a jewel of poetry and insight. Will wanted to create the perfect book and striving to perfection is again an act of a Mythic. Will was falling in the trap of his own world-view.

What Will also did not realize that he was really writing to understand himself. Path of Change and Grammars of Engagement were a personal quest to understand the real Will McWhinney.

Mark the Evangelist, Unity
Mark the Evangelist with Lion, the Symbol of Unity

In the last year of his life somebody asked him to write his life-story. He tried to do this. He became aware of the fact that his whole life was centered around one personal quest. He wanted to find harmony. He never found harmony because a Mythic is on a Quest and the Quest never stops because every time when he has found the Grale he will start to look for a new Grale.

In Grammars of Engagement he started to write about Harmony.

A few citations out of his unpublished manuscript:

All communication arises through coupling. All communications are dances that coordinate the rhythmic processes shared among the engaging systems

Communication is not a transmission of information, but rather a coordination of behavior among living organisms through mutual structural coupling. Coupling, the instrument of coordination, is established by the physics of exchange and by traditions that associate both human relations and communications with music: harmony, rhythm, tone and tune”.

Just right’ communication work because it allows systems to exchange energy, thus information, through entrainment. They dance to a just right message. The communication follows from exchanges that take place as the systems draw each other toward a common resonant mode. Systems communicate in the process of being more similar, approaching a harmonious state at least in the domain of the communication. Entrainment stops short of perfect harmony. With perfect harmony there is no exchange. ‘Just right’ is becoming close to harmonizing”.

What Will is describing is a dialogue. Will was always playing with his own thoughts. He was busy with an internal dialogue called Reflexion. Intense reflexion is a Mythic Process. When you only talk with Your Self there will be no difference. You are similar with yourself and the internal dialogue stops. You are in harmony.

matthew bull
Matthew with the Bull, the Symbol of Sensory

To make a difference you have to introduce others like your wife or your mother. People talk internally and externally with many voices. Most of them do this without noticing. They are not aware of the many personalities they are. They are not similar to themselves and therefore “out of balance”.

To become balanced they need to talk. A huge amount of conversations (gossip) are aimed at creating an internal balance. To find internal balance people look for people that are similar. Again they need a secure place that shields them from the strange outside world.

When people are constantly moving in similar environments they will never find their Kernel, The Self. It will be watching unable to interfere in the many dialogues that are taking place.

When the Self is unknown, people will not accept the theory of Will. They will be switching from one theory to the other without finding rest.

When they find themselves they will not need the theory of Will because they will be able to play with all the world-views. This is a paradox. It also proves the theory of Will because Will tried to explain that Life is a Paradox.

Another citation: `The process of coming close to harmonizing is visible in an old example. Automobiles and farm machinery once had clutches. These clutches consisted of two plates, one attached to the driver motor, the other attached to the wheels, thrasher, or rotary saw. When the operator ‘let in the clutch’ the two plates moved flat up against each other. As the clutch ‘comes in,’ the driver plate begins to transfer energy to the follower plate getting thus it to turn. At first, the clutch slips and most of the power goes to grabbing, which produces heat. Increasingly the driving plate turns the follower. With full ‘letting in,’ the two turn together. There is no more heating; they form a unit with no further visible communications. The coupling established at the molecular level joins the material of the driver and follower plates in transmitting power to the wheels and cutting blades. This clutch