Is an Electro-Magnetic Vaccine an alternative for a Biological Vaccine?

Zit het Einde van de Corona–Crisis in een Klein Kastje?

Can the end of the Corona-Crisis be found in a small Device?

The Immunesystem.

The First part of this Blog is written in English. The last part is written in Dutch.

Experiments with exposure to a specific type of ElectroMagnetic field have shown that immune cells have increased activity levels after exposure.

The quality of the Immunesystem is dependent on Age and Lifestyle.

Smoking, Alcohol, loneliness, poor nutrition, stress and old age weakens the system.

Instead of a Biological Vaccine we could use an Electro Magnetic Vaccine to re-Activate the immune-system.

History of Magnetic Therapy.

Magnetic therapy dates as far back as the ancient Egyptians. Magnets have long been believed to have healing powers associated with muscle pain and stiffness.

Chinese healers as early as 200 b.c. were said to use magnetic lodestones on the body to correct unhealthy imbalances in the flow of chi or life-energy. The ancient Chinese medical text known as The Yellow Emperor’s Canon of Internal Medicine describes this procedure.

When the first cosmonauts and astronauts were going into space, physicians noted that they experienced bone calcium loss and muscle cramps when they were out of the Earth’s magnetic field for any extended period of time. After this discovery was made, artificIal magnetic fields were placed in the space capsules.

Research in Magnetic Therapy.

When you search the Internet with the terms “magnetic Field” and “immune system” you will see that Low Frequency Fields have a healing effect.

For a list of References see the end of this Blog.

Corona (COVID-19) infections can be reduced in severity (quicker, easier recovery, less hospitalisations, less ICU admittance, less mortality) and infectiousness (lower R) by making the immune system react faster and stronger early in the infection.

The virus gets less chance and time to grow exponentially and the infection is kept smaller and easier to eradicate.

Both infectious disease and auto immune disease are linked to insufficient activity of the primary immune system.

Many of the diseases in these categories have no satisfactory treatment and cause significant suffering, healthcare cost and -workload.

Sometimes the Immune-system can get in an overdrive called a Cytokine Storm. cytokines are small proteins released by many different cells in the body, including those of the immune system where they coordinate the body’s response against infection.

The primary immune system has three functions:

  • 1)  to decrease the growth of infections in the period before the secondary immune system kicks in,
  • 2)  to detect pathogens, break them up and produce cytokines and antibodies that activate and direct the secondary immune system,
  • 3)  to clean-up the debris after a successful immune reaction so that auto-immune disease is prevented.

The Activator is a small, low cost medical device that activates the primary immune system of patients to respond much faster to infections and to clean-up immune debris better.

We need about 1 mio Euro to finalize clinical trial and start production of the device.

Our device is without risks or side effects, suitable for home and practice settings.

Faster response helps to fight and prevent infectious disease, and better clean-up helps reduce auto immune disease.

The technology addresses high volume medical problems, urgent for patients and physicians alike, making it valuable for society and attractive for business and governments.

Experiments with exposure to a specific type of electromagnetic field have shown that:

  • immune cells have increased activity levels after exposure
  • mortality in animals suffering from infectious disease decreases by a factor 2.5: from 50% after 17 days to 20%.
  • feed conversion and therefore productivity in broiler chicken increased (probably due to enhanced health) by more than 20%.

Immunologist prof. dr. Huub Savelkoul of Wageningen university has reviewed the experiments and stated that: “The results are extremely encouraging and support the hypothesis that EMF treatment can lead to enhanced innate resistance.

The mechanisms that are expected to play a role in this activation of the immune system are universally present in all vertebrae animals, including fish, all farm animals and humans.”

Applications of this effect can include:

  • treatment of infectious disease in situations where antibiotics are ineffective, undesired or too expensive;
  • prevention of infectious disease in risk situations or risk periods.

Products that support such applications (treatment probably 30 minutes per week)can include:

  • a small treatment box for an individual human,
  • an optional component to be included in feed stations or milking stations for cattle
  • installations for mass treatment in fish farms, poultry farms or other meat production facilities.

Markets for such products are expected to develop in human medicine, fish farms, farms with high value animals such as dairy cows, and in meat production facilities.

Market development will be supported by an ever growing disease pressure in high density populations, decreasing effectiveness and increasing cost of antibiotics and the threat of epidemics. Market size will be large, at least several 100 Million euro.

A device can be produced for 50$ that can treat 1500 people per week (30 minutes times 10 persons times simultaneously) and run on a car battery or AC taking less than 5 Watts.

Ideal for Low and Middle Income Countries.

It will work for other infections and future pandemics, never generate bacterial resistance and also be effective for other (including resistant bacterial) infections.

Besides immune-system activation Pulsed Electro Magnetic Field (PEMF) has showed a lot of applications in many area’s of the body. including Wound healing, Pain reduction, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Depression, Immune Stimulation for milder, Urinary tract infection, Acné inversa and other Serious Skin diseases, Immune Stimulation for milder and less Inflammatory bowel diseases, including Crohn and Colitis Ulcerosa rtc. etc..

Please help us finish the device engineering and, run a clinical trial. We are looking for investors that are not looking for the big money although there is a lot money to make.

In this case we want nvest a part of the eprofit in to a dedicated R&D-Unit linked to Universities, Hospitals, Animal breaders and other Users of the technology. We believe that the Electro Magnetic Field has a lot to offer to Mankind.

Dutch Text:

Theorie over het Immuunsysteem:
Prof Savelkoul Over het Immuunsysteem.
Prof Savelkoul Over het Immuunsysteem en het Coronavirus

Doel en werking van een vaccin zijn het vroegtijdig op gang brengen van een immuunrespons waardoor de infectie klein blijft en snel en makkelijk opgeruimd kan worden.

Dat leidt tot mildere of geen ziekteverschijnselen, en minder ziekenhuisopnames en lagere mortaliteit.

Invloed van het Magnetische Veld:

Twintig jaar Onderzoek bij de Mens (humaan) en praktijkervaring in veehouderij aat zien dat eenzelfde effect als een vaccin of medicatie bewerkstelligd kan worden door het primaire immuunsysteem te activeren, harder en sneller te laten reageren (zie referenties/ onderzoek Savelkoul).

Het immuunsystem wordt geactiveerd middels een kleine elektromagnetische stimulus die door geïnduceerde spanningen in cellen een lichte stress op cellen zet, te weinig voor negatieve effecten, maar wel voldoende om cellen te stimuleren tot productie van cytokines die het immuunsysteem ‘aan’ zetten.

De activator is een klein apparaat met toepassing in zowel ziekenhuis, huisartsenpraktijk maar ook thuis.

Hoe staat het er nu voor met de Activator?

Het apparaat is in de praktijk uitgeprobeerd en wordt in productie genomen zodra er voldoende kapitaal is gevonden.

Meer detail?

Maatschappelijk betrokken investeerders zijn welkom.

Interesse neem contact op met Hans Konstapel, Tunicaduin 2318 XE Leiden, T 071 5231126, M: 06 53843188.

Email: Hans.konstapel@gmail.com.

Over de Veerkracht. van ons lichaam en waarom uiteindelijk de zaak enorm in de war raakt en er zelfs eiweitten zijn die de troep weer opruimen.

Referenties:

  1. Golbach LA, Portelli LA, Savelkoul HF, Terwel SR, Kuster N, de Vries RB, Verburg-van Kemenade BM. Calcium homeostasis and low-frequency magnetic and electric field exposure: A systematic review and meta-analysis of in vitro studies. Environ Int. 2016 Jul-Aug;92-93:695-706.
  2. Golbach LA, Scheer MH, Cuppen JJ, Savelkoul H, Verburg-van Kemenade BM. Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure Enhances Extracellular Trap Formation by Human Neutrophils through the NADPH Pathway. J Innate Immun. 2015;7(5):459-65.
  3. Elmusharaf MA, Cuppen JJ, Grooten HN, Beynen AC. Antagonistic effect of electromagnetic field exposure on coccidiosis infection in broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 2007 Oct;86(10):2139-43.
  4. de Kleijn S, Bouwens M, Verburg-van Kemenade BM, Cuppen JJ, Ferwerda G, Hermans PW. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure does not modulate toll-like receptor signaling in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cytokine. 2011 Apr;54(1):43-50.
  5. Cuppen JJM, Wiegertjes GF, Lobee HWJ, Savelkoul HFJ, Elmusharaf MA, Beynen AC, Grooten HNA, Smink W, Immune stimulation in fish and chicken through weak low frequency electromagnetic fields. Environmentalist 2007.

LINKS.

Over Veerkracht.

About Loci

Method of loci

To use the method of loci bring to mind a familiar building, such as your house. Take a moment to conduct a mental walk through the rooms in your house.

Pay particular attention to the details , noticing any imperfections, like scratches: anything that makes your mental images more vivid. Make sure you can move easily from one room to another.

Along your route create a list of “loci” :i.e. well defined parts of the room that you can use later to memorize things.A locus can be a door, a bed, an oven, etc. Be sure that you can easily go from locus to locus as you visit the house.

Now, when you are faced with a list of words or ideas to be memorized, you must form visual images for each of the words and place them, in order, on the loci in your route. To recall the words or ideas now you take a mental walk throughout your house, asking yourself , “What is on the living-room door? What’s on the sleeping room bed. What’s in the oven?” And so on.

Associating the words or ideas to remember with the loci, you should create surprising images. More striking is the created image, more easily you will remember the thing.


This is all about the method! What follows is,instead, just a short FAQ if you are curious about what is behind this method.

Who invented the Method of loci?

According to Cicero’s De Oratore, the greek poet Simonides invented it. The legend says that Simonides escaped a disaster that destroyed the building where he was having a dinner with other dignitaries. He was able to name the victims by recalling where they had been seated.

What is the relationship between the method and the “Art of Memory”?

The Art of Memory was about the use of space to remember things and was based indeed on the method of loci.So the method of loci is almost a synonym of Art of Memory.This mnemonic technique was used by the ancient rhetoricians and later orators until the invention of the press.The major points of speeches were remembered using the method. The orator would visualize walking through the rooms of their memory palace and associating the next point to be addressed with a successive locus. This is perhaps why we now say “in the first place.”

Why Frances Yates is often cited when speaking of the Art of Memory ?

Frances Yates has written the best in depth account on the history of the Art during its long evolution from Simonides to its demise in the 17 century. In this book,named “The Art of Memory” and easily readable by anyone,Frances rediscovers the Art after two centuries of oblivion.Yates main point is that the learning of the Art was central to the formation of cultured people for twenty centuries. For this reason the Art is one of the central points in Western Culture.

Are there signs of the influence of the Art still visible in our cities ?

Medioeval cathedrals were build to work also as memory places.Dante also, in the Divina Commedia, builds a kind of memory place.

Can you give examples of uses of the Art by cultured people?

Monks used the Art to commit to memory their sermons, lawyers would memorize their speech in the same way.

What is the connection between the Art of Memory, Giordano Bruno and Hermetism?

Giordano Bruno , a dominican monk, left the convent where he learned the Art and wandered throughout Europe telling the secrets of the Art to all who would listen to him including the King of France.He was in 1600 burned at the stake for heresy.You can read online the most famous of his books : The Shadows of Ideas in latin but with some fascinating drawings of “memory wheels”.Bruno,following the teaching of Neoplatonists ,thought that learning the Art gave magic powers:this was the Hermetic Art of Memory. This is a short Introduction To The Hermetic Art Of Memory
Images stored in the loci become more than a mnemonic device. They help us in getting a better understanding of the world. Through them we discover the true essence of things and their relationship. They have also magical powers acting like talismans.They are in fact the “Shadows of Ideas”:the essence of reality.

After his death he was and is presented as a martyr of Science.The truth is that ,when he lived, modern science was not really born and we don’t really know why the Inquisition decided to condemn him( all documents about his process have been lost). But, if the idea that Bruno lost his life because of his support for Copernicanism is probably false, the idea that he was condemned because of his beliefs about the magic powers of the Art of Memory, is probably true.So he may very well be a martyr of the method of loci!

(Here other online texts from Bruno.)

What is the connection of the Art with the discipline of Rhetoric?

The Art was learned as part of the Rhetoric by Greek and Roman orators. Later it was integrated by Thomas Aquinas under the virtue of Prudence.

Can you give some specific example of striking images?

In an ancient text about the Art (Rhetorica Ad Herennium) there is this image to be used by a lawyer working on a case of poisoning to gain an inheritance with many witnesses: the defendant is at the bedside of the poisoned man holding in his right hand a cup(the poison) and in his left, tablets (inheritance) and a ram’s testicles (testes i.e. the witnesses in latin).
If you are curious this manual about mnemonics contains hundreds of examples of ridiculous images used to remember things plus some rules on how to create them.

What is the link between the Method of Loci and the Camillo Memory Theatre?

The “Idea” of the Theatre by Giulio Camillo, was essentially the following: instead of having cultured people imagine complex architectures to store all the knowledge,why not build a physical place and then store all knowledge in this place. Now you can learn simply by walking in this Memory Theatre.

Should we use necessarily real buildings or we can use also a imaginary place?

As “building” for the loci almost every structure both real and imaginary that extends in space, has been used.A city, an abbey, a tree, the human body, a schematic drawing, etc,etc.The so called mnemonic major system or peg system uses as loci images connected to the numbers 1 , 2, 3 ..This manual about mnemonics describes how these images are created in a systematic way from a list of words connected to the original numbers. You start from 1(t,d,th), 2(n), 3(m),4(r),5(l),6(g),7(c,k,gh),8(f,v),9(p,b),0(z,s) and then 16 becomes the word “dog” (d=1,g=6) and the image of the dog.

Is the method still used today?

Some memory performers on stage or television use the method.One of these is the famous italian mnemonist Gianni Golfera.
Also the most studied mnemonist, a certain Shereshevsky(S.) followed for 30 years by the russian psychologist Luria, discovered the Method by himself.He really didn’t need it to remember things: apparently ,for him, being synaesthetic,every experience was so compelling to be unforgettable.But when asked to remember ,for example, 50 items in order, he would put them along some street that he knew very well.This would make the recollection of the items in the right order more easy for him.
This paper reports that in many known cases of normal people with exceptional memory (excluding thus autistic people with savant syndrome) this method is used.
Many Universities and colleges include the Method as a mnemonic device in their pages of advices to students. This is a typical example of information on mnemonic devices for students.
The famous novelist Thomas Harris in the novel about Hannibal Lecter (“Hannibal”) describes in detail how Dr. Lecter uses the method . Unfortunately all this has been lost in the movie version.

How many things can you memorize with the method of loci?

People would memorize palaces with hundreds if not thousands of loci .With such a memory palace you can remember a lot of things but you also need to train a lot to use properly such big places. Memory performers use them routinely but their experience is that they have to rehearse for hours every day to use them.

There are images left by the ancients of these memory palaces?

Yes there are some striking images included in memory treatises or just printed without accompanying text to be used specifically for this purpose.Medioeval university teachers would,for example,represent all the items of their subject matter organized spatially in some striking image and have this image used by students to learn their topic.
You find some examples here.

Why some authors consider the Art of Memory as a tool of creation?

Mary Carruthers and others modern authors point out that the ancient Art of memory was considered more than a way to remember things, a tool to create new things. We now think about this technique as something where you have, for example, a sermon already written and then you memorize the main points using the Art and then recollect your images to deliver the speech. Something that in modern days would be done by reading the words from a sheet of paper. In fact, things were slightly different. There was no previous written sermon! The sermon was created directly from the memory images! In the same way people would create also literary composition like poems or simply meditate about God or other items. For example, in the case of meditations, the written word (in the Bible) was only a starting point, then the creation of the memory images and its recollection walking in memory palaces would organize and expand the original material allowing the person to explore and learn more about the subject matter.

What is the relationship between memory palaces and hypertext?

Both use space to make learning easier.An hypertext with its clickable icons and images is like a memory palace and each link is a locus .When you click, the idea stored there appears as a new document.The only difference is that you don’t have to memorize the structure . From this point of view hypertext is much more like the Camillo Theatre: a physical space where you learn by walking.
See also Hypertext and the Art of Memory from Visible Language 31.2:1997

What is the relationship between the memory palaces and virtual reality?

Virtual Reality is essentially a 3D hypertext.You now navigate not only with the mouse but with all your body:the dream of Camillo becomes true.We can now build a place where you learn only by walking.

What is the relationship between the Art of Memory and computer interface?

It is by now clear that both the human and digital memory aren’t merely a repository, but a theatrical stage. We access computer data by clicking and in general using an interface based on a spatial metaphor.The same we do with our memory using the method of loci.So the Art has been the first computer interface invented by man and used to make better use of the biggest computer ever built:our brain.It was the first model for data storage and retrieval and now is driving the the research on new computer interfaces.
You can read an introduction on this fascinating matter on this paper by Peter Matussek about the The Renaissance of the Theater of Memory

What is the relationship between the Art of Memory and scientific visualization

The Art of Memory is a special case of visual thinking : i.e. high level manipulation of visual information by our brain. Scientific visualization tries to help our powerful capacity to handle visual information by creating visual representations of abstract or invisible objects for example a molecule or the interactions between particles. Like for the development of computer interfaces, we don’t know why some representations seem to work and others no, but the method of loci is a powerful paradigm that we know works, and that helps us find effective visualizations. In the method there are two fundamental components:

  1. the interiorization of the images in the loci
  2. the interiorization of the path (a muscular activity)

So ,for example, the successful visualization of a complex molecule includes not only static images of its parts but also the capability to travel inside the molecule using the mouse.

Does the method really work?

Yes,although there is no proof that it works better than other methods, like for example rote learning.An interesting article on this subject(This is the electronic version without pictures of:

Bower:Analysis of a mnemonic device-Am.Sci. Sep,Oct 75?

. See also this Master memories are made not born. And also Testing-the-Limits in a mnemonic technique: A study of cognitive plasticity in very old age.In these studies the participants are trained in using the method as a mnemonic device to remember word lists.

Works Cited

  • Carruthers, Mary. The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990.
  • Carruthers, Mary. The Craft of Thought: Meditation, Rhetoric and the Making of Images, 400-1200. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998.
  • Parker, Cahill,McGaugh A Case of Unusual Autobiographical RememberingNeurocase(2006) 12, 35-49
  • Rossi, Paolo. Logic and the Art of Memory. Trans. Stephen Clucas. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2000.
  • Yates, Frances. The Art of Memory. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1966.

Introduction of our New Cooperation First Time Right Engineering (FiTiRi)

FITIRI is the result of a meeting with Theo Lohman who is the co-creator of Collin (Collective Intelligence). Collin is a system designed to manage complex engineering projects.

I discovered soon that Theo was playing with the same model I used for a very long time called Paths of Change (PoC). Theo was trying to improve engineering but failed because his theory was too complicated.

In february 2019 I have started a new company with my old friends that is able to do what almost Nobody is Able to do.

We have the intention to Make the Best for the Lowest Price in the Shortest Time.

The “First Time Right” or “Right First Time” (RFT) Principle is part of the Lean Six Sigma method . Lean Six Sigma is aimed at Preventing Failures.

FiTiRi is a Software / Business / General multidisciplinary Engineering Firm that is able to Produce Machines (“a factory”) and Structures Managed by Software (and related products (Strategy, Advice, Research, Auditing (testing), Training, etc). According to the FTR-principle.

We are expirienced in Change Management and Education.

We are not only Technical Engineers but also Social Engineers with a lot of experience in Change Management including Education.

We have development new tools that train people by providing real-time feedback on what they do. At this moment our educational tools are operational in the IT-domain and we are developing tools to train Nurses.

Our tools provide the students with a real certificate provided by a Instituion that is acertified to do that.

We are specialized in Analytics.

This is the Model of Walter Russell mapped on the Model of Paths of Change. showing that the Action Potential of the Emotion generates an Impulse (Need) that can be ANalyzed to Find Rules that can Inspire Insight that can fuel the Action Potential. that can be fulfilled with a Personal Tranformation (“an AH erlebnis“).

We Build Smart InfoSystems.

We are able to built Intelligent (Smart) Information Systems that automatically collect Quantitative (Numbers) and Qualitative (Content, Facts) data and combine them in a Shared (Semantic) Model.

We are specialized in Banking and Healthcare.

We Build Smart Buildings.

We are able to model 3 and 4D flexible virtual structures (“buildings) and are able to design factories that produces these structures on demand.

Components of smart buildings. | Download Scientific Diagram

We use Statistical techniques but also tools out of Machine Learning (AI) to find patterns and build software that reacts to these patterns.

We are able to make (High Functionality, ( Many Function Points)) Complex Software) and Simple Software. In the last case our Price a Low.

We are also able to Design and Build Software-Generators based on a (Business-)Domain Model (for instance Healthcare).

Our First Meeting in which we gladly Hear Your Story and Answer your Questions is always For Free. We are prepared to work No Cure No Pay.

To make Contact use the link.

We are also able to Sell the Products we make together with our customers.To do that we are part of big International business Networks.

Our Favorite Aproach is No Cure No Pay.

As we want o create Value by helping you to create Value we prefer to start by making a
Shared Business Case. To make the case we prefer using the tools of our partner Theodoor van Donge who developed VDML (Value Delivery Modelling Language and a tool VDMBee to use VDML.

We Are experts in Value Engineering.

The nice thing about VDML is that it is possible to generate BPML (Business Process Modelling Language).

Proces Improvement by combining many POC-cycles

It is possible to generate software out of a BPML model. THis means that it possible to generate a proces-model of your business out of a business-case that describes your business.

A BPMLmodel is not only a business-model but als a value-chain in Value-based-Healthcare.

With VDML we are also able to design Business-Ecologies

We are able to Reengineer Models out of Content and Software.

It is also possible to reengineer a Business Model out of the Content related to your business/practice (Dcoments, Software, ) using the tool developed by Wim Goes and Marco Dumont we called Alchemist.

This means that it must be possible to distelate a business-model and a proces-model of your business out of all the content that is available in your business.

We can also use your bookkeeping data quantative (numbers) and qualitative (facts, content, paper bills, invoices).

It is also possible to map the BPML model to a TOP-model (Task Oriented Programming), a toolset developed by Rinus Plasmeijer written in CLEAN. CLEAN is a Functional-Programming Language.

Our speciality is the design of Autonomous (Smart) Systems and Highly Secure Systems.

Smart Computing mapped to the Paths of Change model which is a model of the Human being. It shows that ICT is able to Imitate Humans.

We are the only IT-company that Guarantees its Products.

To do that we use the PoC-approach combined with special SMART tools that are able to detect possible mistakes before they occur.

If you Want you can Buy or Rent our Tools. We are also able to Select, Train and Search for highly qualified Engineers.

We are able to engineer or to re-(reverse) engineer (or adapt) Highly Complex Software-systems. In the last case we move Back in the Development-cycle.

Input in this case can be Software-code or generated code by a tool or documents/content that contains a “Sample” of the current situation. This sample can be documents describing processes but also chats that are part of a dialoque.

We are able to Verify if software correlates to the designed architecture. We are also certified to Test software or to Mediate in a Legal Conflict with a software vendor.

We are able to Train People in Programming or in other Processes. Our most effective method uses Feedback in which we Analyze the result of a process Real-time and show (mostly using movies) the best way to make the result with the highest Quality.

We are able to correlate the activities of many practioners. called a Community of Practice.

Partners.

FiTiRi is a Cooperative in which many different Practices are Combined. Our Team covers Many Years of Experience.

Germt van der Veen: Business Planning, Operations Management, Innovation Management, Healthcare. Germ is the manager of the network.

Hans Konstapel : (RE)Search, Strategy, Mathematics Architecture, Programmagement, Business Development. Banking. Hans is the Strategist of the network.

Wim Goes: Research, Design, Architect, Auditing.Mediator. Wim is the Software Architect of the network.

Erik Vreedenburgh, Design, Architect, Designing Houses & Buildings.

Martin Knuijt, Design. Landscape architect.

Theodoor van Donge: 30 years of IT Innovation and Leadership in the Software Sector (Baan, Cordys, VdmBee). Business Modelling, Business Cases.

Rinus Plasmeijer: Professor Software-Technology. Expert in Functional Programming Technology.

Marco Dumont: Software Engineer, Teacher

Thijs van Gastel: Tax Lawyer, Accountancy, Auditing.

Harm Rozie, Comunication.Strategy, Public Re;ations/

Peter Berlie, Risk Management.

Paths of Change.

Paths of Change (PoC) is a very old general theory about Change reinvented by Will McWhinney of UCLA (University of California Los Angelos).

Poc Uses the concept of a World View, a specific way to Observe, See, Feel the world.

The World View can be represented by the four Senses or the Four Humors.

Carl Jung called the World Views Archetypes. Myers Briggs transformed the Archetypes in a Personality Typology.

A Type is a combination of Two World Views.

John Holland used the types to define a Career Development Model.

The Types can also be used to describe the learning proces. In this case the World Views are called Learning Styles.

The types can also be used to describe a general Development or a Communication Process.

Panarchy Process Model of Innovation.
First Time Right Process Model.

George Klir Complex Adaptive Systems. In complex adaptive systems, the whole is more complex than its parts,[2] and more complicated and meaningful than the aggregate of its parts.

Featured

The Future of the Constitutional State

Part 1: Surviving in a Cave: Looking for the Secret Grove of the State.

THis part is about the History of Human Kind looking for the Seeds of the State.

The Stone Age lasted for roughly 3.4 million years,and ended between 8700 BCE and 2000 BCE, with the advent of metalworking.
I
In that timeframe humans migrated from anatolia and Iran with their animals sometimes using boats to Europe sometimes remembering their history. A lot of them returned as the Sea People home when the climate of their new homeland changed.
Cappadocia, Turkey
Ancient rock-cut church and cave dwellings in Cappadocia, Anatolia Turkey.

Below the Churches vast Underground Cities were found. They were used to hide from the Invasion of the Sea People.

Many ancient citystates were destroyed in the Bronze Age Collapse. This happened because of the attack of the Sea People, a huge force of returning seafaring hungry people from Europe because of a sudden Climate Change caused by a Vulcano in Iceland.
Egyptian Drawings of Sea People that probably were “Vikings” coming from Norway .

Phrygia is well known for the Gordian Knot a puzzle solved by Alexander the Great and its King Midas who wanted to create Gold with his touch.

The Goddess of the Phrygians was Cybele, an old Moon Goddess. At that Time the culture was Matriarchal.

 
Beehive Houses Harran Turkey.

Cybele was the Goddess of the Bees. She originated from a big Black Stone, a meteorite, fallen from Heaven. This Stone became the Kaaba, the Black Stone in Mecca.

The Statue of Cybele was always accompanied by a priesthood of eunuchs who dressed like bees.

The male priesthood castrated themselves during an ecstatic celebration, called the Day of Blood’, which took place on 24 March.

Cybele wears a Town-wall on her head.

Cybele and her priests played an important role in Rome by keeping the Cybilline Books that contained prophesys about the End of the State of Rome.

The methaphor of the Cave must have come from the ancient cavedwellers. All of them developed the same concepts probably related to the Bee-hive of Cybele containing citizen-working-bees that provided for the Food of the state.

Egypt was known as the land of the bee, its kings were called ‘beekeepers’ and the founders of the Nile Valley appear to have travelled from Mesopotamia with bees in their boats after the flood, circa 3,000 BCE.

Egypt became one the most stable places on earth for a very long time.

It produced because of the Nile a vast amount of food, was able to defend itself even against the Sea People and was therefore able to store a long history of knowledge in its Archives that were taken over by the new rulers, the romans.

About the Hunter Gatherers.

The Hunter Gatherers developed an intuitive knowledge of what Mother Nature needed. In these cultures only people with a “gift”, the shamans, become priests.

The Hunter-Gatherers: Moari Warrior talks about his culture and the dance of the spiral, The Holy Ghost..

The Origins of the State according to Plato.

The roots of the State go back to Greece where Plato wrote about it. He believed in a city-state he called kallipolis. The state was ruled by a Philosopher King.

Plato got his teachings in Heliopolis, the Center of Wisdom of Egypt and the whole world at that time. His teacher was the Horite priest, Sechnuphis. His teachings came from Thot also called Hermes Trismegistus. Plato mixed the ancient teachings with the dialogs in his books.

The Books of Thot.

The books of the ancient library of Heliopolis were transported to Alexandria and later to Byzantium, , the Center of the new Roman Empire. Later they were taken to Venice and played an important role in the Renaissance.

Part 2: Bruno Latour: About The New Constitution.

Bruno Latour How to Think as a State. A speech to the Dutch WRR, an Scientific Counsel to Government of the Netherlands.

Latour speaks about the New Constitution.

A Constitution is a Law that Controls Laws, a Meta-Law.

Accoding to Latour a State is an Ecology.

To formulate the right Laws we have to Solve the Distinction Between Hard and Soft, Science (Facts) and Politics (Society, Values) ,  Nature and Culture, Thing and Subject.

The adaptive cycle as a dynamic map for resilience thinking
The theory of complex dynamic systems called Panarchy describes the periodic, rhythmic dance of the spiral of the holy spirit between order and chaos, between stability and transformation as a fundamental pattern of self-organization in complex (living) systems

An Ecology (= a State) Grows when the parts of the ecology are not too connected (“autonomous“) and the Wealth of the Economy is widely available for action.

The Panarchy Cycle ends with the end of the Ecology (in the Conservation-state), This state is always saved in a Sacred Grove.

In a Conservation-state a State (a Political ecology) is old and fragile only busy with itself, spending all of its energy (wealth) to reproduce

The windows of a Cathedral show the Spiral of Life. Cathedral are always build on a Sacred Grove.
The Medicine Wheel is the basic form of Model of the Cycle seen in the way animals behave. .

The Sacred Grove was the place were the Spiritual Buildings (Churches/Cathedrals) were build by the Priests of te Old Orders.

To find the Future of the State we have to research the time we lived in the Caves,

Politicians have to realize that the State is an Ecology that Contains a Diversity of Matter (Things) and Life Forms (subjects) and

Scientists have to realize that Objects are also Actors, they move and/or are a cause and/or an Effect .

Politicians (Thinking(Unity) <->, Feeling (Social) <–> Manipulate and negociate Consensus and

Scientists (Thinking (Unity) , Sensing <–> Make, Analyze) ) have to realize that besides their Archetypes there are other Archetypes like Seeers (INtuiting) and Empats (Feeling). that Play a Role in the Cycle of Paths of Change.

Paths of Change mapped to the Tarot where Mythic (= Imagination, idea, Intuitive, Seeer, Cups), Social (= Opinion, Status, Emotion, Feeling, Pentacles), Sensory ( Fact, Experience, Wands, Action, Grow) and Unity (= Knowledge, Order, Rule, Law, Swords).
The Parliament of Things has to make a full Rotation of PATHS OF CHANGE with the Clock (Generating, Producing) or and / or Against the Clock (Consuming). With and Agaianst the Clock = a Moebius Ring). Observe the MOEBIUS RING in the Picture of PANARCHY Above and Below.

Does the New Constitution, the new Meta Law also apply to Things-Animals and Things- Machines (Robots)?

Who will Speak for the Lakes, the ozon layer, the Trees and the Self-driving Cars in the Parliament of Things.

Are the Laws of Nature in conflict with the New Constitution or are they the same Laws (and what are these Laws)?

In Chapter 9 of this blog you will see that Humans and Animals (and even Viruses and Bacteria apply the (Ethic) Principle of Tit-for-Tat, a solution to the Infinitely Repeated Prisoners Dilemma.

We are all kept in the same Prison that is Nature and our only way to get out is to Collaborate with all of the Life-Forms.

Part 3: What is Happening?

We are witnessing a Global Transformation in which the old Organizational Mass Structures are Loosing their Power and the Struggle between the Hawks (Rich, Influentional) and the Doves (Poor, Isolated) comes back.

History Repeats itself in a completely different Context filled with Big Brother Technology.

Is it possible to create a Big Brother State that citizens Love to live in?

It looks like (Surveillance Capitalism) could become our Big Friend by Automating Us.

Jared Diamond. Societies collaps because of environmental problems (“climate, too Dry, too Cold,..) combined with External and Internal Conflicts and the Resilience of the Society, (the Way the Citizens are able to Solve their own Problems), is low.
The Panarchy 4D Model of Ecologies fits the development of the Sate. It shows that Resilience is a combination of Connectedness and Wealth (Resources). When a State is too connected (“Burocratic“) and has not distributed its Wealth between the Rich and the Poor it will Collaps.

Part 4: The History of the State.

The State was invented in Sumer translated in Akkadian as the “Land of the Civilized Kings”.

Their forefathers moved from a hunter-gatherer society to an Agrarian one prior to 5000 BCE.

The Kings and their High Priests invented Cuneiform script, the Wheel, the Sail Boat, Irrigation, Law, Diplomacy, Trade, Bookkeeping and astrology.

Machu Picchu, A December Solstice Observatory of the Inca.The Inca’s are part of the Norte Chico Civilization that existed at the same time as Sumer. The December Solstice was observed all over the world. The civilization of the Inca’s was destroyed by the Spanish Golddiggers who killed for Christ and brought many Diseases that killed the Inca too,

Part 5: Theory of the State.

State formation is explained by The production of surplus (Wealth) resulting in a division and specialization of labor: leading to Classes who worked the land and to those who could devote their time to other tasks including astrology and warfare.

Large societies tend to develop Ruling classes and supporting Bureaucracies (Systems, Connectedness) , which leads to larger organizations that want to Control the world.

When the state is too dependent on systems the state will collaps when a Not Expected Disaster takes place (a Black Swan or a Dragon King.).

For a very long time the Hierarchy was the most important Control-System in Use.

Currently the Center of the System is moving from the Top to the Bottom because of the Rise of Communication Technology (Internet).

Part 6: Summary.

A big part of this blog is about the State we live in called the Constitutional State, the Nation State or the Rechtsstaat.

All of them are highly Dependent on the Belief that People are regulated by Laws and that there is something behind all these Laws which is an Eternal principle that represents the Good.

A deep (but not very difficult) analysis shows that the State is an instrument to benefit a certain Elite (A Tribe?) that is Sustained by the Systems of the State in which the Educational System is the most important.

The article by William I. Robinson: Gramsci and Globalisation: From Nation‐State to Transnational Hegemony shows that the current Social Networks of Local Elites connect on the World level and are influenzing the Global Nation States.

The extreme wealthy creators of the Global Social-Network Technology know that they are able to Control the World with a Silent Revolution in which the Needs of their users can be changed to live in a new type of Paradise in which the old Roman theory of controlling their citizins with Food & Play will Lead the Way.

7.List of Chapters.

This list contains numbered summaries of the chapters of this blog from now. It makes it possible to Jump into the blog without missing much.

Watch out: THis Blog is still in Development. It will not be the same in a few weeks from now.

Comment? <-click there.

2: What is a State?

A State was an instrument to support the Ruler of a Boundary in Space called a City State.

The Rulers became Omnipotent when they transformed themselves into a God.

Nice to Monaco

THe City State Monaco.

3. History of the State starting with the GREAT FLOOD.

Before the Great Flood Humans were organized in Tribes and later in Kingdoms. Most of the humans were owned by other humans.

After the Industrial Revolution the Slaves started a Revolution and the Kings had to share their Power with the Many still divided in the Rich and the Poor.

People no longer felt they were Owned by some Ruler; instead they now gave their Loyalty to something bigger, the Nation-state.

4. The Constitutional State.

This is a new concept in which the “good” is put into a General accepted Meta-law (a law that rules over other laws) chosen by a Majority of people. The big problems with a Meta-System is that it not bounded. It suffers Infinite Regress.

The big problem with a not bounded Constitution is that it will eventually cover All of the Humans, the Animals, the Territory of Earth (UNO) or even Space.

5. The problems of the Constitutional Sate.

To service its citizens the Rechtsstaat starts Companies that operate in the for- and the non-profit Market.

These Companies are now sold (or “given”) to the rich elite or the rich global companies that are now controlling the world.

Poor Citizens are paying Taxes for the benefit of the rich others.

This is Splitting the State and gives Opportunistic Leaders (Populist) the chance to drive their followers into a Renaissance of the Fascist State.

The STaat is also competing with other rechtsstaats (EU, UNO, ..). that control the “lower” rechtstaat giving the Nationalists the opportunity to dissolve structures that were created to Prevent a 3de World-war.

6. The End of the Nation State.

States are connected to a physical boundary. The United Nations relate to Earth.

The perspective of Humanity changed when we were able to see the Earth in the Middle (Bible, Creation Story) the Sun in the Middle ( Science Copernicus) to the Center of the Milkey Way in the Middle (Hubble Telescope, Technology).

The Cycle of History is moving to the Center. Our movement into Space_ generates a new (Space)-Spirituality created by the Meta-Myth of Joseph Gampbell that motivates people to leave Earth and move to Mars or even further.

7. About Anarchy and Terroism.

The Institutions of the state and the Elite that controls the state have been an object of Destruction for a very long time. Until now the State seems to be Resilient/ Anti-fragile. It restores and grows from Chaos.

8. Living in Caves. The Pre-Historic State.

What can we learn from the time Humans were not part of a State (and part of a Tribe).What we can learn is that a lot of the experience of that time is put into our culture and in our myths and religion.

9: Are Humans different from Animals & Organisms.

Organisms & Animals “create” organizational structures that look like States. How different are we from organisms and our cousins the Apes. An important feature we don’t want to see is Synchronization. It helps dictators to control the masses.

10. Diverging States?

In 1989 The Berlin Wall fell and the western Nation-State became the “normal” model of the World. After that moment old conflicts started all over again. The same happened when the world wanted to get rid of “real” Dictators like Saddam Hoessein.

States are not a computer program that controls citizins, we can Restart.

States revert to their Initial State which is a Tribal Structure in which Violence is a normal tool to control the Population.

The New Leaders Copy the Story of the Ancient Leaders by Remembering old Stories about Lost Battles. This happened everywhere in the World from YugoSlavia to Ruanda.

Dictators with the use of State Violence control latent conflicts.

States are a very Complex Balancing Act in which many Powers are Neutralized.

A debate with Francis Fukuyama, Professor of Political Science Stanford University

11. The Techno-State.

In 1999 I wrote a document called MOVING UP and MOVING DOWN Ideas and opinions about the connection between Small Scale specialized human networks and large scale collaborative IT-technology.

It shows that we are moving to a connected Collaborative Space mostly called the Internet (or Hyperspace).

Hyperspace is now owned by big Global companies like Google and Facebook that Sell and Predict the Activity-profiles in Hyper- and Physical Space of many people on earth.

1.Introduction.

This blog is the result of an increasing frustration about the Performance of the State I live in (The Netherlands).

My Government acts without a vision, spends a huge amount of (tax)money and makes nistake after mistake most of the time in the use of Technology but also in providing effective Healthcare, Education, Protection, etc etc.

I Spend a few weeks reading thinking and writing about the State and came to the conclusion that we are facing the end of the Nation State.

It looks like Big Brother is already there and we are facing a situation in Europe that looks like the rise of the Totalitarian fascists States around 1933.

Is history repeating?

2. What is a Sate?

A Nation State is a Top Down Management Structure that controls a lot of people that share a lot. Currently the Top (Government) is loosing its power to other powers (Companies) .

In this last case the Nation State will transform into a Network of Special Economic Zones comparable to Hong Kong that provide a Tax-haven and a Secure haven to the very Rich. .

People that look alike synchronize and turn into a crowd that follows the directions of the Leader if he (or she) uses the Rhetoric of the Common Enemy. Most of the influentual Dictators were aware (by instinct or training) that they could bring a huge amount of people in Sync doing things they never believed that was Possible.

Crowds Synchronize when they look at the same thing.

Nation States are fragmenting into small Cultural Identities.

The State is defefined by Max Weber as a polity that maintains a Monopoly on the use of violence.

The Greek philosopher Aristotle believed that questions of the State, how it should be organized, and how it should pursue its ends, were fundamental to the achievement of happiness. Aristotle was aquainted with the City-State of Athens.

Acropolis Athens

The State we live in is the result of a Top-Down/Bottom Up process that repeats itself many times.

States start as small City States, and grow into Big Burocratic States.

Burocratic states are highly fragile and are therefore easily destroyed by a calamity or taken over by groups of violent people specialized in warfare that are triggered by famine caused by a change of climate or a change of the environment caused by human activity (desert creation, the industrial revolution).

Another cause of the end of a state can be found in internal conflict between competing groups often part of the Rulers (Masters) and the Ruled (Slaves).

This conflict can result in a Split of the state and or a Fusion of comparable parts. India and the Us are an example of both in which Religion was the cause of the split and a Cultural Likeness (“Capitalistic, Calvinistic) the reason of a Fusion.

The Huns, especially under their King Attila, made frequent and devastating raids into the Eastern Roman Empire. invaded Italy and almost conquered Rome.

Chinese government build big walls to protect the country against the Mongols.

Great Wall, China

In time the Victors fill in the old framework of the burocracy with their own people and the system becomes fragile again.

Systems (and humans) Reproduce themselves with Parts that reproduce themselves ( autopoiesis. ).

3. History of the State.

The next Great Flood will probably not be caused by a collision with a meteorite but by the melting of ice caused by the rising of temperature caused by Climate Change.

The repeating process of State-production was stopped by and started again after the Great Flood. This happened around 3117 BC.

After the Flood had swept over the earth and when kingship was lowered again from heaven, kingship was first in Kish. . . . in Uruk the divine Gilgamesh . . . ruled 126 years . . . its kingship was removed to Ur

Hero lion Dur-Sharrukin Louvre AO19862.jpg
Gilgamesh.

The City State of Ur.

Ur was a new .start. Soon the City States started to make war and grew into a bigger structure.

Ur has always been an important location, a harbor, part of the trade-routes that connected the East and the West. Because of the Trade The rulers (Male and/or Female) of Ur became very rich.

Rulers become God and The High Priest gets te power.

Extreme richness, Power and Praise often leads to many psychological disorders (described by Interpersonal Theory) including Histrionic, believing your Fantasy is true ) Narcissism (extreme self-esteem) and Paranoia (Believing that Everybody is a Threat).

Shulgi, the greatest king of the Third Dynasty of Ur, who solidified the hegemony of Ur and reformed the empire into a highly centralized bureaucratic state. Shulgi ruled for a long time (at least 42 years) and deified himself halfway through his rule.

The transformation from ruler to God brought the King to the highest state of Power. Many rulers copied this behavior and many new Gods appeared making life very complex.

At the time of Shulgi rulers were often adviced by Magi that had a lot of knowledge about Mass Manipulation, Personal Magic and Medicine. When the rulers became God the Magi became the High Priest.

Persian Magician.

Monotheism.

The Egyptian Pharao Akhenaton who was probably the Master of the Biblical Mozes Defined one God as the principal God. He started a new trend Monotheism based on the worship of Aten (the Sun Disk) .

In the Egyptian state the Priests were very powerful. They rebelled against Akhhenaton and restored the cult of Ammon.

Ahkenaton worships the Sun.

Ancient Israelite religion was originally polytheistic; the Israelites worshipped many deities including El, Baal, Asherah, and Astarte. Yahweh was originally the national god of the Kingdom of Judah.

The ancient economies of China, the Incan Empire, the Indian Empires, Babylon, Greece, and the various kingdoms of Africa operated on principles of reciprocity and redistribution with a very limited role for markets.

Cycles: History repeats itself.

Below you see a picture of a cycle-generator that generates Cycles in Cycles (etc). Cycles are driven by harmonic patterns that have a lot in common with music (“the Music of the Spheres“).

The Waves and the Overtones of the cycle going Up and Down can be described with recurring themes part of a five-fold-pattern (Pentangle). This pattern shares the four World Views of Path of Change (PoC) with a center which represents a whole. . PoC is a very old theory about Change that was discovered by Will McWhinney.

Kondratiev Cycle has a cycle-time of 52 years. Currently we are in a State called a Spring. In Spring the economy is growing until it moves into a recession. Every step in the cycle is controlled by a specific issue related to a world-view of Paths of Change. The colors are reused in this blog. Green is Social, Blue is Control, Yellow is Imagination, RED is Action and White is Center/Whole (Geheel).
Cycle generator. desrcibed by a pentangle containing a pentangle etc shows how waves contain waves etc.

Two states of The State of Rome.

The Spiral of Time focused on Europe based on the Cycle of Bahktin.
The spiral of Time is based on Paths of Change Blue is control, Yellow is Imagination, Green is Social / conflict, White is Center and Red is Action/revolution. The white stage always starts a new Religion.

Rome was a state ruled by an elected emperor controlled by an elected parliament with representatives that were Roman Citizen.

Mitrash is slaying the white Bull. The Bull is a symbol for the the Star Sign Taurus.Taurus represents the Worldview Sensory.

Emperor Constantine the Great made Christianity the leading religion of Rome because it looked a lot like the belief of his soldiers the (persian) cult of Mitra. Mitra transformed into Archangel Michael.

The Emperor of Rome transformed into the Pope of Rome.

New Empires.

To the Romans, anyone who was not a citizen of Rome or who did not speak Latin was a barbarian. In Europe there were five major barbarian tribes – the Huns, Franks, Vandals, Saxons, and Visigoths (Goths) – and all of them wanted to destroy Rome.

The rulers of the barbarians soon created kingdoms, empire-states that took over the rule of Rome. As always the expansion of the new Empires generated conflicts and war.

The Secular State.

In the renaissance the Zeitgeist of Europe turned into the state of Imagination/Spirit.

The Bible was translated in the languages of the empires and a unique interpretation of the Christian Faith turned into a Work Ethic based on the theories of Calvin.

Cpitalism and the freedom of Faith were born. The State left the field of religion and the Secular _State was born.

The State of the (Capitalistic) Hawks.

“The German sociologist Franz Oppenheimer (1864-1943), said, there are only two ways for men to acquire wealth.

The first method is by producing a good or a service and voluntarily exchanging that good for the product of somebody else.

This is the method of exchange, the method of the free market; it’s creative and expands production; it is not a zero-sum game because production expands and both parties to the exchange benefit.

Oppenheimer called this method for the acquisition of wealth the “Economic means“.

The second method is seizing another person’s property without his consent, i.e., by robbery, exploitation ND/OR looting.

horus

The Noble Price winning Economist Daniel Kahneman wrote a book called Hawkish Biasis in which he explains economic behavior with the same attitudes Exchange (cooperation, Dove) and competition (Hawk, war, immoral behavior).

Oppenheimer called the thawkish method of obtaining wealth “the political means.” And then he went on to define the state, or government, as “the organization of the Political means,” i.e., the regularization, legiti­mation, and permanent establishment of the political means for the acquisition of wealth of the Hawks (the Upperclass) .

Socialism, Communism and Equality.

Around 1789 Europe was in the Social State meaning that social-conflicts started to increase.

The French Revolution (1789) started a revolt of the underclass that was hit by an economic crisis caused by a change of the climate caused by an explosion of a vulcano in Iceland. After the revolution the Middleclass (Bourgeoisie) took over the power and created factories powered by the steammachine. This stage in history is called the Industrial Revolution.

The Industrial revolution created a new underclass, the proletariat. Marx following Hegel detected that World History follows Patterns

The French Revolution triggered the start of the Socialistic Movement in England that caused many revolutions in for instance Russia and China. Both are countries that are controlled by an Elite (“the Party“).

russian revolution historiography

Although most of the time not highly visible all countries with a State are controlled by an Elite that creates a Network connected to special Schools/Universities, Political Parties and big Companies or networks of specialized comparable Small companies (Farmers rtc).

Cultural Revolution poster.jpg

The State as an Selforganizing System.

Anthony Giddens (1985) stresses that the emergence of the “Internally Pacified State” that centralizes the Means of Violence and hence prevents Armed Struggles between opposed classes was accompanied and enabled by a large expansion of the apparatuses of Surveillance and Bureaucratic Administration.

Giddens argues that the nation state is a “Power Container” [Giddens, 1985: 13] that stores and concentrates Authorative and allocative resources and that with the rise of capitalism the nation state replaced the City as the most important power container.

The Institutions of the State are the Keepers of the Rules that facilitate the systems in the state to self-organize:

Can a human society be constrained in such a way that self-organization will thereafter tend to produce outcomes that Advance the Goals of the society? Such a society would be self-organizing in the sense that individuals who pursue only their own interests would none-the-less act in the interests of the society as a whole, irrespective of any intention to do so. This paper identifies the conditions that must be met if such a self- organizing society is to emerge. It demonstrates that the key enabling requirement for a self- organizing society is ‘consequence-capture’. Broadly this means that all agents in the society must capture sufficient of the benefits (and harms) that are produced by their actions on the goals of the society. ‘Consequence-capture’ can be organized in a society by appropriate management (systems of evolvable constraints) that suppress free riders and support pro-social actions. In human societies these constraints include institutions such as systems of governance and social norms. The paper identifies ways of organizing societies so that effective governance will also self-organize. This will produce a fully self-organizing society in which the interests of all agents (including individuals, associations, firms, multi- national corporations, political organizations, institutions and governments) are aligned with the interests of the society as a whole.

4. The Constitutional State.

At the turn of the nineteenth century, the constitutional state took its origin from a revolution against absolutist rule and feudal inequality.

‘Constitution’ as a revolutionary new concept of law meant as an ideal-type: written, supreme, secular law, decided by the people and regulating all public power.

Constitutional monarchy was the dominant type of constitutional state in Europe throughout the nineteenth century.

It was marked by a fundamental dualism between monarchical and parliamentary power, which tended towards parliamentarization and came to an end with complete constitutionalization and democratization of European states as an outcome of the First World War.

While the post-war years represented the apex of European constitutionalism, the deep European crisis of the 1930s with the rise of dictatorship destroyed the core function of constitutionalism, to legally bind state power, which came to be restored only gradually after 1989 for the whole of Europe.

Currently a big part of Europe is controlled by the European Union (EU) created 1-1-1958. The citizen support for the EU is in a steep decline culminating in the rise and come back of many nationalistic parties and the Brexit (Exit of Brittain).

5. The Future of the Dutch Constitutional State.

In 2003 the WRR ( Dutch Government Scientific Think Thank) wrote a report about the future of the Dutch Constitutional State called a Rechtsstaat.

A Rechtsstaat is a “constitutional state” in which the exercise of governmental power is constrained by the law.

The big problem not adressed in the document above is that Law is a symbolic system that could be in line with the Zeitgeist or otherwise.

It is almost impossible to program the citizins of a country unless the program is put into many examples that are thaught at primary school.

Louis Althusser is a Marxist Philosopher who claims that Education is the Foundation of the Ruling Power of the State.

Civil Society.

The ZeitGeist is currently in the State of the Center (Whole, White, Boundaries).

Citizins want to be treated as respected Individuals (Informalization) and are exploring boundaries (Intensivation) . Young people Cross boundaries, companies work without boundaries (Globalization) and countries define new boundaries.

The system of rules governing a rechtstaat is becoming too complex and the connected system becomes too bureaucratic, while capacity problems are arising on account of the large flow of applications, public participation procedures, complaints, pleas and proceedings against the government on the part of assertive citizens.

Competing Rule Systems.

Next to this there are many more “rechts states” (EU, UN) that are are creating and enforcing competing rule-systems.

The Service State moves to the Market.

Public services are what make the state visible to its citizens.

Public services are citizens’ direct line to government. They make the state tangible through an almost daily interaction, direct or indirect.

public infrastructure made the previously far away centres of power more accessible.

Currently many public services are given over to the Market making the state more and more invisible.

The Third Sector.

Especially in small cities and parts of big cities (comparable to city-states) a new third sector is growing that contains cooperatives of civilians that develop shared autarkic non-for-profit (social) functions like energy& food-production, care for the elderly etc etc. These functions are based on exchange of material and services (reciprocity ).

This a model based on Paths of Change that is based on reports of the Social Cultural Planning Bureau in the Netherlands described in this blog (in Dutch).

6. The End of the Nation State.

(THis part of Chapter 6 is Cited from a part of this long article out of the Guardian)

“Similar varieties of populism are erupting in many countries. Several have noted the parallels in style and substance between leaders such as Donald Trump, Vladimir Putin, Narendra Modi, Viktor Orbán and Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.

All countries are today embedded in the same system, which subjects them all to the same pressures.

20th-century political structures are drowning in a 21st-century ocean of deregulated finance, autonomous technology, religious militancy and great-power rivalry.

Finally, the old superpowers’ demolition of old ideas of international society – ideas of the “society of nations” that were essential to the way the new world order was envisioned after 1918 – has turned the nation-state system into a lawless gangland“;

Everything that was structured most of the time by a Top Down Hierarchical Structure and Controlled by Lawmakers that enforce their own rules is now attacked by many new connected (by a Telecom Network) bottom-up structures that make it possible to Control and Direct the Individuals in the Masses with Highly Intelligent Big Brother technology.

A Model of a Human based on the Paths of Change (PoC)-model.

The 2nd part of Chapter 6 is cited out of an Article out of Forbes.

From Top to Bottom.

There is a strong popular demand for decisions to be taken at lower levels than Central Government

At the extreme, this has fuelled Iindependence movements in Scotland, Quebec, Catalonia and Western Sahara, not to mention Palestine and Kosovo. Less dramatically, we see an increasing devolution of Central Powers in most countries.

Multinational Corporations are more powerfull than Governments:  They operate globally, unrestricted by borders

The biggest tech companies are now richer than most countries, and foreign Governments find it very difficult to tax them properly on the profits they make.  

Hannah Arendt The Origins of Totalitarianism.

At the very center of Hannah Arendt’s analysis of The Origins of Totalitarianism is her insight into the decline of European Nation-States.

Nation-states were always based on a fiction so that the demanded Liberté, égalité and, fraternité demanded by liberal States was held to be compatible with the national Homogeneity of the Nation.

But as different Ethnic Groups demanded recognition and rights and as refugees advocated for rights within traditional nation-states, the Tension between legal equality and national recognition set the nations of Europe Against the states and led to the rise of Fascism in Italy and Totalitarianism in Germany.

Today there are similar indications that nation-states are once again failing and . that the rise of populist nationalist movements around the world is a response to the widespread failure of nation-states to address 21st century problems.

This is why a strange brand of Apocalyptic Nationalism is so widely in vogue. But the current appeal of Machismo as Political Style, the Wall-building and Xenophobia,the fantastical Promises of National Restoration – these are not cures, but symptoms of what is slowly revealing itself to all: nation states everywhere are in an advanced state of political and moral decay.

7.The History of Terrorism, Anarchy, The End of the State by Violence.

Deprivation (poverty, lack of education, lack of political freedom) can drive people to terrorism.

Late in the 19th century, Anarchist labor unions began to use the tactic of general strike. This often resulted in violence by both sides and some of the strikes even resulted in the Deaths of striking workers, their replacements and security staff. In this climate, some anarchists began to advocate and practice terrorism or assassination.

Violence Against the State is used by Groups of People (“Freedom Fighters”) who do not recognize that the current State represents the (Origional) Citizins and/or that the Law of the State is not the Accepted general Law (“Religious Fighters“) of a Culture that occupies the State.

Sometimes the State uses Violence to Control the Citizens of the State (State Terrorism).

8. Living in a Cave: Lessons from The Pre-Historic State of the Humans.

Alvin Toffler , The Third Wave, After, the Hunter Gatherers the State was caused by the move to Agriculture. The big question is what the State will become in the Third Wave or What is the Fourth Wave.
Translating Rock Art. It looks like the Ancient Rock Art contains the Symbols we see in Ancient writing.

The State was created when we,the humans Stopped Moving Around, Settled Down and started Agriculture. . The first place we settled down were Caves.

Using mainly red pigments and sometimes black, groups of animals, hand stencils, engravings, dots, discs and geometric designs are depicted in the cave paintings.
Oldest known cave art was made by Neanderthals, not humans

Outside the Cave Nature was filled with many Animals and Plants we could eat.

To Kill Animals we made Weapons and to make weapons we needed Fire and Iron. Powerful Weapons were filled with Magic.

Magic is a System that gives the Focused Human Belief-System to take the role of Observer in Quantum Mechanics.

Joseph Campbell — Jung and the Right and Left-hand Paths. The Cycle of Life moves with and Against the Clock.

With the Clock moves the Path of Creation, the Path of Birth, Light, Spring and Summer.
Against the Clock (the path of Darkness, Winter and Autumn) is the Path of Destruction making place for New Life
.

As a a human we have to Cope with Violent Acts like an Accident, the Killing of an Animal that looks like a Human and the Strange Transformations of our Body we encounter when we Grow from a Child to a Grown-up.

Our transformation follows the Path of the Hero.

This path has a lot in common with Paths of Change, a General Theory about Change.

The Meta-Myth, the Path of the Hero describes the way Humans move out of the patterns enforced by Society and the State and come back with a new Vision.
Paths of Change. based on the Spiral of the Universal One of Walter Russelll

The Humans in the Cave became Aware of the Cycles of the Day, The Year and the Equinox.

They crated Rituals to cope with Stress and to avoid Bad Luck.

OSEPH CAMPBELL: “After the animal has been killed, the hunter then has to fulfill certain rites in a a mystic participation with the animals whose death he has brought about, and whose Meat is to become his Life.

So the killing is not simply slaughter, at any rate, it’s a Ritual Act. It’s a recognition of your dependency and of the Voluntary Giving of this food to you by the Animal“.

Dr. Stephan Hoeller at the Gnostic Society in Los Angeles talks about MAgic and Animal Powers.
During the beginning of humanity certain people (now called Shamans) had the possibility to look at the other worlds and receive inspiration from higher entities sometimes called a God. The Shamans turned into the Priests until they were replaced by people who spoke the words of the High Priests.

The humans in the cave specialized and new Crafts came to life. The oldest “jobs” were the Firemaker and the BlackSmith. Both jobs were taken by Shamans. Important crafts were projected on the Gods.

In the Creation-Myths Gods like Ptah and Vulcan were worshiped as the Creator of all things and the patron of various crafts, such as Sculpting and Metalworking.

The Blacksmiths are the Makers & the Warriors.They have a lot in common with the Druids and Bards of the Celts and the Magi of Persia. A Blacksmith was called a Merlin in Celtic Culture.

dia41_h600px.jpg

Vulcan – God of fire and volcanoes as well as Smith of the gods

The Dagda is portrayed in Celtic Myth as a Father-figure, king, and druid.He owns a Magic Staff, which kills with one end and brings to life with the other, a Cauldron which never runs empty (Symbol of the Heart Chakra) , and a magic Harp which can control men’s emotions and Change the Seasons

The Ancient Egyptians Blacksmiths, the Heru-Behutet, are associated with the Power of the Serpent (“the Ka“) and the Winged Disk, the symbol of the Zodiac (Astrology).

Image result for Heru Behutet

Heru Behutet is shown as a Hawk-Headed Man bearing the double crown of Egypt, holding Metal Weapons, and more often as a Winged Disk flanked by a White and a Black Cobra (White and Black Alchemy).

Te story of Osiris (The Old King of Egypt, The Old Order, Blind, ISIS (Queen of the Underworld, Chaos looking for her Husband, Order and the brother of Osiris Seth (the Devil, Evil) He kills Osiris and Cuts him in 42 Pieces (the Number of the Nomes of Egypt) and distributes them all over Egypt.
ISIS makes love to his Penis and Horus the Falcon with the Eye of Insight is born who brings back order. A Horus and Isis are the Black Madonna (Mary Magdelena).


This is a good example of the Cycle of Paths of Change.

Th Black Madonna with the Child Jesus is Isis, the Mother of the Underworld with Horus the Child she got from Penis of Osiris, the Old King of Egypt and of Order.

The Mesniu had shaved heads, wore short tunics that exposed their chests, and bore either an inverted Lance or some other Metal instrument.

In the rear of their temples was situated a “Holy of Holies,” called the Mesnit, which was only accessible by the Mesniu. A Holy of Hollies is Fractal Model.

In the Bible the Blacksmiths are associated with the children of Tubal Cain. One of his descendants is Hiram, the Master Builder of the Temple of Solomon. Building big Buildings became an Art.

Ron Eglash. Fractal Patterns in African Culture.
Fractal African Village
The Fractal Pattern of an African Village with a Holy of Hollies.

In African Orisha Culture, the Ogun, the Blacksmiths are always isolated in a special group outside Society because they are the carriers of the Third, (Evil) Eye of Horus and are able to manipulate the Force of Life, Nyama or Ka (Chi, Prana, Ether, the Fifth Element).

Creative People are able to manipulate the Power that Creates.

Image result for biology status symbols birds sexual reproduction

As soon as the States were created Humans started to Trade & exchange Objects, Creating a new concept called Wealth.

Humans measure their Importance by the physical objects (including caves and animals) they own or are able to buy. They show their importance just like animals in the way they look, wear clothes and the Language they speak.

Humans are experts in detecting lying but we are experts in lying when we deceive ourselves.

There many types of animals that create and defend a Territory.

9. Are Humans different from Animals & Organisms?

Robert SaPolsky: We have much more in common with all kinds of Animals and organisms we think. We all synchronize because we all vibrate and produce signals sometimes of a chemical nature (pheromones).Hmans and Animals use a solution to the Prisoners Dilemma, Tit-for-Tat as a way to survive making Tit-for-Tat a Universal Law. Tit-for-tat is called an Eye for an Eye in the Bible.


The only thing we are different from is Abstraction Methaphor and Being Motivated by something that is Almost Impossible. We love to take Obstacles.
Another Explanation about How we are Different from Apes. We have slowed down and spend a lot of time imitating and producing other humans. We are excellent Copy-Machines.
Robert Trivers The Logic of Deceit and Self-Deception in Human Life Organisms decept to survive and Humans decept themselves. the primary reason we fool ourselves is to fool others“. Humans are exceptionally good at picking up various verbal and physical cues (e.g., speech intonation, eye movements,…) that indicate when another human is practicing deception.
There are many situations such as playing “chicken” and seeing who will back down first, where it can actually benefit an organism to deceive itself, by so doing the organism can better deceive others.

Multilevel Societies emerge from Cultural Transmissions.

Organisms create Complex Organisational structures that look like a State. They do that by Imitating others that look Similar or Act Similar. Acting Similar (Copying) is the reason for Synchronization.

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Object name is ncomms9091-f1.jpg
Empirical multilevel network depicting the three nested levels in the sperm whale society off the Galápagos Islands: individuals within social units within vocal clans.

10: States: What makes them Work?

Humans attribute a human Personality to an Active process (an Agent). The weather is nice and States look like a Father ANDor a Mother. or a Family.

George Lakoff is a specialist in Metaphor. A Metaphor is a function between two models.

For instance Freud made a model of the Human by Mapping the Human Body to a Steam Machine.

George Lakoff believes in his book Moral Politics that US Citizins see the State according to their party as a Nurturing Mother (Democrats) or a Strict Father (Republicans) part of a Family (Being a Tribe).

Metaphors are also often used to motivate a country going to a War or to perform another Violent Act.

States are often represented by Humans (Mother Russia) or a Bounded Location (the Heimat, Germany).

States are Born and Grow Up just like Humans.

Just like life a birth is not a gentle process but comes with stress and pain. The Big Battles between states live for many years and the Reason can be revoked to start a new Battle.

The same applies when a State was a Superpower in the past. States without a shared dramatic story don’t motivate citizens to support the state without asking questions.

The State works when the Citizens are able to Trust the state and or be Proud to be part of the state they live in. The state is Evaluated by its Activities but also by the people it represents (PoliticianS).

When we use model of Path of Change (picture below) we can see that Politicians combine Rules and Social (vice verse) which means that they play a Game in which they make a combination between What People Believe and What they Value and are PART OF A CYCLE in which ACTION and REFLECTION takes place.

The task of the Politician is to establish Consensus between the citizens of the State.

Paths of Change model applied to Communication.
Paths of Chhange Model applied to Making.
Moral Pilitics Georg Lakoff.

11 Will The Techno State bring Real Democracy?

Many thought the internet would spawn a Digital democratic utopia: Today, we witness the opposite Hacking elections and Polarizing open societies.

Democracy is not only about Voting but also about having a Voice to articulate what is Needed. Citizens want to participate in the beginning of a project and not only use the result. One of the possibilities is to Vote with the Tax you Pay .

Roslyn Fuller: Citizen Participation in an International Context

Participatory Budgeting (PB) is a democratic process in which community members decide how to spend part of a public budget. It gives people real power over real money.

PB started in Porto Alegre, Brazil, in 1989, as an anti-poverty measure that helped reduce child mortality by nearly 20%.

Since then PB has spread to over 3,000 cities around the world, and has been used to decide budgets from states, counties, cities, housing authorities, schools, and other institutions.

De Bewegende Grens Opnieuw.

Zicht op de Toekonst in 2006. en wat er volgens het SCP nu van is uitgekomen. (4-1-2020).

Hans.Konstapel: Oorspronkelijk Document 8 maart 2006.

Het Model Paths of Change (PoC) van Will Mcwhinney lijkt erg veel op de door Myers en Briggs gemaakte Typologie gebaseerd op de Archetypen van Jung,

1. Inleiding

In dit document worden belangrijke ontwikkelingen in de cultuur in kaart gebracht. De informatie in dit hoofdstuk is overgenomen uit rapporten van het Cultureel Plan Bureau.

De algemene lijn is dat er een einde is gekomen aan het gelijkheidsstreven dat is ontstaan tijdens de Franse Revolutie en de Verlichting.

In deze periode werd de rationaliteit (de objectiviteit) als hoogste goed gezien.

Deze rationaliteit werd geacht de fantasie en de emoties te kunnen besturen. Men verwacht dat men alles kan berekenen en besturen (als een machine).

De bestaande werkwijze in de automatisering (informatisering) komt voort uit dit gelijkheidsstreven (standaardiseren).

In de toekomst wordt het individu en uniekheid veel belangrijker (individualisering).

De mens neemt de verantwoordelijkheid voor zijn eigen leven en kiest zelf. Creativiteit en (intense) emoties gaan een grote rol spelen (intensivering).

Deze ontwikkeling betekent het einde van de staat en de hiërarchisch bestuurde onderneming en alle andere centraal bestuurde concepten. Ze zullen worden vervangen door internationale netwerken van mensen en applicaties die iets met elkaar willen bewerkstelligen.

Netwerken zijn tijdelijke structuren. De onderdelen van het netwerk hergroeperen zich afhankelijk van ontwikkelingen in de context. Duidelijk mag zijn dat het Internet en vooral het Web 2.0. concept goed aansluit bij deze ontwikkeling.

Betrokkenheidgevoelens hebben een hoge prioriteit (dieren, milieu, mensenrechten). In netwerken zijn formele relaties onbelangrijk (informalisering). Het gaat om wederzijds respect voor de uniekheid van de ander en de uitdaging om iets nieuws te bewerkstelligen.

De wereld wordt het speelveld (internationalisering). De netwerken worden natuurlijk enorm gefaciliteerd door de IT en het Internet (informatisering). Door de ITC zullen vele functies worden geïntegreerd tot utilities. Complexe systemen zullen simpel bedienbaar worden.

Samenvattend kan gesteld worden dat in de komende periode vooral de grens in beweging is. De overheden proberen grenzen te stellen (normen en waarden), die door het egoïstische individu en de grote ondernemingen permanent worden overschreden. Om weer tot een samenhang te komen moeten nieuwe grenzen worden afgebakend. De oude grenzen die door landen en ondernemingen werden bepaald werken niet meer. Uiteindelijk zal de nieuwe grens ontstaan doordat er een sprong wordt gemaakt naar een ander niveau van begrenzing, de aarde (Gaya) die nu onder grote druk staat. Dit niveau zal alleen maar worden bereikt als de individualist zich niet opstelt als egoïst maar als altruïst.

De ontwikkeling wordt samengevat in vijf onderling samenhangende trends:

2. Individualisering

Individualisering is het proces van verminderende afhankelijkheid van het individu van een of enkele personen in zijn directe omgeving en van toenemende vrijheid van keuze met betrekking tot de inrichting van het eigen leven. Directe, persoonlijke en volledige afhankelijkheid maakt plaats voor ketens van tijdelijke, functionele, anonieme en partiële afhankelijkheid. De meest passende vorm voor dergelijke ketens is het project[1]. Het aspect van de individuele vrijheid zal sterker benadrukt worden op een heel breed terrein, in het bijzonder op het terrein van de vrijheid in de keuze van sociale zekerheidsarrangementen en arbeidsvoorwaarden. Deel van de individualiseringstendentie is het willen aanvaarden van meer verantwoordelijkheid voor het eigen leven en het eigen levenslot. Men kiest zijn eigen weg.

3. Informalisering

Grenzen vervagen en veranderen permanent. Begrippen hebben vele betekenissen. Indelingen werken niet meer. Alles is meervoudig verbonden en hangt met alles samen (een kluwen). Organisaties krijgen in de 21e eeuw het karakter van netwerken, die in veel opzichten virtueel van aard zullen zijn. Niet lidmaatschap, fysieke aanwezigheid of de juridische relatie zullen de belangrijke criteria van participatie zijn, maar onderling vertrouwen en communicatie. Persoonlijke kenmerken (sekse, leeftijd, ras, seksuele voorkeur), belangstellingen (en niet meer klasse, stand of godsdienst) en betrokkenheidgevoelens (dieren, milieu, mensenrechten) worden de grondslag van een organisatie. Informalisering doet de scheidslijn tussen privé en openbaar, tussen werk en thuis, tussen vrije tijd en arbeid vervagen. Alles loopt vloeiend in elkaar over. Gezagsproblemen zijn een logisch gevolg van informalisering. De bekleding met gezag en de kleding van het gezag roepen niet meer automatisch respect op; het respect moet verdiend worden en dat kan strijd impliceren.

4. Informatisering

De technologische ontwikkeling zal voor een belangrijk deel een geïnformatiseerd karakter hebben. De betekenis van informatie zal veranderen: het gaat niet meer om de beschikbaarheid op zich, want alles is er. Het gaat nu om het kunnen vinden van de juiste informatie, de selectie en het adequaat combineren van deze informatie (copy & combine). Daarmee verandert ook de rol van leren en de maatschappelijke waarde van kennis. Het is niet meer van belang om veel te weten. De versnelling van de verwerkingsmogelijkheden op informaticagebied zullen zich vooral manifesteren in de vorm van een toenemende integratie van functies. Informatisering staat zelf in het teken van innovatie, maar lokt ook elders weer innovaties uit. Het wordt bijna onmogelijk om het effect van dit alles te voorspellen. ICT zal nog goedkoper worden en vooral gemakkelijker in de bediening. Mensen met lage opleiding zullen complexe systemen kunnen bedienen.

5. Internationalisering

Informatisering heft de betekenis van grenzen, afstanden en tijdsverschillen op. Internationalisering staat zowel voor de toenemende invloed van de Europese Unie en het multinationale bedrijfsleven als voor de groeiende oriëntatie op wat elders gebeurt, de participatie in het internationale aanbod aan cultuur en levensstijl. Vele culturen en levensstijlen zullen permanent door elkaar heen gaan lopen. De wereld is een open boek. Internationalisering is zichtbaar in de processen van toerisme en migratie. Beide zullen het beeld van de samenleving in de komende decennia in hoge mate blijven bepalen. Bij internationalisering past economische liberalisering en globalisering. Het vrijemarkt-denken heeft in toenemende consequenties voor terreinen waar tot nu toe nationale grenzen en regionale identiteiten beeldbepalend waren: cultuur, media, gezondheidszorg, welzijnszorg & onderwijs. Alles wordt onderhevig aan marktwerking.

6. Intensivering

Intensivering verwijst naar de veranderende dynamiek en de toenemende betekenis van de belevingscomponent in het moderne leven. Er moet veel meer in één leven en dat meer moet zowel afwisselend als belonend zijn. De beleving van werk, relaties, het eigen leven en het eigen lichaam, vrije tijd, sport enz. staat steeds sterker in het teken van het verlangen naar een intense en intensieve beleving en ervaring. Ontremming door middelengebruik, agressie als groepsgedrag, muziek als kunstvorm bij uitstek, een hoge waardering van seksualiteit en sport zijn de dominante uitdrukkingsvormen. De massamedia spelen daar op in en versterken deze trend. Bij intensivering van beleving en ervaringen hoort ook een sterkere oriëntatie op het eigen gevoel. Dat is in de plaats gekomen van een oriëntatie op eigen belang en de eigen maatschappelijke positie in relatie tot anderen. Het eigen gevoel wordt zo de toetssteen voor wat het leven biedt (‘is het nog leuk?’), maar ook voor de kwaliteit van de omgang met anderen. Dat leidt enerzijds tot een verhoogde vorm van gevoeligheid voor krenkingen, anderzijds tot een versnelde geneigdheid daar in gedrag uiting aan te geven, bijvoorbeeld in de vorm van fysiek geweld. Bij intensivering past ook collectivisering van ervaring: het gezamenlijk deel hebben aan een collectief evenement, juist uit het verlangen naar gemeenschappelijke beleving. Popconcerten, voetbalwedstrijden, demonstraties e.d. ontlenen daar voor een belangrijk deel hun aantrekkingskracht aan.

7.Grenzen overschrijden, stellen, bepalen en afbakenen

Op dit moment is de intensivering de belangrijkste drijvende kracht. Er wordt op vele fronten gestreefd naar extreme combinaties van extremen. Een prachtig voorbeeld is de chipsindustrie. Chips moeten zich steeds sneller aanpassen aan de markt, sneller werken, kleiner worden, een zeer hoge kwaliteit hebben en steeds goedkoper worden.

Door de intensivering ontstaat er een enorme druk op het planmatige handelen (productiemethoden en research). Men moet permanent de grenzen overschrijden.

De kosten om de noodzakelijke doorbraken te kunnen realiseren worden steeds hoger waardoor steeds minder partijen in de race blijven. De intensivering veroorzaakt extreme omstandigheden waardoor alleen extreme structuren kunnen overleven (bv. monopolies). De grote meerderheid sterft af (rat-race).

De intensivering is de motor achter het (neo-)kapitalisme. De ondernemingen die nu nog deel uitmaken van de rat-race zijn, net als de trill-seekers, op zoek naar mogelijkheden om zich aan wetten en regels te ontrekken. Vandaar de trek naar de lage lonen landen en enorme druk die men uitoefent op de overheden om alle belemmeringen weg te nemen. Aangezien de belangrijke spelers internationaal zijn georiënteerd zijn ze moeilijk te besturen door de lokale overheden.

De overheden hebben grote moeite om aan deze ontwikkeling grenzen te stellen. Bijzonder is dat zij dit wel doen ten aanzien van de burgers (verbod op roken, alcohol, drugs, …). Deze acties werken averechts. De burgers zijn niet meer gediend van een centraal regulerende overheid.

De intensivering wordt in stand gehouden omdat de consument gewend is geraakt aan de voordelen van het kapitalistische systeem. Hij kan steeds zonder al te grote problemen zijn steeds extremere behoeften bevredigen.

De ontwikkelingen van het SCP geprojecteert op het PoC-model.

Er is slechts één macht die deze ontwikkeling kan stoppen en dat is wederom de consument.

In dit geval wordt de consument niet aangesproken op zijn zintuigen maar op zijn verantwoordelijkheidsgevoel (rekening houden met de ander).

Hij bepaalt zijn eigen grenzen. De individualisering is op de lange termijn de remmende kracht van de intensivering.

De roep om verantwoordelijkheid dwingt de ondernemingen om maatschappelijk verantwoord te gaan ondernemen.

Deze trend werd eerst als marketinginstrument gebruikt maar de intelligente consument heeft dit snel door.

Integriteit speelt een steeds grotere rol in de beoordeling van de ander.

Individualisering kan leiden tot egoïsme.

Het kan ook leiden tot het omgekeerde, altruïsme.

De egoïst wil alles alleen doen. De altruïst wil samenwerken. Deze samenwerking vindt echter alleen plaats als de relatie met de ander meerwaarde oplevert (complementariteit).

De individualist gelooft heilig in wat hij zelf heeft uitgevonden. Wat anderen vinden of wat door een autoriteit als de absolute waarheid wordt gebracht wantrouwt hij onmiddellijk.

Een altruïst kan echter zeer gelovig zijn. Zijn geloof is echter een persoonlijk geloof en niet het geloof dat door de instituties wordt opgedrongen.

De altruïst gelooft in grote samenhangen (de kosmos, de aarde, de natuur). Hij is een holist[2] bij uitstek. Zijn streven is er op gericht om deze samenhangen te behouden.

8. Wat is in 2019 van uitgekomen?

1. Snel veranderend mediagebruik.

We dachten destijds dat er in 2020 minder zou worden gelezen. Het televisiekijken (de belangrijkste vrijetijdsbesteding van de Nederlander) zou stabiliseren in aantal uren,

maar ook steeds verder verschuiven naar de commerciële zenders, en het ICT-gebruik zou nog steeds in opmars zijn. Hoe jonger, hoe sterker deze trends zouden zijn. Voor de toekomst werd verwacht dat het mediagebruik zowel door eigen bezit als door betere technische mogelijkheden om zelfstandig thuis te programmeren en muziek en beeld vast te leggen, verder zou individualiseren.

‘Streamen bestond nog niet’
Deze voorspelling is uitgekomen. Het grootste verschil is dat het kijken niet zozeer verschoven is naar commerciële zenders, maar naar andere vormen van kijken (streamen, uitgesteld kijken, maar dat waren termen die in 2004 nog niet uitgevonden waren. De meest recente inzichten in mediagebruik zijn overigens te zien in het recent verschenen rapport Media:Tijd.  

2. Het geslacht van je kind kiezen

De helft van de Nederlanders dacht weliswaar dat dit in 2020 zou kunnen, maar ruim 90% gaf ook aan dit (zeer) onwenselijk te vinden.

En dat klopt ook. Want ja, technisch gezien kan het wel, onze moraal is nog niet veranderd. Uit het maatschappelijk debat komt naar voren dat we genderklinieken voor zwangere vrouwen onwenselijk vinden. Verandering van geslacht op volwassen leeftijd (transgenders) heeft inmiddels wel ingang gevonden.

3. Acceptatie rondom euthanasie

Ook over andere grote levensvragen werden uitspraken gedaan: Zo verwachtte 71% dat in 2020 ‘euthanasie algemeen geaccepteerd’  zou zijn. Bijna evenveel mensen (72%) vonden dat ook (zeer) wenselijk.

Ook deze voorspelling is uitgekomen, wanneer het gaat om euthanasie bij ondraaglijk lijden van de persoon. De huidige discussie over levensbeëindiging bij ondraaglijk leven was toen nog niet in beeld.

4. Vereenzaming

Destijds dacht 80% van de bevolking dat in 2020 meer mensen vereenzaamd en vervuild zouden worden aangetroffen en 90% verwachtte dat er dan meer zieke mensen afhankelijk zouden zijn van hun familie. Bovendien vond vrijwel iedereen dat onwenselijk.

Ook deze voorspelling is uitgekomen hoewel vrijwel iedereen dat dus destijds onwenselijk vond.

Het aantal eenzame mensen is toegenomen. De afhankelijkheid van mantelzorgers is eveneens toegenomen. Zie hierover ook ons magazine Mantelzorg.

5. Bevolking kijkt soms rooskleuriger

Opvallend om te zien is dat de bevolking soms wat rooskleuriger naar de toekomst lijkt te kijken, zoals in het geval van behandeling bij ziekten als dementie of kanker. Medici gaven aan geen grote doorbraken in de behandeling van dementie, kanker, reuma en astma te verwachten, in de periode tot 2020. En dat is ook uitgekomen.  De bevolking had daar een heel andere kijk op: volgens 40%-50% zouden dan de oorzaken van deze ziekten bekend zijn en kon genezing ‘meestal volledig’ zijn.

6. Een elektronisch patiëntendossier

Hetzelfde geldt voor een zorgnummer of patiëntendossier. ‘In 2020 zal er zeker per patiënt een uniek zorgnummer en één elektronisch patiëntendossier zijn’, aldus de bevolking. Er is inmiddels een uniek zorgnummer, maar nog geen algemeen patiëntendossier.

7. Internet anywhere, anytime

Het percentage Nederlanders dat thuis toegang heeft tot internet nam toe van 21% in 1998 tot 74% in 2004. De voorspelling was dat 82% van de bevolking in 2007 online zou zijn.

Volgens de CBS publicatie Digitale economie 2007 had in 2004 77% van de personen van 12-74 jaar in particuliere huishoudens thuis toegang tot internet. In 2007 was dat aandeel al gestegen tot 88%. Nu in 2019 is zelfs 97% van de bevolking online (Statline). De verspreiding van internet is zelfs nog iets sneller gegaan dan gedacht. Destijds spitste de discussie zich toe op het hebben van een breedband aansluiting. De eerste iPhone zou in 2006 op de markt komen. In SCR 2004 schreven we destijds: ‘De snelle verspreiding van de mobiele telefoon biedt echter wel zicht op toekomstige mogelijkheden voor een flexibeler internetgebruik.’ Maar dat internetgebruik zo snel anywhere, anytime zou zijn is in SCR 2004 niet voorzien.

8. Bang voor cybercriminaliteit

Zeer veel mensen (87%) hielden er in 2004 rekening mee dat door de ICT-ontwikkelingen de face-to-face dienstverlening zou verdwijnen. Daarnaast was de helft van de bevolking bang voor een information overload en was 82% bang voor cybercriminaliteit.

Er zijn inderdaad veel bankfilialen, postkantoren, loketten met kaartverkoop (bijv. NS) en dergelijke gesloten. Weinig mensen zijn in behandeling voor information overload, maar wel wordt er geklaagd over sociale druk door het gebruik van sociale media en gameverslaving. Cyber criminaliteit is nog steeds iets om bang voor te zijn.

9. We gaan ouder met pensioen

Maar liefst 66% van de bevolking sprak de verwachting uit dat de pensioenleeftijd in 2020 hoger dan 65 jaar zal zijn. En dat is uitgekomen; de pensioenleeftijd is in 2020 66 jaar en 4 maanden.

10. Minder sociale voorzieningen

Bijna driekwart van de bevolking voorspelde dat de sociale zekerheid ‘minder zou worden’. Maar liefst 70 à 80% verwachtte dat uitkeringsgerechtigden, inclusief AOW’ers, meer problemen zullen hebben om van de uitkering rond te komen. Ook dit klopt, de koopkracht van de uitkeringsgerechtigden is achtergebleven bij die van werkenden (zie CBS 2019, Koopkrachtontwikkeling personen; huishoudenskenmerken).

Hadden we het in 2004 dan alleen maar bij het rechte eind? Nee, en dat is ook onmogelijk. Zo dachten we bijvoorbeeld dat we inmiddels zelf konden beslissen of we pensioen wilde opbouwen of niet, dat gepensioneerden ook AOW zouden moeten betalen en dat er een daling in deelname in vrijwilligerswerk zou zijn.

9. Links.

Wat dachten de Babyboomers van de Toekomst?

[1] Een voorbeeld is enorme opkomst van project-koren in plaats van vaste koren. Men doet mee om een bepaald werk uit te voeren. Daarna wordt de intensieve samenwerking weer beëindigd.

[2]Holisme (Grieks: holon: het geheel) is het idee dat de eigenschappen van een systeem niet kunnen worden verklaard door de som van alleen zijn componenten te nemen. Elk geheel ontleent uiteraard kenmerken aan de samenstellende delen, maar ook (en wellicht meer) aan de samenhang of ordening van die delen en hun interactie zie: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holisme

MOVING UP and MOVING DOWN 1999.

Ideas and opinions about the connection between small scale specialized human networks and large scale collaborative IT-technology.

Contents

1. Introduction. 3

2. Smart Customer Networks. 5

3. From Mass Production to Smart Customer Networks. 6

4. From General-Purpose Computers to General-Purpose Technology. 8

4.1. Introduction. 8

4.2. The General Purpose Computer 8

4.3. Integration Problems. 8

4.4. Competing Infrastructures. 9

4.5. General-Purpose Collaboration Technology. 10

5. Understanding the Customer 13

5.1. Introduction. 13

5.2. Mental Space. 13

5.3. Understanding the Mental Space of the Customer 15

6. Specialized Cooperating Human Networks. 18

6.1. Introduction. 18

6.2. The Basic Roles in a Network. 18

6.3. Cooperation. 20

6.4. Innovation, Sharing Ideas. 21

6.5. Connecting Patterns. 21

6.6. Quality Management 21

6.7. Competition. 21

7. Human Scale Technology. 23

7.1. Introduction. 23

7.2. The Basic Human Tools. 23

7.3. The Invisible Servant 25

7.4. From the General-Purpose Computer to the Appliance. 26

8. The Collaboration System.. 27

8.1. Introduction. 27

8.2. Systems, Sensors, Servants and Appliances. 27

8.3. Designing for Change. 29

8.4. The Communication System.. 29

8.5. Reusing Sensors and Comparators, The Cyber Warehouse. 29

8.6. Incorporating Legacy Systems. 29

8.7. The Collaboration System.. 30

8.8. Supporting Specialized Human Networks. 30
1. Introduction

For a long time people believed that, the world had entered a period of sustained growth (the long boom) that could eventually double the world’s economy every dozen years. New waves of technology would lead to big productivity increases that would cause high economic growth.

The long boom assumed an evolutionary process where governments, companies and consumers could easily absorb new waves of technologies. In practice, new technologies act as a shockwave.  Every time when companies become aware of the shockwave (a hype), they react quickly. The wave acts as a threat (the competition will beat us if we don’t act) and at the same time as an attractor (it will generate high benefits for us if we win). Therefore, everybody starts to experiment, sometimes on a very large scale. After a long time best practices emerge and the new technology is absorbed.  At that moment it becomes often clear that the technology has a completely different effect than everybody thought it would have. Most of the time there are many losers and a few winners.

Not many technologies keep their promise (e.g. Client/Server, E-Commerce). The frequency of shockwaves is much higher than the absorption time of the new technology. The effect is that companies are in many stages of adoption at the same time. More and more managers are very skeptic and hesitant to start a new absorption wave. They are left with many layers of software. Some of the software-layers are so old that almost nobody knows what is does or how to get rid of it. Most of the companies first want to clean the mess of all the waves that hit their company before they start with something new. The big problem is that the software-industry never stops to launch new shockwaves and nobody knows for sure if the new wave (perhaps for the first time) will keep its promise or his threat.

Behind the scene, something else is happening. Western culture is encountering a paradigm shift. Slowly the era of rationalism is ending.  The rationalists were obsessed by objectivity and perfection. In their view, objectivity and perfection can only be accomplished by controlling the subjective parts, the emotions (detracting the brain) and the imagination (creating illusions) by the logical reasoning of the intelligent calculating machine, the brain. The rationalists created the big corporations (with the brain at the top), the general-purpose computer (with the brain in the operating system) and the standardized mass production systems that eliminated the craftsman and replaced him with the perfect objective human, the robot. The brain is not capable to understand the effects of his interventions in nature and society anymore. His aim to control has the opposite effect. Nature and society are complex systems with many unknown short-term and long-term feedback loops.

The new paradigm takes its metaphors out of biology. The world consists of numerous networks of cooperating and competing human agents. A network is uniquely determined by its human- and technology-patterns. These patterns act as an imaginary boundary. They shield the network from changes in the environment.  New participants have to learn to use the technology and the internal procedures to survive in the network. The behavior of the human participants in a network changes slowly. When they do not like the network, they move to another. Human members come and go but the technology-patterns of the network stay alive.

On a high level, we can see that the opening of a new space of possibilities causes the movement of all the networks. When one of the networks moves into the new space, others have to follow in due time. The movement of a network can be slowed down by physical boundaries (islands, mountains), physical space itself (traveling) and cultural boundaries (languages).

The invention of symbols opened up mental space. It caused a major change in human society by enabling the creation of writing, mathematics and the development of the automatic calculator, the Computer. The Internet is opening a vast new space (Cyberspace) of new opportunities on two levels. It makes new technology-patterns possible and it facilitates the bridging of human networks (communication). The last factor will speed up of the movement of networks heavily. New networks and new patterns of behavior (products, services, cultures) will arise (and fade away) that nobody has ever imagined.

The Internet is enabling a level of collaborative creativity that was not possible before. The corporations try to manage the collaborative creativity by giving the customer a choice (mass customization), speeding up the product development processes by introducing advanced systems of product life cycle management and involve the customer in de product-design (customer-innovation). Outside the corporations, consumers and small flexible specialized companies merge spontaneously into networks that produce unique products that carry the signature of the craftsman again.  In the future big corporations, consumers and small-scale businesses will merge and create a completely new business-ecology.

The Internet and its new general purpose technology-patterns will make it possible to move down to the human scale of cooperation, the network. By connecting the networks, the world will move up to a level of collaboration that was never possible before in history.

2. Smart Customer Networks

When a customer connects his multimedia PC, using a broadband connection (e.g. ADSL), to the Internet an enormous amount of possibilities confront him.  He can download and share software, music and movies, buy almost everything he wants for the lowest price (often for free), arrange his own holiday, learn more about a subject than a specialist, join a specialized community and communicate (without using the telephone-network) with his friends, colleagues and family everywhere in the world by means of text, voice or video.

To make use of all the possibilities of the Internet the customer has to learn new skills. He learns a lot by trial and error. When he is in trouble friends and relatives that are more advanced help him. After some time the customer becomes an experienced user of the Internet. He changes into a smart customer and becomes a trusted expert in his field of interest. Every time when he finds out a new possibility, he communicates it to his network. The people that trust his expertise join him to use the new feature in a very short time.

Smart customers become smart citizens when they want to use political pressure to accomplish something. They join or create pressure groups. When a smart customer gets sick he becomes a smart patient. He searches the Internet to find the cause of his problems, joins a community of people with the same illness, asks an expert for advice and gives all the information he has gathered to his general practitioner or his medical specialist. There he negotiates his treatment. If he does not get the medicine he wants he is able to buy it somewhere on the Internet.

Most of the companies and government agencies cannot capture the smart consumer. He is navigating from vendor to vendor, from one pressure group to another, always looking for the best fit. The needs of this kind of customer are constantly changing and expanding. Smart customers are not only buying services in the network, they are inventing, developing and selling their own products combining components from different vendors.

Smart customers can save a company and governments a lot of money. They take over the activities of high paid specialists. Vendors that understand this issue, cooperate with the customer in every stage of their processes. They let them sell the product (through their personal network), make it possible to assemble their own combinations, give them information about the state of the process, help them to enhance their network and skills and let them even participate in the development of new products.

Not everybody has the time, the money, the facilities, the network or the capabilities to make optimal use of all the opportunities of the Internet. The number of smart consumers and the amount of smart customer networks is growing very rapidly. They are leading a new revolution that will change the marketplace and eventually every aspect of our culture.

3. From Mass Production to Smart Customer Networks

The Industrial age is the age of mass production. The Taylor school of management dominated the organization of business. Taylor believed one should manage people (and customers) in the same way one manages inanimate assets and the machines on which people work. Mechanization and standardization of components and interfaces, careful supervision of quality standards, and minute division of labor characterize the mass production process itself. The division of labor was accomplished by breaking down work into simple, repetitive tasks eliminating unnecessary motion and limiting the handling of different tools and parts. The consequent reduction in production time and the ability to replace craftsmen with lower-paid, unskilled workers or even robots resulted in lower production costs and a less expensive final product.

After the phase of mass production, the industry is now in the phase of mass customization. By carefully standardizing it is possible to make a distinction between components that customers like to vary (mostly visible) and parts that are part of the essential  (invisible) infrastructure. A good example is the production line of Dell computers where customers can choose their own configuration.

A next step is to involve the customer in the design-process of the product (Customer Innovation). Companies like BMW or Audi give customers already access to innovation platforms where average drivers are invited to create the next generation of cars.

The move from Mass Production to Smart Customer Networks is the move from one united production and sales model aimed at the customer, to a network-model involving the customer in all stages. The challenge is to combine large-scale mass-production with small-scale user-involvement.  It will be impossible to coordinate all the processes from one single point of control. Many coordinators have to synchronize their activities.

Manufacturers, retailers and customers have to act together in a collaboration network. Retailers and suppliers have to maintain customer relationships by sharing customers, margins, and intangibles like brand, as well as jointly planning marketing, merchandising, and sales activities and becoming more like companions (in a good marriage) than master and servant.

Mass Customization and Customer Innovation puts a high strain on the customer. The amount of choices a customer has to make is constantly increasing. The number of possible combinations of components that relate to a product and to a combination of components of different products will soon surpass the complexity a human being can handle. People simply do not have the time and the cognitive capacity to make all the choices that are needed. This problem can only be resolved when product-developers take the capabilities of the complete human cognition system into account.

Mass Customization and Customer Innovation give the customer a small stake in the business cycle. The customer is treated as a consumer and not as a co-producer. All the major design-decisions are still made by the executives in the corporation. In the future customers want to be treated on an even footing.

If customers really get frustrated, they can generate an enormous collective power. With this power, they can change the policies of a corporation (e.g. the Brent Spar affair of Shell) or even take over the complete business cycle. An example is the Open Source Movement where a network of programmers wanted to destroy the monopoly of the big software corporations on operating systems. They developed a new free-ware operating system called Linux. The corporations are now trying to stop this fatal development by taking over the commercializing of the product (Red Hat) and by fighting the developers in court because they have infringed their patents.

A war between consumers united in Smart Customer Networks and the Big Corporations is not in the benefit of both the competitors. They have to cooperate and combine their expertise. The big problem is that organizations, supply chains and their supporting systems were never designed to be demand driven. The challenge is to find an evolutionary path where a new fully collaborative infrastructure cooperates with the existing legacy-systems and business-processes.

4. From General-Purpose Computers to General-Purpose Technology

4.1. Introduction

The IT-Industry has evolved in nearly 50 years. In that timeframe, it became the most influential business in the Industry. Everybody is completely dependent on the computer and its software. The IT-Industry has gone through various technology waves. The waves generated integration problems that were solved by the construction of abstraction layers. The layers not only solved problems. They also created new problems that were solved by other layers. The effect of all intertwining layers is an almost incomprehensible, not manageable, software-complex. The main reason behind this development is the architecture of the general-purpose computer. It was developed to control and not to collaborate. The Internet makes it possible to leave the prison of the general-purpose computer and to move to a new collaborative infrastructure that supports general-purpose IT-Technology.

4.2. The General Purpose Computer

Charles Babbage invented the first computer (the Difference Engine) in 1833. Babbage wanted to automate the calculation of mathematical tables. His engine consisted of four parts called the mill (the Central Processing Unit, the Operating System), the Store (the database), the Reader, and the Printer. The machine was steam-driven and run by one attendant. The Reader used punched cards. Babbage invented a programming-language and a compiler to translate symbols into numbers. He worked together with the first programmer, Lady Lovelace who invented the term bug (a defect in a program). The project of Babbage stopped because nobody wanted to finance him anymore.

It was not until 1954 that a real (business-) market for computers began to emerge by the creation of the IBM 650. The machines of the early 1950s were not much more capable than Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine of the 1830s. Around 1964 IBM gave birth to the general-purpose computer, the mainframe, in its 360-architecture (360 means all-round). The 360/370-architecture is one of the most durable artifacts of the computer age. It was so successful that it almost created a monopoly for IBM. Just one company, Microsoft, has succeeded to beat IBM by creating the general-purpose computer for the consumer (the PC).

IBM and Microsoft are both protecting their markets by developing technology that is difficult to connect. Both are moving to the same area, the connection-point between the PC and the Mainframe (the Server), creating tremendous integration problems.

4.3. Integration Problems

Programming a computer in machine code is very difficult. To hide the complexity a higher level of abstraction  (a programming language) was created that shielded the complexity of the lower layer (the machine code). A compiler translated the program back to the machine code.  Three languages (Fortran, Algol and COBOL) were constructed. They covered the major problem-area’s (Industry, Science and Banking) of that time.

When the problem-domains interfered, companies were confronted with integration problems. IBM tried to unify all the major programming-languages (COBOL, Algol and Fortran) by introducing a new standard language, PL1. This approach failed. Companies did not want to convert all their existing programs to the new standard and programmers got accustomed to a language. They did not want to loose the experience they had acquired. Integration by standardizing on one language has been tried many times  (Java, C-Sharp). It will always fail for the same reasons. All the efforts to unify produce the opposite effect, an enormous diversity of languages.

To cope with this problem a new abstraction layer was invented. The processes and data-structures of a company were analyzed and stored in a repository (an abstraction of a database). The program-generator made it possible to generate programs in all the major languages. It was not possible to re-engineer all the legacy-systems to this abstraction-level. To solve this problem a compensating integration-layer, Enterprise Architecture Integration, was designed

The PC democratized IT. Millions of consumers bought their own PC and started to develop applications using the tools available. They were not capable to connect their PC’s to the mainframe and to acquire the data they needed out of the central databases of the company. New integration layers (Client-Server Computing and Data-Warehouses) were added.

Employees connected their personal PC to the Internet and found out that they could communicate and share software with friends and colleagues all over the world. To prohibit the entrance of unwanted intruders, companies shielded their private environment by the implementation of firewalls. Employees were unable to connect their personal environment with their corporate environment. A new integration problem, security, became visible and has to be solved.

It looks like every solution of an integration problem creates a new integration problem in the future.

4.4. Competing Infrastructures

The process of creating bridges to connect disconnect layers of software is going on and on. The big problem is that the bridges were not created out of a long time perspective. They were created bottom up, to solve an urgent problem.

IT-technology shows all the stages of a growing child. At this moment, companies have to manage and to connect many highly intermingled layers related to almost every step in the maturing process of the computer and its software. Nobody understands the functionality of the whole and can predict the combined behavior of all the different parts. The effort to maintain and change a complex software-infrastructure is increasing exponentially.

The IT Industry has changed his tools and infrastructure so often that the software-developer had to become an inventor. He is constantly exploring new technical possibilities not able to stabilize his craft. When a developer is used to a tool he does not want to replace it with another. Most developers do not get the time to gain experience in the new tools and technologies. They have to work in high priority projects. Often the skills that are needed to make use of the new developments are hired outside. The effect is that the internal developers are focused on maintaining the installed base and get further behind. In the end, the only solution that is left is to outsource the IT-department creating communication problems.

After more than 40 years of software-development, the complexity of the current IT-environment has become overwhelming. The related management costs are beginning to consume any productivity gain that they may be achieving from new technologies. It is almost impossible to use new technology because 70 to 90% of the IT budget is spent on keeping existing systems running. If new functionality is developed, only 30% of the projects are successful. If the complexity to develop software is not reduced, it will take 200 million highly specialized workers to support the billion people and businesses that will be connected via the Internet.

4.5. General-Purpose Collaboration Technology

In the manufacturing industry, the principles of generalization and specialization are visible. Collaboration makes it possible to create flexible standards and a general-purpose infrastructure to support the standards. When the infrastructure is established, competition and specialization starts. Cars use a standardized essential infrastructure that makes it possible to use standardized components from different vendors. Car vendors are not competing on the level of the essential infrastructure. The big problem is that IT-Industry is still fighting on the level of the essential infrastructure, blocking specialization. To keep their market share the software has to stay in the abstraction framework (the general purpose architecture) they are selling and controlling.

A new collaborative IT-infrastructure is arising that is able to solve the current integration problems. The new infrastructure makes it possible to specialize and simplify programs (now called services). Specialized messages (comparable to the components in the car industry), transported over the Internet, connect the services. This approach makes it much easier to change the connections between the services.

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), founded in October 1994, is leading the development of this new collaborative infrastructure. W3C has a commitment to look after the interest of the community instead of business. The influence of W3C is remarkable.   The big competitive IT-companies in the market were more or less forced to use the standards created by the consortium. They were unable to create their own interpretation because the standards are produced as open source software.

The basis of the new collaborative foundation is XML (eXtensible Markup Language). XML is a flexible way to create “self-describing data” and to share both the format (the syntax) and the data on the World Wide Web. XML describes the syntax of information.

XML has enabled a new general-purpose technology-concept, called Web-Services. The concept is comparable to the use of containers in intermodal shipping. A container enables the transport a diversity of goods (data, programs, content) from one point to another point. At the destination, the container can be opened. The receiver can rearrange the goods and send them to another place. He can also put the goods in his warehouse and add value by assembling a new product. When the product is ready it can be send with a container to other assembly lines or to retailers to sell the product to consumers.

Web-Services use the following standards:

  • SOAP

SOAP is the container. It standardizes the exchange of envelopes containing data, programs and content. 

  • WSDL

WSDL (Web Services Definition Language) enables a flexible software-assembly-process. It does this by standardizing the Application Program Interface (API’s).  API’s are used to connect software-components (now called Services).

  • UDDI

UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery and Integration) identifies the appropriate warehouse, where Services are stored.  

  • URI

URI (Uniform Resource Locator) identifies the computer where a resource can be located. A resource can be a page of text, a video or sound clip, a still or animated image, or a program.

Web-Services facilitate the flow of complex data-structures (services, data, content) through the Internet. Services, can rearrange data-structures, ad value by combining them with other data-structures and can send the result to other services. 

All kinds of specialized data-structures are defined that are meant to let specialized services act on them. An example is taxation (XML TC). XML TC (a part of the Oasis standards organization) focuses on the development of a common vocabulary that will allow participants to unambiguously identify the tax related information exchanged within a particular business context. The benefits envisioned will include dramatic reductions in development of jurisdictionally specific applications, interchange standards for software vendors, and tax agencies alike. In addition, tax-paying constituents will benefit from increased services from tax agencies. Service providers will benefit due to more flexible interchange formats and reduced development efforts. Lastly, CRM, payroll, financial and other system developers will enjoy reduced development costs and schedules when integrating their systems with tax reporting and compliance systems.

Web-Services are the next shockwave that is bringing the IT-community into a state of fear and attraction. Their promise is lower development cost, and a much simpler architecture. Their threat is that the competition will make a better use of all the new possibilities. The same pattern emerges. Their installed base of software slows most of the companies down. They will react by first creating an isolated software-environment and will have big problems in the future to connect the old part with the new part. 

Web-Services will generate a worldwide marketplace for services. They are now a threat to all the current vendors of big software-packages. In essence, they have to rewrite all their legacy-software and make a split in generic components (most of them will be available for free) and essential services users really want to pay for. Big software-vendors will transform themselves into specialized market places (service-portals) where users can find and make use of high quality services. Other vendors will create advanced routing-centers where messages will be translated and send to the appropriate processor.

It will be difficult for small service-providers to get the attention and the trust of companies and consumers to make use of their services.  They will join in collaborative networks that are able to promote and secure their business. It is impossible to see if they will survive in the still competitive environment where big giants still have an enormous power to influence and a lot of money to create new services. If the big giants succeed, history will repeat itself. The new emerging software-ecology will slowly loose its diversity.

Web-services are an example of the principles of mass-customization and customer innovation. All the software-vendors are restructuring their big chunks of software into components that can be assembled to create a system. Small competitors and even customers will also create components. In due time the number of possible combinations of components that are able to create the same functionality will surpass the complexity a human (or a collective of human beings) can handle. We are faced with the same problem we encountered in Chapter 3. To solve this problem we have to find out what differs humans from machines.

5. Understanding the Customer

5.1. Introduction

Until now, this paper was focused on new developments in IT-technology. The last decade the rational approach has dominated the human being. In the next chapters, we will show what can be done to create technology that considers the human scale.   In the approach of Taylor and Ford, the employees and customers are treated as programmable machines.  The focus was on a perfect coordination of the senses, the muscles and the production system (the assembly line).  The emotions and the imagination were neglected. In mass customization, the emotions are involved. In customer innovation, the imagination is imperative. In a demand oriented system all the parts of the human cognitive system have to play a role in a coherent and balanced way. In this chapter a model of the individual human cognitive system (Mental Space) is presented that will be expanded to the group and the collective level in the next chapters.

5.2. Mental Space

The human body acts on its environment with messages and action-patterns. The incoming and outgoing messages are observed by the senses and transformed to an internal format. The internal communication system sends the messages to the appropriate place in the body. The emotions are always looking for danger. They want to control the priority of the actions to make it possible for the body to react immediately. The imagination creates an image of the outside world and helps the body to generate scenario’s to improve its action-patterns. 

  • The Senses

The senses are the connection to the physical outside world. They shield the human being from the enormous amount of signals that are trying to enter the body. They filter incoming data and transform the data in a standard internal format. When the senses detect an event, it is evaluated by the emotions. If the event is not important, nothing happens. It the event is unusual it becomes aware in the conscious. Events that are highly repeating are not noticed after some time. An internal program (an action-pattern) automates the handling of the event.

The muscles act in physical space. They acquire an enormous amount of reaction-patterns by repeated practicing. Humans learn from their failures. When the senses detect an event, many appropriate patterns are located and enabled. 

When the patterns enter mental space, they change into models. Complicated patterns are compressed into models. Humans use all kinds of compression techniques to make the world compact and therefore more understandable. Static models (e.g. an organization contains employees) compress the world in wholes (nouns) and parts (attributes). They create identities. Dynamic models (the employee sells a product) compress causal chains (event, actor, result). They make it possible to reason.

Models behave the same way as sensors do in physical space. They shield the mental space of the human being from the enormous amount of ideas that the imagination is producing.

The emotions act on hostile and friendly forces. They shield the body from physical injuries (avoiding pain) and take care of the self re-production process of the body (looking for food and a sexual partner).

The emotional system determines the amount of resources that is allocated to the evaluation and the search for adequate action patterns. If an event is dangerous, all resources in the body are used. The body reacts without thinking and uses a biological inherited and fast pattern (fight, flight, freeze, the primary emotions). If there is enough time to react, the emotional system evaluates its preferences and enables the preferred actions-patterns.

If the preferences are related to a long-term perspective, they enter mental space and the human has a choice to make. In the evaluation of long-term preferences, the other plays an important role. People want to take care of the other (family, friends, children), are afraid to get in to a conflict (dominance, status) and want to be praised by the other for what they are accomplishing.

Humans imagine (by creating pictures connected with feelings) what events they like to happen (a wish). When they are pessimistic, they imagine what events they do not want to happen (a fear).  The imagination is the innovative part of the human mental space that generates all kinds of new connections (ideas). The imagination is also the most free to play with new ideas. People can simulate and practice in their imagination without getting into trouble. The imagination produces the idea of the identity.

The imagination uses visual metaphors to create an understandable world. On the lowest level the metaphors are connect to the action patterns. The image of a cup is connected to picking up the cup, holding the cup and moving the cup. New structures are blended with old familiar structures. Many metaphors make use of the human understanding of technology.  Freud based his theory of the unconsciousness on his understanding of the steam-machine (“I am steamed up with emotions”). Many theories of the mind are based on the metaphor of the computer. People always relate new phenomena to something they already understand. They sometimes do this (in the eyes of others) in very strange ways.  A skilful teacher knows this and tries to find the bridge (the right metaphor, a story) between his world and the world of the student.

The way the human collaboration system works is comparable to the way web-services are communicating using the SOAP-standard.  In the human body, all the sub-systems (e.g. the services, the organs) are connected by shared communication-channels. There are fast (the nervous system) and slow reacting shared channels (the endocrine system). All the sub-systems use specific messenger-molecules to communicate their actions and act on incoming messengers.  Messengers materialize with every thought we create and with every emotion we feel. When a messenger enters the boundary of a sub-system, (e.g. a cell) it triggers messengers that are specific for that sub-system.

The action patterns make the muscles move according to a movements-plan that is stored in memory. The movement-plans of the muscles enable people to walk, to work (using tools) and to talk. In this last case, people communicate their intentions. The human communication contains a complicated mix of signals that are related to the emotions (e.g. visual expressions, gestures), the patterns (assertions) and the imagination (visual images, ideas).

5.3. Understanding the Mental Space of the Customer

People resist change. The patterns they have acquired control their behavior and determine their potential. People do not want to change their patterns dramatically. They want to acquire new patterns (by doing) without noticing the change. Only a major event (a critical moment), mostly with negative impact, can have a radical effect. If this event happens it takes a very long time to recover and get into harmony again. When people have to adjust their patterns too often, they experience stress and on the long run get sick.

If people cannot adjust their patterns, they have to involve the other parts of the cognitive system. When they involve the emotions, they have to set priorities and make a choice. People do not like making choices. They are incapable of evaluating all the possibilities. They can also make use of the senses and look at the real opportunities in the outside world. People are almost incapable of doing this because their imagination produces the images it wants to see. If the imagination really faces the facts, the identity is attacked. It feels powerless and unable to control his path of destiny. The last possibility a human has is to adjust the imagination. He has to realize that the possibilities he imagined were just illusions.

If everything stays the same, people get bored. They hope that an event will occur that relates to their wishes. People are the most satisfied if their environment produces just enough change (a challenge) they can cope with. They want a balance between the will (what they want, the imagination, variation) and their capabilities (what they are able to do, predictability, the patterns, their skills).

In a perfect demand oriented economy, a supplier has to provide a challenge to the customer. To provide this challenge the supplier has to understand the wishes and the fears (the imagination) of the customer, his behavior (the patterns) and the balance between the two parts. If the customer is out of balance the supplier has to help the customer to acquire new patterns (learning), help him to make a choice (advice) or show him the real opportunities (scenario’s) taking care of the customers identity.  

It is very difficult for a supplier to get accurate information. Most people are unable to make their behavioral patterns conscious. When people are asked about their opinion (an aspect of the emotions), they often do not want to offend the other and give proper answers. People only want to share their most secret wishes with people they trust (partner, family, friends). Correct information about the customer can only be acquired by carefully observing and analyzing the activities of the customer (what he is doing).  It is completely impossible for a company to observe the activities of all their customers. The only one who can do this is the customer himself.

Customers can observe their activities if they were able to gather personal activity-patterns, get the opportunity to analyze their behavior, and share their activity-patterns with others to get an advice. Most of the needed data is somewhere already available (patient records, buying behavior, payments etc) or can be made available by making connections to the tools the consumer is using in his personal- and work-environment (Emails, Content). The only thing that has to happen is that companies and government agencies make these patterns, which are most of the time privately owned by the customer, available.

It can be envisioned that in the far future all personal data is kept in a private space. Only the customer (the owner) can make the data available to others. This approach would prevent many problems in the current situation (e.g. spam). The last step in a perfect rational demand oriented system is reached when the personal activity-patterns are automatically transformed in standardized need-messages that are sent out to appropriate providers. It will be clear that the full realization of this concept will take a very long time.

Smart Customer Networks make it possible to use the group and not the individual as the level of communication and interaction. An open dialogue in a group gives the individual the opportunity to look in the mirror of the other and make his challenges more conscious. Others are able to observe every aspect of a person. Shared challenges give a group a common goal.

6. Specialized Cooperating Human Networks

6.1. Introduction

People have to cooperate to survive. Children need their parents to nurture and teach them. Parents need the help of their children when they are old. The basic principle behind cooperation is long-term reciprocity. People give something voluntary and sometimes for free to others or help the other trusting they get something of the same value back in the future. To survive people have to have a long-term perspective. They have to sustain their environment and the supporting infrastructures to make sure that there are enough people and tools to help them when they are old.

The need to survive created the basic level concept of cooperation (the tribe). The tribe transformed into higher and more complex levels of cooperation (town, guild, state, corporation) when human society evolved.

To coordinate the complex structures the mental concept of the many leveled hierarchy was formed. This concept fails when the environment of the organizational structure becomes turbulent. Hierarchies adapt too slowly to their environment. At this moment, hierarchies are falling apart in cooperating self-sustaining specialized network. The networks are gaining control over many activities that are now taking place at the level of the big corporation and the state.

This chapter contains a description of the basic roles in a specialized network. It describes the way networks can be connected and formulates the ways the members in the network have to cooperate to sustain the network.

6.2. The Basic Roles in a Network

A specialized network produces activities and products that are consumed by other specialized networks. To realize the output people have to play complementary roles. The basic roles can be constructed by a combination of two of the components in the human mental space described in Chapter 5.

When we use the four components of the mental space, we can distinguish six basic roles:

  • Craftsmen (Senses, Patterns)

A craftsman has acquired experience by practicing. Craftsmen do not like too much change. Change requires new practicing and keeps him from producing.  A craftsman loves to make what he sees. He learns by copying. Examples are carpenters, painters, musicians, technicians and programmers. The craftsmen are the producers in the network. In many cases, programmable machines can replace their activities. Craftsmen use specialized tools. If their processes are standardized a process-model can be used to coordinated their activities.

  • Entrepreneur (Senses, Emotions)

An entrepreneur feels what preferences people have. Examples are retailers and brokers. Entrepreneurs sell the products the network is producing and buy products the network needs. They also are the people that negotiate contracts and make connections to other specialized networks. Entrepreneurs use technologies like relationship-management-tools and procurement-systems.

  • Politicians (Emotions, Patterns)

A politician structures collective emotions by creating consensus. He feels the opinions of the collective, has the gift to influence opinions, and gets people into collaborative action.   A politician looks after the social cohesion in the network. He uses opinion polls and media.

  • Creators (Imagination, Patterns)

A creator visualizes the whole of a structure. A creator can balance variety (his imagination) and predictability (the patterns). Examples are composers, architects and designers. A creator designs the machines and the products the network is producing.

  • Motivator (Emotions, Imagination)

A motivator visualizes what makes people move forward. Motivators develop concepts.  Many of them operate in the media (actors, writers, poets and movie-directors). Motivators cannot live without variety. Other examples are coaches and psychiatrist. A motivator looks after the long-term perspective of the network by creating and implementing a shared vision.

  • Inventors (Senses, Imagination)

An inventor makes sense of his imagination. Inventors generate ideas and create prototypes (R&D). They use brainstorming tools and analyze trends.

The roles are not evenly distributed in the network. The majority of the people play the role of the producer, the craftsman. In the current situation, the basic roles are concentrated in specialized corporations (e.g. media, retail, production-plants) or   staff-department of big corporations. Many high talented people are already leaving the big corporations and take part of specialized networks. The amount of one-person-companies is increasing.

6.3. Cooperation

People can cooperate with persons that share with them one of their basic cognitive components. An entrepreneur can convince a craftsman what products people he has to sell. They are both practical people (the senses). A creator (e.g. an architect) can show a craftsman what to make. They share a focus on structure (patterns). When complementary roles are working in a cooperative environment, they join their forces in an open dialogue. This dialogue has many stages ranging from brainstorming (inventors take the lead) to realizing material structures (craftsman work together with creators).

Politicians, entrepreneurs and motivators can only perform if they are able to observe and express emotions (visual expressions, gestures). To ensure a successful cooperation they have to meet. New technologies like video-conferencing make it possible to cooperate anytime, any-place and anywhere. 

6.4. Innovation, Sharing Ideas

To collaborate people have to communicate face to face. In a competition patents (legal actions) and secrecy (rules and walls) shield ideas to prevent the competitor to take the lead.  In cooperation, ideas are shared to sustain the network.

The most used model in communication is the sender/receiver-model.  People send and receive content (e.g. email, documents, pictures, plans, designs) Specialized networks need advanced content-management systems to support this model of communication.

The sender/receiver-model supposes that the brain converts ideas directly into words and that another person can easily draw out the meaning of the ideas from the words. It assumes little effort to understand or interpret what is being conveyed. The sender/receiver-model only works if there is a high level of common conceptual understanding (a shared model) between all the people involved in the communication process. In reality, this is mostly not the case especially when experts (inventors, craftsman and creators) are communicating with laymen (entrepreneurs, motivators and politicians). The dialogue between an expert and a layman is often a monologue. The expert confuses the layman with all his knowledge and the layman is not capable of asking the right questions. In the end, the layman stops asking questions and accepts the situation. 

The sender/receiver-model reduces a specialized network to a production-process. The model lowers the social cohesion (politicians), reduces the external cooperation (entrepreneurs) and removes the long-term perspective of the network (motivators).

People have to invest time to understand (ask unsophisticated questions) and explain their ideas (inventions) in many ways. It also takes time to generate trust. Ideas of others have to be tried out (in the imagination or in the real world) to understand them. People have to have the opportunity to fail and learn from their mistakes. Sometimes they generate personal inventions that can be given back to the others to create reciprocity. Eventually ideas create new personal patterns that can be shown and praised by others.  Collaboration does not take place instantly but evolves in a cycle where the pleasure of finding things out is the motivator.

6.5. Connecting Patterns

Specialized networks can connect their production- and design-process by exchanging content, products, data-structures and transactions using the Internet.

6.6. Quality Management

Specialized networks can share experience and improve their behavior.

6.7. Competition

When people are pessimistic and afraid the other becomes the enemy. They shield themselves from the outside world by creating fixed boundaries (walls). To make sure that they get something in return they use a threat (e.g. physical force, the legal system). Before they start, they have to spend time to prevent a possible conflict (making contracts, detailed specifications). When people trust each other, they cannot wait to start.

The fear of losing something (possessions, status, existence) changes a collaborative relationship into a battle. In a competition, the focus is on winning and selfishness. Fear has a negative impact on the senses (tunnel view), the emotions (stress) and the imagination (creativity block). In a competition, priority is given to stay in front and to prohibited possible actions of the enemies. To win one has to predict and control by defining strict rules and make sure that people obey the rules. Internal and external competition finally kills a cooperative relationship. To prevent the move from cooperation to competition people have to sustain a free and open communicate-process.

7. Human Scale Technology

7.1. Introduction

Humans are the most advanced toolmakers in nature. The main reason is that they are the less specialized organisms. They need tools to survive. People are also the most complex organisms in nature. This complexity makes it possible to invent new possibilities and to work with specialized tools and animals (horse, cow, hammer, car, computer).

All the time people have tried to make a better living by inventing new tools. If the basic needs were met (food, housing, health, safety), people got the time to get their emotional system into balance (love, self-esteem) and satisfy their imagination (play, explore, self-actualization).

At this moment, the amount of leisure-time to enjoy family life, relax, play and explore is going down. The number of people with heavy levels of stress is growing. The pressure on the emotions is increased by the current state of technology. The tools have overlapping functionality, take too much of the attention, do not communicate with each other and dominate the human being.  

Tools have to be integrated completely in the cognitive system of the human being. If a tool takes over a part of the sensory-motor system (glasses, hammer, car) the imagination has to learn a new way to create the outside world. In the end, after practicing, people become united with their hammer or their car. They are not aware that they are carrying their glasses. If people have to practice too long or the tool is constantly intervening in their workflow the emotions get involved. They get frustrated and angry.  

7.2. The Basic Human Tools

When we use cognitive model of chapter 5, we can distinguish the basic human tools. In this document, they are called mover, memory, sensor, comparator, advisor and simulator. The tools were first invented to support basic human activities like talking, moving, looking and hearing, remembering and learning. In a later stage of development, the use of the tools generated a new space of exploration. In this space, new tools emerged. The invention of symbols started the exploration of Mental Space. Program Languages, Telecommunication and especially the Internet has opened up a new space to explore, called Cyberspace. 

  • Advisor or Master

Advisors and masters involve the emotions. An advisor helps to make a choice or to set priorities. A master (e.g. a physician, teacher, manager) makes a choice for a person. The Cyberspace version of the master and the advisor is the Expert System. It uses advanced ways of pattern-recognition (e.g. Neural Networks).

  • Simulator

Simulators stimulate the imagination. Theaters and movies are examples of passive simulators.  Games are actively involving many people. The Cyberspace version of the active simulator is the Collaborative Computer Game. The passive form can be seen in the Movie and the Television-program.

  • Memory

A memory archives the results of an internal or external dialogue. In the beginning, human communication was only verbal. Important issues to remember were incorporated in stories that were told from one generation to the other. When people specialized their activities, they needed a method (bookkeeping) to keep track of all the transfers. People invented symbols and the external memory to do this.  The writing-symbols made it possible to share and exchange memories (letters, books) without talking. Writing enabled the movement of memories. The library was invented to store the external memories and protect them from fading away. Cyberspace is filled with the versions of static and moving memory called the Electronic Message (Email, Transaction) and the Database. 

  • Mover

Movers were the first tools used in human society. A mover is an extension of the muscles. The first generation was invented to help the human move in physical space. Examples are hammers, cows, horses, steam-machines, cars, bicycles and robots. The next generation supported the movement of symbols (e.g. moving numbers) in mental space. The Difference Engine of Charles Babbage was invented to automate the calculation of mathematical tables. The most advance version of the mover, the telecommunication network, enables the movement of external memory’s in cyberspace.

  • Sensor 

Sensors transform and filter data. Glasses and hearing aids were invented to support people when they get old.  Humans looked at the stars and invented the telescope. In a later stage very advanced sensors were developed (Radio-telescope, MRI). They use complex statistical calculations to filter and transform the sampled data into pictures or sounds.

  • Comparator

Human survival and learning is based on comparing data and acting on the result. A comparator acts on an exception. To compare data a measurement instrument is needed and a agreement about the object of measure.

Human beings started to measure time and space a long time ago. It was needed to navigate and to predict the movement of the stars. In the first phase, the human body was used as a measure-instrument of space and the cycle of the sun and the moon as a measurement for time. The big problem with this approach was that every person and every place on earth came up with a different measurement and a different time. When the human networks started to connect, standardization on a global level became necessary.  The process of standardization of time and space took many ages. It needed numerous inventions in technology to support the process. The measure-instruments changed from mechanical devices (the clock) to software-devices.   

7.3. The Invisible Servant

A servant coordinates the activities of sensors, comparators and movers. Servants take over repetitive patterns.  Humans find these activities boring (not imaginative). A servant has to act invisible (a black box). When the use of a servant is prohibited, humans get frustrated. It has to be there all the time and do its job inconspicuous. With the help of the comparator and the sensor, the servant has to detect events and take appropriate action (coordinated movements, action patterns).

The big problem at this moment is the visibility and the interference of the servant in the human activity. People have to fill in the same form all the time. Processes stop in the middle of a company. The customer has to handover the data to the other processes. 

Humans do not like to be emotional involved in boring activities.  Therefore, the needs (their wishes) have to be defined in a very simple way. It must be possible to imagine the behavior of the complete system without knowing how the system is operating. 

A good example of a perfect servant is the central heating system. People define their needs (a temperature) and everything works. The temperature is a control variable that represents the performance of the total heating system. People are able to imagine the effect of adjusting the thermostat (a comparator) on the environment they live in. They do not need to know how the servant works. His behavior is hidden. The central heating system is a black box, loosely coupled with another invisible servant-system, the utility-system (gas, electricity).

7.4. From the General-Purpose Computer to the Appliance

The servant and its associates were in the first era of IT locked into the physical space of the general-purpose computer. They had to stay close together because of the speed of communication. The speed and the capacity of the telecommunication network is going up fast.  This makes it possible to specialize and connect computers (called Appliances). In the next chapter we will show how all the parts of the basic human tools will work together in the new exploration space, Cyberspace. 

8. The Collaboration System

8.1. Introduction

Collaboration of humans takes part at the level of the network. Participants create a network, share a common goal, exchange ideas, communicate intensively, specialize and create stable patterns of behavior. The specialization of the network takes place at the level of the creators and the craftsmen. They design and produce unique products.

The repetitive patterns of the craftsmen are automated and are transformed into invisible servants. The servants work together and exchange data. If the networks and the participants are not located on one physical place, they have to communicate using the Internet.

A network is uniquely determined by its human-and technology patterns. These patterns act as an imaginary boundary. They shield the network from changes in the environment.  New participants have to learn to handle the machines, the tools and the internal procedures. The have to accustom themselves to the patterns to survive in the network.

The internal patterns (the behavior) of the human participants in a network change. They learn new behavior by cooperating with other people outside the network. If the technology of the network is not adaptable, the most innovative participants get bored. They need a new challenge, leave the network and move forwards to another network. When the technology is not adapted, the networks dies and the most conservative participants (mostly the craftsmen) are suddenly out of work. To keep the network alive the technology has to adapt itself to the learning process of the participants in the network.

This chapter contains an abstract general IT-technology framework that supports connected specialized human networks working in cyberspace.

8.2. Systems, Sensors, Servants and Appliances

A system (a context, an ecology, a network, a collaboration system, a software-package, a legacy-system, a back-end, a client) is anything with a boundary. A system contains sub-systems and servants. 

When the system is a software-system, it needs an appliance (a specialized computer resource identified by an URI) to perform its activities. The appliance uses an operating system (now called a virtual machine) to calculate and to move objects internally and externally. It uses an internal and external memory (a database) to store its objects.

The activities of a system can be distributed over the Internet. Sub-systems can make use of other appliances to work with. The appliances can be localized by their URI. The objects that are needed to coordinate the activities of the appliances flow over the Internet from one appliance to another.

The boundary (A Sensor, an Interface) protects and sustains the identity of the system. It shields the system from unwanted intruders (filtering) and transforms input it wants to handle into an appropriate internal format.

A sensor can act in physical space  (a wall, a door, eyes, ears), in mental space (a model) and in cyberspace (a program). A sensor mirrors the patterns of the servants and the sub-systems in the system. A sensor connects external data that flows through the system with the internal patterns of the servant. Such a connection is called an Application Program Interface (API). API’s are defined with the XML/SOAP/WSDL-standard. The sensor has the same functionality inside out. It blocks output and transforms output into a format that the outside cyber-world can handle. Messages are send out to other systems.

A system consists of a dynamic assembly of many parts and relations. To manage the complexity of such a system the parts and their relations have to be bundled in independent servants (Services, Application Programs) that communicate with each other. 

In a well-defined system, it must be possible to remove and replace a servant without destroying the complete system. On the contrary, it must be impossible to divide a servant into different parts without destroying the component. A servant has to be invisible, rigid (undividable) and highly predictable.

8.3. Designing for Change

The environment of a system generates major and minor changes. Changes (events) take the form of structured data-objects, unstructured objects (e.g. documents) and assignments (e.g. change A to B). To realize a stable system, the system has to be designed to process the majority of the changes by its servants.  To accomplish this the famous 80-20 rule has to be applied (20% of the exceptions take 80% of the code). The exceptions are handled by comparators.  Comparators make it possible for the system to be adaptive.

An adaptive system has to contain just enough servants and comparators to articulate the expected behavior. When a system contains not enough comparators, his behavior is rigid. A legacy-system is an example. When a system contains too much comparators its behavior is too flexible. The system has grown out of its essential functionality. Vendors create over-articulated systems when they add new functionality without a real need of their customers.

It is merely impossible to design a well-articulated system in one step. Well-articulated systems have a long history of internal transformation. The transformation process has to have no effect on the environment of the system.

8.4. The Communication System

The servants have to communicate freely within the boundaries of the system. This is done by exchanging specialized data-structures (based on XML/SOAP-messages). When the messages pass their boundary, they have to travel to the appropriate system. The servants must be able to recognize the messages. This is accomplished by incorporating a matching instrument in the servant.

8.5. Reusing Sensors and Comparators, The Cyber Warehouse

The sensors and comparators are shared by other systems. They are stored in a specialized Cyber-Warehouse (based on the UDDI-standard). The systems are filed with the sensors and comparators they need when their appliances are activated.

8.6. Incorporating Legacy Systems

Most of the servants that have been developed are not well-articulated. In these legacy-systems, the data is fragmented. It travels around in the system in an obscure way. The system contains many entrances (Interfaces). Some of the interfaces give an entrance to a highway. Other interfaces lead to loops or dead-ends.  It will be very difficult to connect such a system to the collaborative infrastructure.

To connect a legacy-system it has to be divided into sub-systems, servants and comparators. After this is done the sub-systems, have to be enclosed (wrapped) by a boundary that is capable of transforming the external events in appropriate messages. It will be easier to connect modern systems (e.g. packages like SAP).  Most of them already have well-defined interfaces. 

8.7. The Collaboration System

The collaboration system emerges out of the behavior of the sub-systems and the servants connected by the communication-system. The collaboration-system acts on changes (events, signals) outside its environment. When a change enters the collaboration system, the communication system propagates the changes to the appropriate sub-systems or servants. The servants do their job. They combine the inputs they receive and produce output they send out to the system. Human beings can observe the behavior of the collaborative system using the Human Interaction Level.

8.8. Supporting Specialized Human Networks

The specialized human networks can be connected by incorporating their Process-Managers, their Commercial Systems (Buy, Sell) and their Quality-Management Systems into the Collaboration System.

Cooperation and Innovation needs Face-to-Face-Interaction. The results of the Interaction (Content) can be handled by the Collaboration System. When the messages have to reach the Human Interaction Level (now called a Client), they have to be transformed and incorporated in the appropriate tools (e.g. the Advisor, the Simulator).

In en Boven de Context

Een beschrijving van de vele manieren

die er zijn om een context te vernielen of  te behouden. Tekst behorend bij een presentatie voor het LAC-congres d.d. Oktober-2003.

INHOUDSOPGAVE.

1…. Inleiding. 3

2…. In en Boven de Context 4

2.1. Inleiding. 4

2.2. De betekenis van het woord context 4

2.3. De relatie tussen een context en de zintuigen (schaal en gezichtspunt) 4

2.4. De relatie tussen een context en zijn creator 5

2.5. De relatie tussen een context en zijn onderdelen. 5

2.6. Representatie van de context door karakteristieke onderdelen. 5

2.7. Het koppelen van woorden aan beelden in een context 5

2.8. Het koppelen van emoties aan een context (het krachtenspel) 6

2.9. Het koppelen van het levenspad aan een context 7

2.10. Drie verschillende vormen van denken. 7

2.11. De impact van het schrift (het ontstaan van  abstracte woorden) 8

2.12. Het abstracte denken (in kaart brengen) 9

2.13. Samenvatting. 9

3…. Boven de context 11

3.1. Wereldbeelden. 11

3.2. Het Analytische Spel (Boven de context) 12

3.3. Problemen met het Analytische spel 13

3.4. Communicatie in het Analytische spel 15

3.5. De relatie tussen de Analyticus en zijn Object 15

3.6. Technologie en Vakmanschap. 15

1       Inleiding

Mikhail Bakhtin[1] werd geboren in 1895 in Orel, vlak bij Moskou.

Hij werd in 1929 gearresteerd en veroordeeld tot tien jaar in een kamp op de Solovetsky eilanden in het noorden van de Sovjetunie.

Met hulp van invloedrijke vrienden en in verband met zijn slechte gezondheid werd hij uiteindelijk verbannen naar Kazahkstan waar hij als boekhouder te werk werd gesteld.

In die tijd heeft hij zijn beroemdste boek over Dostoevsky en de geschiedenis en de structuur van de novelle geschreven[2].

Rond 1950 rees zijn ster in de Sovjetunie.

Na zijn dood in 1975 drong zijn roem via Parijs door in de VS. Hij wordt nu gezien als één van de meest innovatieve filosofen van onze tijd[3]

Bahktin heeft zich altijd verzet tegen alle manieren van structureren (“A context is potentially unfinalized; a code must be finalized. A code is only a technical means of transmitting information; it does not have cognitive, creative significance. Code is deliberately killed context[4]).

Om een context in kaart te brengen worden regels (indelingscriteria) geformuleerd.

De context wordt op basis van deze indelingscriteria opgedeeld in eenheden (en hun onderlinge relaties). De indelingscriteria (de classificatie) bepalen ook  de uitzonderingen op de regels.

Naast de mensen die indelen zijn er ook altijd mensen die de indeling betwisten. Om hun gelijk te krijgen voeren beiden een machtstrijd.

Uit die machtstrijd komt slechts één winnaar voort, de classificatie zelf, omdat het gevecht de focus op de classificatie enorm versterkt.

Door te classificeren verdwijnen de relaties tussen de eenheden en de uitzonderingen op den duur uit het zicht.

De context wordt uniform en verliest zijn uniekheid.

De losstaande eenheden vormen meerdere nieuwe losstaande contexten die opnieuw kunnen worden ingedeeld.

Op den duur wordt de werkelijkheid hierdoor gefragmenteerd.

Ze verwordt tot een verzameling hokjes die netjes aan elkaar zijn verbonden met pijltjes.

Zowel de classificeerders als hun opponenten hebben het unieke van de mens en vooral de potentie (de mogelijke transformaties) van een mensenlijke context uit het oog verloren. Deze is niet te vangen in één classificatie.

In dit dokument wordt uiteengezet wat een context is en welke manieren er zijn om een context te vernielen of  te behouden.

2       In en Boven de Context

2.1. Inleiding

Een context wordt meestal beschreven door een schema (meestal bollen en pijlen}. Men laat op die manier de dynamiek tussen de verschillende onderdelen zien. Deze context-beschrijvingen zijn een model van de context. Het beschrijft de context niet zelf (“the map is not the territory”). Die bezit veel meer details dan een model kan beschrijven.

Het model fungeert als een kaart die de onderzoeker de weg wijst in het landschap. Als men met een kaart in de hand door een landschap loopt is de kans aanwezig dat men  de belangrijke details in het landschap over het hoofd ziet.

In dit hoofstuk wordt het begrip context uitgewerkt en de verschillende relaties tussen denken en context beschreven.  Het blijkt dat er in principe twee manieren zijn om met een context om te gaan. Men kan in de context opereren en er boven gaan staan (toeschouwen, observeren).

2.2. De betekenis van het woord context

Het woord context komt uit het Latijnse woord con-textere, dat samen-weven betekent.  Het woord textere (weven) is verbonden met de woorden tekst, archi-tect (timmerman), tech-nologie (techne, kunde of vakmanschap), textuur (weefsel). Er zijn relaties met het woord bever (het dier dat bouwt,  Tazgo) en Tantra (Tan, Sankriet).

2.3. De relatie tussen een context en de zintuigen (schaal en gezichtspunt)

Men kan zich in een weefsel hullen (een jurk, de huid). Op den duur voelt men het weefsel niet meer. Men is één geworden met het weefsel.

Een weefsel kan worden bekeken, gevoeld en geroken (zien, voelen, ruiken).

De laatste twee acties kunnen alleen op korte afstand plaatsvinden. Een weefsel kun je niet horen behalve als het wordt gedragen (het beweegt dan mee, het ruist).

Het bekijken van een weefsel is afhankelijk van de afstand (het gezichtsinterval).

Van dichtbij zien we het constructieproces en de onderdelen.

Van veraf zien we de vorm, het patroon en de kleur. Vanaf een grote afstand lost het weefsel op in een andere context (de omgeving). De kleur en het patroon zijn ook afhankelijk van de hoek waarmee we kijken. Een context verandert ook als we omhoog gaan. Het gaat hier om de schaal (oorspronkelijke betekenis: klimmen).

Een context heeft een zeer sterke relatie met  zien en minder met voelen, ruiken en horen.. Het beschouwen van een context is afhankelijk van de hoogte (de schaal) en de afstand tot de context (het gezichtspunt[5]). Als de schaal en het gezichtspunt wijzigen, verandert de context. Binnen bepaalde grenzen (het gezichtinterval) is de context constant. Buiten deze grenzen ontstaat een totaal andere context. Er is vermoedelijk een ideale plek om een context te beschouwen (het ideale gezichtspunt).

2.4. De relatie tussen een context en zijn creator.

De kwaliteit van het weefsel is afhankelijk van de gekozen grondstof (wol of zijde), de inspiratie en het vakmanschap van de wever . Een mooi en uniek weefsel toont de wever. Als contexten erg op elkaar lijken is de kans groot dat ze door een (mechanisch) reproductieproces zijn gemaakt (een machine, een weefgetouw). 

Bij een context veronderstellen we actoren die de context gemaakt hebben. Als we een context mooi of bijzonder vinden kunnen we er vanuit gaan dat de context door een vakman is gemaakt.  Als contexten  sterk op elkaar lijken (vele copieen) duidt dit op een (mechanisch) reproductieproces.

2.5. De relatie tussen een context en zijn onderdelen

Een context verdwijnt meestal als hij wordt opgedeeld in verschillende onderdelen. Er zijn oneindig veel manieren om een context op te splitsen. Sommige contexten hebben een voor ons bekende opbouw. We kennen het constructieproces. Uit dit innerlijke constructieproces ontstaat een generalisatie (een representatie van de context (bijv. een huis)). We kunnen ons een voorstelling maken van een specifiek huis als we zelf ervaring hebben met het bouwen van een huis, de beschikking hebben over het bouwplan en informatie hebben overde makers (hun stijl en vakmanschap).

Een context kan worden opgedeeld in zijn onderdelen als we het constructieproces kennen. Uit dit innerlijke constructieproces ontstaat een generalisatie van de context (bijv. een huis).

2.6. Representatie van de context door karakteristieke onderdelen

Als we een huis uit elkaar halen en alle onderdelen naast elkaar leggen is de kans nog aanwezig dat we ontdekken dat de samenvoeging een huis was omdat er karakteristieke  onderdelen (bijv een deur) te zien zijn. Als de essentiele onderdelen zijn verdwenen lukt dit niet meer.

Een context kan worden gepresenteerd door karakteristieke onderdelen van de context. Dit karakteristieke onderdeel roept de totale context op.

2.7. Het koppelen van woorden aan beelden in een context

Als we een ander attent willen maken op een context of een onderdeel van een context wijzen we naar de context en spreken een woord uit (bijv “huis“)[6].  Op deze wijze wordt een woord aan een beeld gekoppeld (benoemen). Door veelvuldig te wijzen op de onderdelen in een context worden verbanden tussen woorden en beelden gelegd en ontstaat een samenhangende beeldenverzameling van deze context (het weefsel). We kunnen er uiteindelijk een heel (visueel) verhaal over vertellen (een beschrijving)[7].

Een context kan worden beschreven door naar de onderdelen te wijzen en ze te benoemen. Het  samenspel van de klanken dat de context vertoont noemen we een verhaal.

2.8. Het koppelen van emoties aan een context (het krachtenspel)

Contexten kunnen worden gekoppeld aan emoties. Aan een huis wordt de emotie heimwee gekoppeld. De heimwee trekt ons naar het huis toe.

Het emotionele systeem in de mens houdt zich bezig met het stellen van prioriteiten[8] op korte en lange termijn. Een emotie is een reactie op een gebeurtenis.  Een vaak voorkomende emotie kan omslaan in een stemming. Een context kan via het geheugen emoties en stemmingen oproepen. Deze emoties en stemmingen beinvloeden de waarneming.

Een context kan ons ook overweldigen door zijn schoonheid. Vaak is er dan sprake van een  spanningsveld in wankel evenwicht (bijv. een balancerende koortdanser) Dit spanningsveld[9] bepaalt de ontwikkeling van de vorm van de context[10].

Er zijn in principe drie soorten emoties[11].

  • De primaire emoties (Macht, Kracht)

Men reageert op macht en en gevaar. Het gaat om aantrekken en afstoten (lust, fight, freeze or flight). Deze categorie is direct gekoppeld aan de zintuigen (met name de ogen). Als er sprake is van gevaar reageert het lichaam autonoom (reflexen, aurosal). Het denken komt tot stilstand.

  • De Ander 

Iedere gebeurtenis heeft een oorzaak en achter die oorzaak ziet men een veroorzaker (een mens). Men kan trots, boos zijn of afgunst hebben. Vaak worden abstracte oorzaken vervangen door een mens (personificatie). Men is boos op het weer.

  • De Verwachting

Er wordt nu in de toekomst gekeken (Angst, Hoop) of de verwachting ten aanzien van de toekomst wordt met het verleden vergeleken (Teleurstelling). 

Als de primaire emoties gaan opspelen is het gewoon niet meer mogelijk om een context waar te nemen. De twee andere emotietypen kunnen de waarneming enorm vervormen. De (meestal negatieve) ervaring uit het verleden (het geheugen) neemt de waarneming over. Een oorzaak wordt door de ervaring vervangen door een andere oorzaak. Een historische ontwikkeling wordt gekleurd door teleurstelling. De toekomst ligt al per definitie vast terwijl hij zich nog moet ontvouwen. De waarneming  wordt vervangen door de eigen verwachting.

Een context is een samenspel van krachten (een spanningsveld). Dit spanningsveld bepaalt de mogelijke vorm. Om dit veld te kunnen waarnemen moeten we de context vanuit het heden in een staat van ontspanning en kinderlijke openheid (vertrouwen, interesse) tegemoet treden (gespannen verwachting).

2.9. Het koppelen van het levenspad aan een context

Contexten hebben een eigen historie en een relatie met onze levensgeschiedenis (het levenspad). Het beschouwen van van een context wordt beinvloed door de herinneringen die de context bij ons oproept. Ze doet bijv denken aan het ouderlijk huis.

Een context kan ook een signaal geven dat er een keuze moet worden gemaakt in het levenspad[12]. Men is bijvoorbeeld aan het werk in de geestelijke gezondheidszorg en raakt erg onder de indruk van de omstandigheden die zich daar voordoen. Het lijkt er op dat de patienten in een gevangenis leven (de inrichting). Deze situatie resoneert met het gevoel dat men zelf in een gevangenis zit. Door de patienten te bevrijden bevrijdt men zichzelf.

De eigen context bepaalt het kijken naar een andere context (projectie). Om een context werkelijk te kunnen waarnemen moet men zich los kunnen maken van zijn projecties. Men wordt gebiologeerd door dialogen omdat men zelf geen dialoog kan te voeren. Men is verslaafd aan het onderzoeken van verhalen (narratives) omdat men thuis zijn eigen verhaal nooit heeft mogen vertellen.

Het verweven van het eigen levenspad met de wetenschappelijke arbeid is bijna niet te vermijden. Het lezen van een biografie van een genie als Wittgenstein[13] geeft een enorm inzicht in de relatie tussen zijn persoonlijke en zijn wetenschappelijke queeste. Het wordt problematisch als men zijn queeste (en de vaak daarmee samenhangende frustratie)  oplegt aan anderen. 

Een context heeft een historische ontwikkeling doorgemaakt. Om deze ontwikkeling te kunnen waarnemen moeten we ons  ontkoppelen van onze  projecties. 

2.10. Drie verschillende vormen van denken

Het woord denken heeft als bron het woord thencon (rond 900)[14]. Dit woord betekent zichtbaar maken. Er zijn vele uitspraken die de relatie leggen tussen denken en zien (bijv ik zie het niet, inzicht[15], ..).

Er is nog een andere kant van het denken n.l. “het verstand gebruiken“. Het woord verstand komt van het woord verstaan, dat horen maar ook aantasten en naar het gerecht gaan betekent. Nog verder in het verleden betekent het stil staan bij of er onder staan (zie ook understand). 

Denken heeft hier een sterke relatie met het oor, ‘horen’ en ‘spreken’  en “staan”. Het staan wordt bestuurd door het evenwichtsorgaan in het oor. Dit orgaan zorgt ervoor dat we staande in balans blijven. Het oor heeft ook een relatie met muziek. Daar gaat het om het ervaren van harmonie. In combinatie met de benen ontstaat het ritme en de dans. Denken is het horen van de harmonie in wat we zien zodat we (ritmisch) in beweging kunnen komen.

De derde vorm van denken zien we in het woord begrijpen[16]. We willen iets beetpakken (vatten). Hier speelt de hand een rol. Met de hand kunnen we een context betasten en proberen een beeld te krijgen van zijn vorm. 

Het oudste denken is verbonden met het oog (het zien). In een later stadium is er een behoefte ontstaan om iets te pakken te krijgen (be-grijpen) en (stand-)recht te doen (het streven naar waarheid, zekerheid en status (de stand)). Denken is hier passief (stil staan bij) en geeft bescherming (we staan ergens onder).  Denken is een afweermechanisme tegen de steeds veranderende buitenwereld geworden.

Er zijn drie  samenhangende vormen van denken. Het primaire denken is de waarneming (het zien). Deze waarnemening doen we rechtop staand en in balans. Door een context te benoemen kunnen we intern en extern een dialoog voeren (het verstand). Door naar onszelf te luisteren kunnen we de harmonie in onze dialoog horen. We kunnen een context ook met de hand benaderen. We kunnen hem beetpakken (begrijpen) of hem aanraken en  zijn vorm proberen te voelen. Hierdoor kunnen we uiteindelijk in de huid (het weefsel) van de context kruipen.

2.11. De impact van het schrift (het ontstaan van  abstracte woorden)

De uitvinding van het schrift en later de boekdrukkunst heeft op het denken een enorme invloed gehad[17]. Uitgesproken woorden hadden in eerste instantie een directe relatie met een beeld. Het eerste schrift was ook beeldend. Langzamerhand zijn de beelden tekens geworden. Het teken voor water in het Egyptisch was een golf  en werd uitgesproken als “NU”[18]. Het golf-teken is later getransformeerd in de letter N.

Door deze transformatie werd de koppeling tussen beeld en klank losgelaten. Woorden gingen letterlijk hun eigen leven leiden. Naast woorden met een visuele relatie hebben we nu ook woorden die geen directe visuele relatie meer hebben (bijv. Organisatie).  Ze zijn soms via zeer complexe tussenstappen (metaforen) aan een groot aantal visuele representaties gekoppeld. We zijn ons niet meer bewust van deze tussenstappen maar ze spelen wel degelijk een rol in ons denken.

Door de uitvinding van het schrift is er een splitsing ontstaan tussen woorden die een beeld benoemen en woorden die geen relatie meer hebben met de werkelijkheid. Dit zijn de woorden van het abstracte denken.

2.12. Het abstracte denken (in kaart brengen)[19]

Het denken is de laatste eeuwen van het lichaam (het zien, het horen, het voelen en het bewegen) ontkoppeld[20]. Denken doen we nu volgens de meeste wetenschappers met onze hersenen. Dit denken vindt plaats op een gevoelloze plek boven de zintuigen.

De hersenen besturen alles. Ze produceren gedachten (abstracte woorden). Mensen die veel denken zijn wandelende hoofden geworden en onderdrukken hun emoties. Denken moet objectief plaatsvinden. Denken vindt hier plaats door omhoog te gaan en van boven naar beneden te kijken.

Naarmate we hoger opstijgen wordt de wereld meer uniform. Om een plek te herkennen hebben we een kaart nodig. De kaart wordt nu de manier om naar de wereld te kijken. We schakelen over van de derde naar de tweede dimensie. De werkelijkheid wordt plat geslagen. We brengen de context in kaart. Daarna wordt de kaart ingedeeld (classificatie).

De classificatie wordt weer naar de aarde gebracht.  Het bijzondere van dit alles is dat als we niet oppassen we uiteindelijk één schaal  boven de oorspronkelijke context uitkomen. Door het abstraheren hebben we de oude context uniform (een eenheid) gemaakt en dus gedood.

Als een context uniform is is hij bijna niet meer terug te vinden in de nieuwe abstracte context.  We moeten heel goed (van dichtbij) kijken om de oude context terug te vinden. Er is maar een zeer beperkt gezichtsinterval waarvan uit we hem kunnen waarnemen. De oude context is verder niet meer scherp te krijgen. Een voorbeeld is het proces van Ruimtelijke Ordening. Hier wordt de wereld met behulp van een kaart ingedeeld. In plaats van huizen ontstaan er uniforme wijken. 

2.13. Samenvatting

We kunnen een context doden door hem van uit de hoogte, als een kaart,  te beschouwen. De context wordt dan twee-dimensionaal in plaats van drie-dimensionaal.  Als we de kaart als richtsnoer gebruiken voor het aanpassen van de context verdwijnt de context uit het zicht.  Ze wordt geuniformiseerd. De oude context is nog wel aanwezig maar is bijna onzichtbaar geworden. Ze is alleen van heel dichtbij te zien.

Om een context te behouden moeten we hem vanaf de goede plaats (het gezichtspunt) bekijken, hem goed benoemen en vooral mee durven gaan met het reeds in het verleden ingezette transformatieproces van de vorm van de context[21].   Het waarnemingsproces wordt sterk belemmerd door ons eigen beeld van de context (projectie, emoties). Daarom moet de context ontspannen en open (als een kind)  worden beschouwd.

3       Boven de context

3.1. Wereldbeelden

Er is de laatste tijd veel werk gedaan aan het typeren van de manier waarop mensen naar de wereld kijken (hun wereldbeeld).  Alhoewel er natuurlijk sprake is van een hoge mate van versimpeling zijn sommige modellen erg bruikbaar. De modellen zijn omgezet in testen. Voorbeelden zijn Myers Briggs [22] en Spiral Dynamics[23].  Spiral Dynamics is  gebaseerd op de denkbeelden van Graves[24] uit de school van Maslow. Myers Brigss baseert zich op de archetypenleer van Jung, de grote opponent van Freud. Het blijkt dat mensen de wereld bekijken met behulp van een combinatie van twee wereldbeelden. Op deze manier komt Myers Briggs tot zes basistypen.

Besturing/ProcesConvergerendDivergerend
Geen keuzeEenheid De enige waarheid wordt beschreven door modellen. De wereld is statisch.Zintuigen Wat ik met mijn zintuigen waarneem is de echte wereld. Veranderingen hebben een oorzaak.
Eigen keuzeMythes De mens schept zijn eigen wereld. Ik verander mijn wereld zelf.  Sociaal Wat een groep mensen van belang vindt bepaalt mijn handelen. Alles is permanent aan het veranderen.  

McWhinney (1997)[25] typeert wereldbeelden met behulp van twee onafhankelijke variabelen:

  • Agency (Besturing)

Heb ik een keuze (free will, eigen keuze) of bepaalt iets buiten mij wat er gebeurt. Ben ik een speelbal (determined, geen keuze) van de buitenwereld (het noodlot) of regel ik zelf mijn omstandigheden.

  • Plurality (Beweging)

Ziet iemand de werkelijkheid als een niet veranderende eenheid (convergentie) of een verandert de wereld permanent (divergentie).

Als we de twee assen combineren ontstaan er vier wereldbeelden die onafhankelijk van elkaar zijn.

Er is inmiddels een enorme hoeveelheid statistisch materiaal beschikbaar gekomen van de testen die wereldbeelden meten. Het blijkt dat er een sterke relatie is tussen beroepen en de combinatie van twee wereldbeelden. 

Aangezien wereldbeeld in principe onafhankelijk van elkaar zijn beschrijft een combinatie van twee wereldbeelden een afbeelding van de ene kijk op de wereld naar een andere kijk op de wereld. Deze afbeelding kan een conflict opleveren. Als men een combinatie van twee wereldbeelden heeft (en dat hebben de meeste mensen) heeft men een manier gevonden om het conflict tussen de twee wereldbeelden op te lossen.

Experts, ook wel analytici[26] genoemd,  leven in de denkwereld Eenheid (Modellen) en willen de wereld van de Zintuigen (de Buitenwereld) besturen. Ze willen de werkelijkheid naar hun zin zetten. Ze kijken van boven naar de wereld. Ze gebruiken  feiten om hun argumenten te ondersteunen. Deze feiten baseren ze op objectieve metingen en testen. Door het uitvoeren van deze metingen kunnen ze zelf “buiten spel blijven”. Het meten wordt meestal gebaseerd op de statistiek.  Dit vakgebied wordt regelmatig misbruikt of verkeerd gebruikt. Statistiek faalt compleet als het meetgebied zelfreferende kenmerken heeft. De meting is dan afhankelijk van de schaal die men gebruikt[27]

De tegenbeweging van de analytici zien we het beste in de life-style “New Age”.  Niet voor niets baseert New Age zich op de Oosterse culturen. In deze culturen komen veel minder analytici voor. Ze nemen wel toe door de invloed van de Westerse denkwijze in de wereld.

De tegenpool van de analyticus combineert de denkwerelden Mythes met Sociaal. Men gelooft erg in autonome processen (scheppen, laten gebeuren). Men bedrijft geen wetenschap maar heeft een geloof. Dit geloof is met name gebaseerd op de eigen overtuiging (men is eigenwijs en heeft intuitie). Daarnaast is men erg gevoelig voor wat anderen er van vinden (empathie). 

Duidelijk moet zijn dat geen enkel wereldbeeld of combinatie van wereldbeelden de waarheid in pacht heeft. Juist een evenwichtige combinatie van alle vier de kijken geeft het meest complete beeld van de werkelijkheid. 

3.2. Het Analytische Spel (Boven de context)

Het analytische spel is één van de zes mogelijke spellen (3X2). Het analytische spel is het  spel van de huidige wetenschap en de techniek (De technologie). Het ziet de wereld (en dus ook de natuur) als een machine die centraal moet worden bestuurd. Het spel is overal aanwezig. Het is actief in de politiek en het bedrijfsleven (met name bij marketing, communicatie en consultancy). 

In het analytische spel wordt de wereld met de bril (wereldbeeld) van een model[28] van boven bekeken. Het aanpassen van het model aan de realiteit vindt niet makkelijk plaats. Analytici zijn op zoek naar zekerheid en willen daarom de wereld (hun model) graag constant houden.

Er zijn vele modellen beschikbaar om naar de werkelijkheid te kijken. Door de opkomst van de computer en de programmeertalen in combinatie met de denkbeelden van Taylor (de lopende band, standaardisatie) is het is logistieke model (omgezet in pakketten als SAP en BAAN) op dit moment sterk aanwezig. 

Een context wordt hier beschreven door een regelsysteem  (coderen, het programma) dat een hierararchie van gestandaardiseerde eenheden bestuurd. Mensen zijn in dit model gestandaardiseerd (het zijn Objecten).

Het opleidingsprogramma en  een selectieprocedure (examens, solicitatie, psychologische test) fungeren als standaardisatiemiddel en filter. Mensen die niet gestandaardiseerd zijn komen niet door het filter. In de gezondheidszorg werken  ziektenamen als filter. Je bent pas geestelijk en/of lichamelijk ziek als het ziektebeeld past op een standaard.

Een aantal voorbeelden:

  • een Medewerker wordt bestuurd door een Manager die wordt bestuurd door een HRM-systeem en een Budget-Systeem
  • een Patient wordt bestuurd door een Arts die wordt bestuurd door Protocollen  
  • een Leerling wordt bestuurd door een Leraar die wordt bestuurd door een Curriculum
  • Klanten worden bestuurd door een Account-manager die wordt bestuurd door een CRM-systeem
  • Kiezers worden bestuurd door een Campagne-manager die wordt bestuurd door een Opinie-peiling.

3.3. Problemen met het Analytische spel

In dit hoofdstuk worden een aantal veelvoorkomende problemen behandeld die horen bij het Analytische spel.

  • Grootschaligheid

Er worden teveel plekken van boven onder één noemer gebracht. Men wil alles in één keer veranderen. Hierdoor kan men alles niet meer overzien. Grootschalige activiteiten mislukken altijd behalve als met een enorme macht worden doorgedrukt. Dan moet alles er voor wijken.

  • Inflexibiliteit

Het is erg moeilijk om een model dat op de aarde is geimplementeerd te veranderen.

  • Losstaande plekken kunnen niet worden gekoppeld

Als losstaande systemen met elkaar moeten gaan samenwerken moeten er koppelingen worden gemaakt. Hier is bij het in kaart brengen geen rekening mee gehouden. Er is vanuit verschilende plekken en op verschillende schalen in kaart gebracht (z.g eiland-automatisering). De kaarten overlappen en/of sluiten niet aan.

  • Interferentie

Het ene systeem kan het regelsysteem van het andere systeem in de war brengen. Het tijdschrijven in een onderneming heeft negatieve impact op het spontane kennisdelen. Alle tijd moet worden verantwoord en er blijft geen tijd meer over voor spontaniteit.

  • Terugkoppeling

Meerdere gekoppelde systemen kunnen elkaars gedrag versterken of veranderen.  Het statistisch analyseren van de beurskoersen heeft invloed op de analyse. De markt gaat zich conform het model gedragen en moet er een nieuw model worden gemaakt dat de gaten in het oude model probeert te vinden. Uieindelijk is de markt uitgeanalyseerd en is er bijna niets meer te verdienen. 

  • Onvoorspelbaar gedrag

Samenwerkende systemen gaan spontaan onvoorspelbaar gedrag vertonen (chaos, emergent behavior). 

  • Schaalverspringen en veranderen van plek

Er worden twee schaalniveau’s aan elkaar gekoppeld die niet op gelijke hoogte liggen en/of op een hele andere plek liggen. Een voorbeeld is “de lerende organisatie”. Hier wordt de schaal mens aan de veel hogere schaal organisatie gekoppeld.

  • Vertroebeling

Men heeft geen scherpe blik op de aarde. De atmosfeer is troebel of de bril is vies. Het effect is dat men vaag wordt.

  • Luchtkastelen bouwen

Een laag wordt slechts onder één noemer (een term) gebracht en in snel tempo weer naar de aarde gebracht. Daarna blijkt de laag veel dikker te zijn dan men dacht en lukt het niet om “de zaak aan de praat te krijgen”. Een voorbeeld is E-Commerce. De enorme hoeveelheid interactiepunten van deze systemen met mensen en andere systemen wordt vergeten. Door benoemen en versimpelen wordt het erg makkelijk om een systeem te verkopen.

  • Niet meer op aarde komen

Men is opgestegen en daalt niet meer terug naar de aarde en blijft zweven. Een voorbeeld is Ruimtelijke Ordening waar men op het niveau wijk (in plaats van woning) blijft hangen. Er ontstaat op deze manier een abstracte clustering (men ontwerpt een wijk).

  • Vergeten dat er op aarde mensen wonen

Op een bepaald moment moet de resultaten van het spel weer door mensen worden gebruikt. Die worden geconfronteerd met iets dat “van boven is opgelegd”. In het Analytische spel wordt er meestal geen rekening gehouden met het feit dat er mensen op aarde zijn.

3.4. Communicatie in het Analytische spel

In het spel wordt er veel gebruik gemaakt van schriftelijke communicatie (men toont de kaart). Daarnaast is er sprake van zeer complexe vaktaal. Men beperkt zijn interactie tot collega’s die ongeveer op de zelfde hoogte en plek verkeren.

3.5. De relatie tussen de Analyticus en zijn Object

De analyticus ziet de mensen in de wereld als een object. De relatie tussen de analyticus en dit object vindt van uit de hoogte plaats. Er is sprake van een leraar-leerling relatie.

3.6. Technologie en Vakmanschap

Context komt van het woord con-textere. De woorden technologie (vakmanschap) en architect (de timmerman) hebben een gerelateerde betekenis.  Een vakman leert door afkijken en door experimenteren (vallen en opstaan).  Hij weet dat nieuwe ontwikkelingen nooit in één keer tot stand komen.  De stoommachine is stap voor stap ontwikkeld. Dit ging samen met innovaties in de wetenschap (de thermodynamica). De abstracte  wetenschap had de praktijk (de aarde) nodig om te leren. Het abstracte denken is het denken van de technologie (de werktuigen van de mens). Het  kan zich dan ook het beste laten inspireren door alles wat er op aarde “werkt”. Als men de werking van een technologie doorgrondt kan met dit model doorvertalen naar een abstract model. Men kan nu  heen en weer gaan, van de technologie naar het model en terug. Naast de technologie kan de natuur (het weer, de planeten, de  planten, de dieren, de mens) worden beschouwd. Het gaat hier met name om autonome en cyclische systemen. Het is van groot belang dat men de natuur niet als een technologie gaat beschouwen en de mens niet als werktuig (object) ziet. Het abstracte denken moet werktuigen opleveren die het unieke in de mens ondersteunen. Het beschouwen van de natuur (en de mens) vraagt een andere kijk. Men moet in de context in plaats van boven de context opereren.


[1] Saul Morson & Caryl Emerson, 1990, Micheal Bakhtin, Creation of a prosaics, Stanford University Press.

[2] Bakhtin, Mikhail. Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics. Trans. Caryl Emerson. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984.

[3] Dit is de URL van het Bahktin centre : http://www.shef.ac.uk/uni/academic/A-C/bakh/bakhtin.html.

[4] Bakhtin, M. M., Speech Genres and Other Late Essays, eds. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist, trans. Vern W. McGee (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994)

[5] In het algemeen staan we recht voor een context en kijken naar de voorkant.

[6] Het koppelen van een visueel beeld via wijzen aan een gesproken woord is manier waarop kinderen woorden leren.

[7] In het verleden was dit ook de manier om een context te beschrijven. Er werden zeer uitgebreide visuele beschrijvingen gemaakt van bijv. kerken. (zie John Cage, (1999), Color and Culture, University of California Press).

[8] Nico Frijda, (1987), The Emotions, Cambrigde University Press

[9] Volgens Marcus Vitruvius Pollio moet een architect drie krachten in balans brengen n.l. duurzaamheid (firmitas), het gebruik (utilitas) en de schoonheid (venustas). De mogelijke vorm wordt voor een groot deel bepaald door de zwaartekracht (de druk van de dragende structuur). en de cohesie tussen de onderdelen (zie http://www2.uiah.fi/projects/metodi/135.htm).

[10] Er is een sterk verband met de Niet-liniaire dynamica, Zie bijv. J.A. Scott Kelso,(1995),  The Self-Organization of Brain and Behavior. MIT Press

[11] Andrew Ortony, (1990), The Cognitive Structure of Emotions, Cambrigde University Press

[12] Joseph Campbell (1972), The hero with a thousand faces, Princeton Univ Press;

[13] Ray Monk, (1991), The duty of genius, Penguin USA.

[14] Zie Van Dale, (1997). Etymologisch Woordenboek en http://www.etymonline.com/.

[15] Het woord intuitie betekent naar bnnen kijken  (in- “binnen” + tueri “kijken naar”). Zie ook contemplatie “een ruimte scheppen om te kunnen observeren”

[16] Het woord grijpen komt uit het  Sanskriet (graha). Het woord graha betekent planeet en zintuig. Er zijn acht graha’s. Tegenover de graha staat de atigraha (het object). Volgens de Upanishads zijn de objecten sterker dan de zintuigen. Het willen beetpakken van een object geeft het object de macht over het zintuig.

[17] Walter Ong (1982), Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word (London and New York: Methuen)

[18] zie http://www.historian.net/hxwrite.htm

[19] Het woord abstraheren betekent wegtrekken.

[20] When we survey the subsequent course of scientific thought troughout the seventeen-century up to the present day two curious facts emerge. In the first place, the development of science has gradually discarded every single feature of the original commondense notion. Nothing whatever remains of it. The obvious commensense notion has been entirely destroyed. The second characteristic is equally prominent. The commonsense notion still reigns supreme in the workaday life of mankind. A. N. Whitehead (1934), Nature and life, Llondon Cambrigde Press

[21] Zie ook Christopher Alexander (1979), The Timeless Way of Building, Oxford University Press;

[22] Berens L, Nardi D. (1999), The 16 Personality Types, Descriptions for Self-Discovery, Telos Pubns

[23] Beck D.E, Cowan C.C. (1996), Spiral Dynamics, Blackwell Publishers Cambridge, Mass

[24] Graves W.G. (1971), A systems conception of personality, zie http:www.spiraldynamics.com/ graves/nih.htm

[25] McWhinney W. (1997), Paths of Change, Sage Publications Londen.

[26] Het word analiseren betekent “uit elkaar halen”.

[27] Larry Liebovitch, (1998),  Fractals and Chaos, Simplified for the Life Sciences, Oxford University Press.

[28] Een bril kan ook een instrument zijn (bijv. een sterrekijker, een NMR of een microscoop)