The Chemical Origin of Semantic Intelligence

This blog is a Result of the Research I did for my blog about Heuristics.

Heuristics shows that Complex problems are never solved by complex solutions.

The best Explaining model is the Worst predictor and the Best predictors are Fourfold.

New Research: What do all the Organisms Share?

My re-search became a search for the relationship between the Human Cognitive system, its Evolutionary Development as an Organism and the State of Artificial Intelligence ending in an Insight that our Semantic intelligence has a Chemical origin.

For a Quick Start and a Summary push this link or start with the Introduction .

This blog starts with Physics moves over to Chemistry and ends with (Evolutionary)Biology and discovers many fusions like Bio-Physics and even Bio-mathematics.

Where Stuff is Made Off

Stuff (Matter) is made of Light (Photons) that moves in Spiralling Spiral motion just as Peter Rowlands explains.

What is Light?

Light is two Inteacting Fields Electric and Magnetic moving through Space.

When we look with our Multi-dimensional Worlview we see every dimension (Magnitude, Point, Line, Square, Volume, .. shows Another type of Particle.

John Williamsson Explains the PDF of Martin van der Mark who died recently.
Photon spiraling in a Tube.

Thermodynamics, the Sience of Heat

Natural processes are irriversible just as we are always moving into the future until we realize that natural laws are not laws at all but Context dependent Observations that can be changed when we change the context.

The Earth

The Russian scientist Wladimir Vernadsky divided the earth in 3 spheres called the (1) the Abiotic sphere – all the non-living energy and material processes (2) the Biosphere – the life processes that live within the abiotic sphere and the Noosphere – the sphere of the human cognitive processes.

The Earth as a Water Cycle

A simulation of the Creation of Life in an atmosphere like early Earth.

Our Chemical Origin

Chemical Bodily Communicators: Hormones

Our Emotions and our Personal Chemistry is controlled by our Hormones.

The endocrine system works in large part by acting on neurons in the brain, which controls the Pituitary Gland. This system is very important for the activation and control of basic behavioral activities.

Hormones are specialized Chemical Messengers that operate with different (Minutes, Days, even Years) Frequencies on a general Bodily level using the Blood flow controlled by the Heart but also on a Cell-to-Cell and an Internal Cell level.

They show an Ancient Fractal Pattern of Uni-ellular Integration.

This pattern repeats in human-to-human Social Structures and is visible in and between our our Cities and States.

Want to know more about Uni-ellular Integration? Push this link.

A City is an Organism

A Path of Change (PoC) model of self-Actualizing City that is an Ecology that grows out of the combined effort of Four different expanding and compressing Forces (look at the four Colors) that act as a 4D Wave. The Set point constitutes the base-line of well-being.

Change Management (Paths of Change)

Paths of Change uses four independent WorldViews with a fifth center.
The model behind PoC can be found in many theories including the Learning theory of Kolb. On this picture you see two cycles that move with-and against the clock.

The Endocrine System

Picture
The body is a system that is almost in balance (Homeostasis) controlled by chemical messengers that start and inhibit other messengers that do the same with the others.

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence is is not able to React to unknown Situations. It has to be programmed by Intelligent Humans.

The most advanced AI-tool AlphaGo-Zero needs data gathered by humans to Analyze and supposes a Game to win.

AI-systems need Humans to adapt.

Human Heuristics are much smarter than AI-systems.

Wisdom is and Heuristics are an Accumulated Reflection on Experience.

0. Introduction

In this blog I analyze the human Cognitive Architecture and its relationship with the architecture of our fellow-Organisms including the bacteria and viruses.

bacterium
Bacterium
Nerve Net vs Bilateral Brain
The Hydra has a Distributed brain, the Salamander a Centralized brain.
The marine worm Platynereis has a muscle (red) which develops in the same place and has the same genetic signature as the notochord (blue) that develops into our spinal discs. Credit: Kalliopi Monoyios
The spine is developed out of the notocord that came out of he axocord that was used to Swim.

The marine worm Platynereis has a muscle (red) which develops in the same place and has the same genetic signature as the notochord (blue) that develops into our spinal discs. 

The small worm has eyes and other sensors that makes it possible to move in a 4D-frame.

Just as the bacteria the rotators are a integral part of the total cycle.
Trichoplax adhaerens is a species of placozoa, the simplest animals at the base of the tree of life.

Unbounded vs Bounded vs Ecological Rationality

I also relate the human Cognitive architecture to the architecture of Artificial Inteligence, a result of  Bounded Rationality theory of Herbert Simon that recently was taken over by the Human Bias of Daniel Kahneman and more recently by  Ecological Rationality of Gerd Gigenrenzer also called Heuristics.

The term Ecological means Context-Dependent.

Heuristics

Heuristics are the “positive” part of the Human Bias, a problem we encounter when we are put under Stress or don’t have enough Time to Reflect.

Gerd Gigerenzer and Nassim Taleb about why Complex systems Fail and Experts are not always Experts. About Taking Risk with Insight.

Organisms

Small Systems are just as Smart as Big Systems

The Law of Kleiber shows a relationship between the Metabolism (“Chemical Energy“) of an Organism and its Mass. The law holds for the Smallest (UniCellular) and the Biggest organisms and is even applicable to much bigger Organisations like Cities. Intelligence is independent from the Size of an Organism or
Big Systems are not more Intelligent than Small Systems.

Organisms are Chemical Factories

After cooling The Earth became a “giant Chemical reactor” that was able to Catch life that was part of Colliding Meteorites.

The Way Electrons Rotate around anti-electrons (protons, Kernel) in more Complex Elements looks a lot like Organisms just as very Big Far away structures look a lot like very small Close by structures .

Our Universe is a highly Self-referencing (Fractal) structure.

Fig. 2

Life is an Autocatalytic Chemical Reaction

Life is an Autocatalytic Chemical Reaction, a Loop in which an Activator produces its own inhibitor.

Example of an Activator/Inhibitor System.
An Activator/Inhibitor-System in Practice with the Slime Mold.Interesting is (1) Reuse of just one chemical AMP Adinine Mono Phosphate) as a Trigger to start clustering , (2) Synchronization and Repeating an old Pattern (“Growing into a Plant“). AMP is the simple form of ATP part of the Krebs-cycle.

Organisms are Moving Memories

Organisms are Moving Memories exploring their environment to satisfy their need for the Energy (chemicals) they need to Survive.

An Organism is its Emotion

To stay in de right place they move to the place their E-mover (“flagellum”) sends them to.

The Bodyplan of the Bacterium with the Memory in the middle and the Brain, A receptor at the Front. The place of the Memory is also the place of the Heart of the Human.

The Heart contains the Memory of the Body

In Ancient Religion the Heart was the Seat of the Soul.

The Brain in the Head is a Sensor. Its Memory is Distributed all over the Body in the Spindles of the Muscles and the Heart.

The Bodyplan of the bacterium can be seen in all the organisms including Humans.

In between a Sensor and Mover a short term Memory is created out of the molecules we take in at the Front.

Memory is a Repeating Pattern.

We are auto-poietic auto-catalytic systems Born in the Sea.

A Human is a Higher Order Embedding of a Bacterium

The difference between the bacterium and us is called Higher Order Embedding meaning the same principle is applied to Itself, creating a Hierarchy.

Creating a Hiearchy is a proces Without an End. That’s why our Living Context was transformed into a Infinite space Above us with an infinite Power that controls it. This resulted in many Stories that turned into Myths.

If you want to start now with the blog push here or first read about Scientific Narratives.

Scientific Narratives and the Meta-Myth

This hierarchy is really a very complicated Dynamic Network that contains many sub-structures {“Semantic” “Chemical“, “Ecological“, “Social“,and other types of Networks) we have Named (Categorized) using a Principle that was in Tune with the Spirit of the Time.

This resulted in a lot of Scientific Narratives that turned into Scientific Myths that are summarized by Joseph Campbell (a follower of Carl Jung) in the Hero Quest that starts with a Call to Adventure (a Vocation).

The Quest of Mankind

Scientific Narratives claim to be based on a Truth not realising that this truth is also a Belief.

Currenty especially Physics (“Big Bang“) and Biology (Evolution) is discovering that the Myth of Creation blocks us to see how Simple Life and the Universe really is.

My first Mentor was a director of ABN (Harry Haenen). My last mentor was Will McWhinney.

My Gift of the Goddess was the Discovery of the Coming of The Golden Age.

The Age of Aquarius

The hero’s Quest is an old Cyclic model that was projected on the Zodiac.

We are now moving from Pisces to Aquarius meaning from Dualism to Holism.


The very longterm Precession cycle is moving Against the Clock of the yearly Sun Cycle meaning the we are now at the Start of New long term cycle meaning a new Call to Adventure for Mankind.

FRom Dualism to Holism

An Astronomical Age takes 26000 years.

We are ending the Age of the Fish (Pisces) and are moving into the Age of Aquarius.

Pisces is the time of Duality, the battle about Good and Bad.

the Age of Aquarius heralds the arrival of a new stage of the kondratiev cycle, the Golden Age.

Drawing of man holding large water jar with water pouring out, with scattered stars.
Aquarius opens a Vessel with Water that brings the Fish to the Milkey Way.
Left you can see the Arrows of Sagittarius that precedes Aquarius. Water is the symbol of the Aether. (and other Flow Systems).
1192px-Zodiac_(PSF).png
The cycle of the Zodiac.

What are Heuristics?

When I was re-searching for ny blog about Heuristics I found the thesis of Sheldon J. Chow, called “Heuristics, Concepts, and Cognitive Architecture: Toward Understanding How The Mind Works”

Heuristics are cognitive procedures that satisfice, and that require little cognitive resources for their recruitment and execution; they operate by exploiting informational structures, called  Perceptual Symbol Systems (PSS).

Exploiting Perceptual Symbol Systems

Concepts are highly organized collections of linguistically coded perceptual information.

Our Cognition looks lke a Video-recorder connected to our real Emotions and Bodily-processes that are retrieved when certain concepts (Anchors) or Situations are recalled.

Concepts are Simulators that embody Perceptual symbols that are collections of neurons that are activated in the perceptual centres of the Brain.

What we can Imagine Exists

Brouwer: Mathematics is a product of the Imagination. What we can Imagine exists. See also Where mathematics comes from by George Lakoff who discovered the foundation of language being embodied methaphors who are 1-1 (Isomophic) Mappings from the Outside sensed world to the Inside bodily awareness.

Mathematical Language is a “Normal” language

An Assertion (If Condition (Boolean) =True do Action A or Action B) is called a Judgement that is Witnessed by a Fact (Evaluate Condition) that turns the Assertion into an Action. When we move to Space assertions become Points.

Martin Lof Type Theory describes Mathematical Language

Martin Lof Type theory is the definition of a programming language that makes it possible to program mathematical reasoning to support mathematical Proof checking.

About Type theory, the foundation of Mathematics.
Intuitional Mathenatics became the foundation of Homotopy Type theory that became the Foundation of Mathematics by the work of Martin Lof who started a discussion about what Judgementreally is. This i a very long Video about the research of Martin Lof into the history of the term Judgement.

Perceptual states arise in the Sensory-Motor system

Perceptual states arise in the Sensory-Motor system.A subset of the state is extracted by selective Attention and stored in long-term memory.

This perceptual memory can function as a symbol entering into symbol manipulation.Collections of the perceptual symbols comprise our conceptual representations.

The structure of a perceptual symbol corresponds (at least somewhat) to the perceptual state that produced it.
A Conceptual Model of a Perceptual Symbol System being a part of the PDF below.
Figure 3. (A) An example of establishing an initial frame for car after processing a first instance. (B) The frame’s evolution after processing a second instance. (C) Constructing a simulation of the second instance from the frame in panel B. In Panels A and B, lines with arrows represent excitatory connections, and lines with circles represent inhibitory connections.
An example of establishing an initial frame for car after processing a first instance. (B) The frame’s evolution after processing a second instance. (C) Constructing a simulation of the second instance…

Relevance Theory And the Frame Problem

The Thesis contains a reference to two for me interesting and highly interrelated Philosophical Questions called the Frame and the Relevance problem which is about determining what is and is not relevant in our cognitive processing or What do we Know when we Sense a Situation.

Relevance and Wisdom

Another result of my search into heuristics was a very impressive You Tube Playlist “John Vervaeke on Wisdom and the Meaning Crisis” that contains the link between Relevance and Wisdom being the result of Insight.

The egyptian goddess of Wisdom was called Maat . She represents the Concept of Harmony.

The Feather of Maat is a Measure that has a value of almost Nothing.

Ma’at aresponsible for Harmony and Thot, the Magician change the Ished Tree. This tree contains the Past and the Future. A Tree is a Symbol of the Path between the Point (Seed) of Creation and the Now.
The Heart is the Pump of the Up (Brain) and the Down Circulation of the Body.

Both parts are in Balance when their Sum is Zero.

The Ape represents the Human.
Two four-fold cycles connected at the Connection point (green) of both Cycles.

Left a comparable model where the parts (now called tatva’s) are called chakra’s (meaning “wheels“).

Every part of this model is able to turn into a new cycle until a new “emergent” level is reached.

Table of Content

Short description of the content of the Chapters:

Reason: This blog is the result of the Reserch i did for my blog about Heuristics.

During this research I found a Thesis that contained a lot of Interesting links.

Thermodynamics One of these links was a presentatation about Thermodynamics (the science of Heat) I was looking for that proved that the laws of physics are not “Eternal” laws but Context Dependent Observations. The same Vision as the American Pragmatists (Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey)  around 1840 had.

0. Introduction An old blog about bacteria brought me back on the path of Paths of Change but with the re-introduction of the Quaternio of Carl Jung.

A Video with Gerd Gigenrenzer and Nassim Taleb about Heuristics and Risk Taking.

In this blog I compare the human Cognitive Architecture with the Architecture of Organisms.

You will see that Bacteria are Controlled by an(1) Chemical Autocatalytic Cycle that contains a (2):Head that is used as a Sensor, 3):a Heart in the Middle that operates as a Memory and (4): a Tail that functions as a Motor.

In the Middle you can find the Heart, the Seat of the Soul.

Our chemical architecture is controlled by Hormones

What are Heuristics?

This blog started as a follow-up on my blog about Heuristics.

I found a thesis explaining Heuristics with the concept of Perceptual Symbol Systems being hierarchical Semantic Models linked into a Semantic Network, (SM) being a Meta SM.

The personal Semantic network not only contains Perceptual symbols but also Emotions, Patterns, and Intuitions, being Wisdom Gathered in many generations and transmitted by the epi-genes of the mother and the father.

Is mathematics a normal language?

In the thesis I also found the Frame -Problem and Relevance theory.

Both are a result of the big problem AI-systems have to look like humans being the same problem humans face when they want to do something Relevant.

The frame problem is the problem that we not really understand what is happening in a situation.

We are highly biased by What we know (including our Inate knowledge) and the Time our “brain” needs to come into Action.

This started an inquiry in the State of the Art of AI as a competitor of Heuristics.

I found that Relevance Theory(RT) looks like Interpersonal Theory (IT).

IT explains Mental Ilness and is a model of the Human Cognitive Architecture that is fully compatible with Paths of Change (PoC).

RT is also fully compatible with the theories of Mikhael Bahktin (MB).

Wisdom is the result of Reflection on Experience.

Chapter 1: Interpersonal Theory : Humans are Dialogical beings.

They comunicate internally and externally with many voices .

We not only communicate with sounds (words) but ook with movements (Eye), chemicals and EM-fields (“Bodyfield“). .

We are many personalities that react in a diffrent way and start an Internal dialogue.

Our personalities expect that the sender is providing meaning compressed in their Points of View.

People that have only one Point of View are disconnected because every View is Independent (Making an angle of 90 degrees) from all the others.

Normal communication takes two Complemenatary views into account.

Because of this RT, IP, MB,PoC are a Quaternion(Fourfold), a concept invented by Carl Jung who found the concept in ancient Mystics and ancient Egyptian, Indian and Chinese Theory including Alchemy.

Chapter 2: What is the Architecture of the Human Mind,

What is the link between AI and the Brain.

what is Innate and what is learned ?

Experiments show that the factor Nature is much bigger than Nurture.

It looks like a lot of what we know has been learned a very Long time ago by our ancestors.

What architecture do we share with the organisms?

Chapter 3: Relevance Theory:

What is important in a conversation? It has to have just enough information, with the right quality in the right manner,

We communicate much more than we think with our body and our Tone of Voice.

Our argumentation is primary used to Convice ourselves

Chapter 4: The Frame Problem

What do humans really know when they Observe a situation.

We see what we want to see.

What is Intelligence and therefore Artificial Intelligence?

Chapter 5: General Semantics and other AI Architectures.

: How to prevent that you are manipulated by language?

Alfred Korzibski deloped a theory called General Semantics that can be used to create an AI that is able to Adapt.

A description of many Other AI-Architectures shows that they are all based on Bounded Rationality.

This means that the AI expiriences the same Bias as a human and is therefore only applicable on a defined fixed Problem-domain.

Chapter 6: From Hierarchy to Network:,

Concepts are Simulators that part of a Hierchy of Semantic Networks that looks like a Network.

This is the most Important chapter.

What is this Hierarchy of hierarchies? It contains many levels called Scales.

On every scale a The same Pattern repeats itself.

What is the principle behind life itself?

The priciple of life is Self-Replication and EnergeticStability.

We Exist because there is Change.

About Autocatalytic and Autopoietic systems.

About Chemical-Intelligence.

What are Anticipatory Systems? , To be an anticipatory system it has to contain a model of the outside world.

Life is an expanding system in which all te possibilties of a very basic simple model are created until the basic model innovates itself.

This chapter is really the end of this blog because it shows that the basic model of life is Activation and Inhibition being a Duality. The duality is compatible with Movement being Distance divided by Time.

Rodney Cotterill was 20 years ago far ahead of his Colleaques.

The last part of this blog contains many highly abstract (Bounded?) subjects that show what’s wrong with current (bio-)Science.

Gategory Theory: Is it possible to define theories as Functions?

About the Gategory Theory of Networks.

A Petri-net was a Chemical Ttheory about Reaction-networks and was reused as a tool to define Software-programs and second order Differential Equations.

Is it possible to Map more “Knowledge fields”into other Knowledge-fields?

What are Meta-Meta-systems?

Is it possible to expand a Meta System in all Directions and not only Up?

Schema theory has a lot in common with Paths of Change but moves beyond a Point of View into higher dimensions and chaotic fields of Philosophy.

Schema theory is an alternative for Category Theory where different views are compared to find out where they are different.

Is a Meta Difference a real difference?

What are concepts and where do they come from.

Chapter 7. Meta-heuristics The Thesis of Seldon J. Show is about Reasoning about Heuristics.

Meta-heuristics.has become a new field of science,

It looks a lot like a Merger of Psychology with Operations Research (Mathematics).

Chapter 8. From Biophysics to Quantum Biology and Bio Mathematics

Erwin Schrödinger one of the Inventors of Quantum Mechanics (QM) wrote a book called What is Life.

QM can be applied at the very small level of the Cell. Ik can be shown that Photo-Sysynthesis in the Plant but also the detection of chemicals by the Nose can be explained with the same principle.

This part contains many interesting video’s and PDF’s.

Chapter 9. Conclusion: How to design a modern Expert System: AI is based on Neural Networks. It looks like Neural Networks are not needed for the funtioning of Brain. So what will be the next step?

This chapter has to be written.

It is impossible to See the Eye that Sees. Is it possible to analyse Intelligence with Intelligence? or we just What we are? Organisms are Selfreplicating Autocatalyc Chemical Processes (ACCP) that are part of higher level ACCP’s until their Sum is Zero.

1. Interpersonal Theory is an example of a Quaternio

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is ls_005.jpg
Two levels of Expansion and Compression linked to 7 essential Questions of an Individual in the Center.
Paths of Change (PoC) is a Scale Free (fractal) theory of Change developed by Will McWhinney. PoC is an example of what Carl Jung called a Quaternio (a Fourfold).

Every Combination of two Points of View generates a Question (6).

Every Dual combination of points-of-view is a Game

A Quaternio contains four concepts that all have a complementary relation.

So are the senses, looking outside connected with the imagination, looking inside connected by the process Invent or Explore.

You can also play with dualism (2), the distinction )1) Zero 0) or nothing (∅).

Relevance theory is devoped to explain the Evolution of the human Cognitive system and human intelligence. It is also used to create artificial intelligence.

Relevance theory has a lot in common with Interpersonal theory and the theories of Bahktin about the Utterance or the internal and external Dialogue we take part in.

Interpersonal theory assumes that humans expect meaningful information from other humans and from the humans that are inside. We are always in a dialogue.

It also assumes that a mental illness can be explained by a connection-problem. It is all about the Tension between Agency and Communion.
Interpersonal Circumplex. The interpersonal circumplex is defined by two orthogonal axes. In recent years, it has become conventional to identify the vertical and horizontal axes with the broad constructs of agency and communion.
Human interaction can be modelled with two orthogonal (90 degree angles)variables that were also called yin (communion) and yang Agency) or o en 1 or just yin and not yin. The four 90 degree angles support a 4 dimensional Universe of Discourse that contains rotating rotations being Spirals.
Humans learn when an Expectation is violated. This happens when an External or Internal Event takes place.

The event is evaluated by the Emotions and (when there is enough time (and interest and energy) Reflected upon by the Imagination and Abstracted (moved Up) into a Model (frame, scape)that is again Instructed and or Tested.

The Learning cycle moves with and against the Clock and also moves through the diagonal between Belief and and the Prove of Belief and Dependence and in-dependence.
This picture describes the model of Nico Frijda about the Emotions: the readiness (or unreadiness) to enter into contact or interaction with some object, and the mode of that contact or interaction. [ … ] Different motivational states or states of action readiness exist … Emotions are tendencies to establish, maintain, or disrupt a relationship with the environment.
Reflect: Finding a pattern in the many actions the senses detect.

2. Our Cognitive Architecture is shared with the Organisms

This part is about the architecture we share with all of the Organisms.

It is mainly based on earlier work of Rodney Cotterill and Will McWhinney, both diseased.

Peter Carruthers: Innate Human Cognition. What is the Architecture of the Mind?
Modular architecture of Peter Carruthers

The Self-Assembling Brain

“our genome contains the information required to create our brain. That information, however, is not a blueprint that describes the brain, but an algorithm that develops it with time and energy. In the biological brain, growth, organization, and learning happen in tandem. At each new stage of development, our brain gains new learning capabilities (common sense, logic, language, problem-solving, planning, math). And as we grow older, our capacity to learn changes”

Every Organism is a step in a very long term process we call evolution in which the outside-world is internalized and externalized in a new outside-world. The genome reproduces a body that is able to reproduce a body but also a system that is able to reproduce and adapt itself.

The Basic Architecture: We are Moving Memories

The picture shows the most simple structure of an organism being a Motor and a Receptor connected with a Short term Memory.

The bacterium is Exploring its environment by changing the rotation of its flagellum with and against the clock.

The short term memory is an autocatalytic, chemical reaction that determinates not only the Rythm of the rotation but also the Direction of the rotation of the rotor.

Rodney Cotterill’s neuro-physiological work supports the motor-environment-mind schema of complex feedback loops. The complex of feedback loops enables one to “Know what one knows.”:

The ability to know that one knows is referred to by psychologists as first-order embedding.

Higher embedding, such as that exemplified by knowing that one knows that one knows, merely depends on the ability to hold things in separate patches of neuronal activity in working memory.

This manifests itself in the creature’s intelligence, which also dictates its ability to consolidate existing schemata into new schema.” is a unique feature of mammalian brains.

Intelligence and reflection are explained as due to functioning of the web of feedback loops, both internal and external, that evolved in higher animals“.

3. Relevance Theory

The word Relevant comes from Latin relevare “to lessen, lighten, levis: light.

Relevance theory is a framework for understanding the interpretation of utterances.

It aims to explain the well recognised fact that communicators usually convey much more information with their  utterances and their Body than what is contained in their literal sense. 

Our Cognitive Architecture Supports Collaboration:

Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky used “cognitive biases,” to show that humans make irrational choices.

One of these biasses is called the conformation bias. Humans love to hear a confirmation of what they believe.

Lately a new “science” called Evolutionary Psychology” is trying to find out what “functions” helped the human to survive.

Historically, evolutionary pressure has resulted in cognitive systems that recognise potentially relevant stimuli and try to draw relevant conclusions.

Dan sperber and Hugo mercier argued that this type of bias, being a part of communication, is supporting collaboration.

To Attract the Attention the “uttering” has to be Relevant, making things easy, simple, light.

They also looked at the amount of Energy it takes to communicate.

Relevance theory started with the research of Robert Grice. The Gricean maximsQuantity (Just Enough), Quality (True), Relation (Relevant)), and Manner (the Right Way) describe the principles observed by people in pursuit of effective communication.

Argumentation Theory tries to show the evolutionary benifit of many cognitive biasses.

The Perceptual Symbol Systems are so rich in the type of connections that they generate free Associations that keep a group in the right direction making it possible to Nudge a group by giving them only one choice into the desired direction. This is comparable with a vector-field.

Conclusions Precede Arguments:

Argumentation theory and Rhetorics. We use arguments to convince others but also to convince ourselves.

We are able to use many different cognitive tools (modules) at the same time without knowing we do that.

We use generalizations and are not aware of the differences between the generalisations.

We love Dopamine and therefore love to act in situations were dopomine is produced (“gambling).

There are two systems active the Controlled (Dopamine) and the Control system (Observer).

Conclusions come first, arguments later.

We always pick the last we hear and find the arguments to justify our decision.

Falsification avoids bias.

We are social animals and our brain has to support cooperation.

We could benefit from deceiving but we have to keep our Status.

Gossip supports our status.

We have to Sell ourselves.

Conformation Bias helps to do that.

Humans are Curious Toolmakers .

Coding vs Decoding. Humans are Curious. We are tool makers improving our tools. the older the more knowledge and problems to retrieve out of memory. Attention is given to something that fits what we want know and is relevant. Time and Energy are always Limited.

Our Communication is mainly Implicit

Maximilisation of relevance.Balance between Energy and Cognitive-Contextual effects. Assesment is looking for relevance.

The difference between the foreground and the background of comunication or the difference between Explicit and Implicit, figurative language such as hyperbolemetaphor and irony.

4. The Frame Problem:

The frame problem is about What a “system” is able to see in a Situation and what changes what (“an Event“) and what is Changed and is Not Changed.

The frame problem was created when IT-technology moved into the area of Artificial Intelligence.

At that time every “problem” was solved by designing a new Language like LISP and PROLOG.

Logic (“rules“) put into a program was leading the way and logic was guided by Set-theory.

Although Chomsky’s Language theory was already there nobody realized that human Language is very diferent from a Progamming Language that is Context-indepentedent.

The Artifical Intelligence of the Computer does not understand what was out there and tried to catagorize the outside by also define the not-categories not realizing that they were not bounded (infinite).

Until now the AI-computer looks like a savant a highly specialized human that is in an expert in one area but incapable in the Infinite area’s outside its speciality.

It is not able to define what is relevant and does not see the difference between implicit and the explicit conversations. It is also not able to interpret the many illogical signs we send with our Body, Facial Expressions and Manner until Geroge Lakoff and his group of scientitst detected that we the human communication is embodied.

5. General Semantics and other AI-architectures

This chapter contains many AI-architectures even a model based on General Semantics at the end.

As you will see all the models are different from the model that is explaining heuristics in the Introduction.

The main reason is that the models are based on the theories of bounded rationality that existed before the time of Herbert Simon and Daniel Kahneman, both winners of the Nobel Prize in Economics , described in my blog about Heuristics.

According to Marcus Hutter Intelligence is Compression just as you can find in my blog about Heuristics. If you want to know more move directly to the Conclusion.

5.1 General Semantics

Alfred Korzibski was forced to fight in the first world war. He did not understand why humans act like cruel animals. After moving to the Us and marying he started to research human Communication and developed the theory of General Semantics.

General semantics is concerned with how events translate to perceptions, how they are further modified by the names and labels we apply to them, and how we might gain a measure of control over our own responses, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral.

General semantics had a lot of influence on cognitive-therapy including NLP.

The model of Korzybski looks a lot like the model of Interpersonal theory hat describes Mental Illness.
The model of Interpersonal based on the model of Paths of Change. Return to the Start of this blog.
General semantics explained by Korzibski himself.
Korzibski designed a model of Model of the Nervous-System

5.2 Artifical Intelligence Architectures:

When you press the link above you will find an impressive website about everything you want to know about AI-architectures. Below you find a few examples I have taken out of this website.

5.3 The LIDA Cognitive Cycle Architecture 

5.4 CYC : understanding common Sense:

CYC

5.5 AIXI Optimizing Reward:

AIXI is a AI-theory developed by Marcus Hutter. IXI is a reinforcement learning agent. It maximizes the expected total rewards received from the environment. Intuitively, it simultaneously considers every computable hypothesis (or environment). In each time step, it looks at every possible program and evaluates how many rewards that program generates depending on the next action taken.

5.6 CALO The Perfect PAL:

the DArpa CALO-project ( Cognitive Assistant that Learns and Organizes ).

5.7 ACT-R A new AI Program Language:

ACT-R is a cognitive architecture: a theory for simulating and understanding human cognition. Researchers working on ACT-R strive to understand how people organize.

5.8 AI Architecture based on General Semantics:

6. From Hierarchy to a Network of Hierarchies

6.1 Organisms are not Machines

In the Evolution of the the Organisms two things happened:

(1) the processes of life became auto-catalytic meaning that a chemical process became a repeating cycle (auto) that was sustained and became independent of other processes.

(2) the cycles got connected and created bigger cycles without breaking the katalytic mode until one of the cyclic cycles was able to look like an independent entity.

A cycle that reproduces itself is called an Autopoiesis, a Self-reproduction.

Below you can watch 4 video’s that give examples of autopoietic auto-catalytic systems and the big change in thinking they accomplished.

One of the major Scientists was Robert Rosen: See chapter 6.2.

He tried to explain Anticipatory Systems and found out that it is impossible to explain them with our current modelling language that supposes that Nature is a Machine made by a (Divine) Architect (Pthah) that got the Specifications from Ma,at (responsible for Balance, Harmony) and gave them to Khnum, the divine potter, to Make the animals (including the Humans) out of Clay.

Autopoietic Systems are Self-Reproducing.
Auto catalytic systems explain the Origin of life

We Exist because there is Change

A brilliant lecture of Mihai Nadin, the last living collaborator of Robert Rosen.

How do we account for change while being part of it? How do we account for anticipation as an expression of preparing and adapting to change?

There are Reactive and Anticipatory systems. The last category has to predict the Future.

To predict the future a system has to Contain the Future. we call an Expectation .

A good example of an anticipatory system is a Pregnant woman.

Humans learn from an Expectation Failure sometimes called a Mistake.

Collaborative Learning

Collaboration and learning are active in their own space (the physical context and the social context) and join in mental space (the internal state of a person).

The Evolution of Life

The origin of life lies deep in the Universe were stars like our Sun are created.

Life was ecreated in the labatory by simulating the situation of an early Earth. After that early life was also detected in Meteorites.

Later a lot of Suns where detected that look like our Sun so Life could be Abundant in the Universe.

The Pattern of Creation is repeating at every level of Scale.

Chemistry

Life is the result of Combining the combinations until infinity of Simple Molecules made out of Four basic molecules.
Again the many combinations of a Fourfold, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Carbon (+1,-2,-3,+4) determinate the Origins of life.

The interesting point is that the Sum of theValences of the Elements of the fourfold cycle = Zero.

Because the four elements are Rotating structures the Chemistry of the Beginning of Life on Earth fits perfectly with the theory of Peter Rowlands about the Nilpotent Universe (See below).

The chemical elements are ordered by the Periodic Table of of  Dmitri Mendeleev . The document below describes how the elements facitated the birth of Life.

Prochlorococcus is thought to be the most abundant photosynthetic organism on Earth

The sea contains a Huge and very Divers amount of Small Foto-Synthetic cells. Inside the cell they look like Plants.

Video’s of an Impressive playlist.about the Origin of Life

Life was started at places where a boundary could be created.
The first step in the Evolition of Life is the creation of the multi-cellular organisms that were combinations of single cells.

This and the scond video are about choanoflagellates being a long flagellum (mover) connected to a Cell.

The cells Unite and disunite at will.
Cells”eat” bacteria but also work together(symbiosis) with bacteria to form clusters (Rosseta).

The geometry of the clusters is determinated by the type of bacteria in the symbioses.
How cells communicate.

Introduction: Anticipatory Systems

6.2 Robert Rosen: Anticipatory Sytems

Robert Rosen made a distinction between Simple and Complex Systems.

In Complex Systems the Whole is more than the Sum of its Parts meaning that there are many Relations between the Parts that are not only Causal but have another Meaning.

In Simple systems the nodes are Nouns and the links are Verbs creating a Narrative that explains its Behavior.

Simple systems are Mechanical systems.

They can be explained by the Four Causes of Aristototle that always begin with asking How (Processs, Verb) an Agent (in general a Human Craftsman (Agent, I, he, ) has assembled Material parts (Noun) ending with the Why being its Purpose.

Living System have no purpose because they are not made by an mechanical process controlled by a craftsman although many people believe this happened when the autocatalytic proces took place.

Systems that can anticipate, con­tain internal predictive models of themselves and/or their environments,

They are part of the class of Third Order Cybernetic Models.

Robert Rosen, Natural systems are explained by mapping them on a Machine-Model mapping (Encoding, Decoding) them on a Formal Model where the Causal relation turns into an Inference.
Pattern formation in Nature.Te model contains two processes called aan Activator and and an Inhibitor.
Gierer-Meinhardt-model is one of the important types of pattern formation and morphogenesis observed in development.

A citation of chapter 1 shows that the same pattern of Acitivation and Inhibition is happening in the body : ” The peripheral reflexes can act independently of the brain, but they can also be coordinated and sequenced by it. The main point to be grasped here is that the brain’s primary purpose lies in the need for inhibiting peripheral reflexes, when particularly sophisticated sequences of muscular movements have to be executed“.

6.3 Dynamic Networks

Dynamic Modularity. ?How Life expanded from a Bacterium to a Human. This a part of an impressive series of video’s.
The Evolution of the Organism can be seen as an expanding structure in time that is controlled by a Linear Bodyplan that starts with the “Head” and ends with the “Tail” in which the genes act as Switches that start a deeper level of expansion.
Brain of a Fruitfly is divided in functional area’s.

6.4 The Human Brain is an Adaptive Dymamic Network:

More about the development of the brain push here.

Mapping

Mapping looks a lot like Category Theory and Schema-theory.

The idea is to map a problem-space to a domain where the problem is already solved, solve the problem and map the Solution back.

To do that the function has to be Isomorphic meaning that structure is preserved in two ways.

Below an Example.

The first picture is the result of making use of a mapping from the Rational Model of Alan Fiske using the function of Paths of Change (see the colors) to the Scales in Measurement Theory.

The four Geometries of Paths of Change
A MApping from Alan Fiske’s theory of Human Relations to Geometry and Panarchy (Ecology) and Anti-fragility.connected by Paths of Change.
The Relational models of Alan Fiske (see below) mapped to the scales of Measurement. It looks like we “measure” our relationship with four possibel scales.
The model of Alan Fiske mapped to Path of Change (PoC)
The Four Scales (with the color of PoC)explained.

6.5 Category Theory: Systems are Functions, Metaphors are Functions:

How to combine category theory and network theory.

6.6 Kent Palmer: Meta-Systems

I found Kent Palmer a long tine ago.

He is exploring the Many Meta-Levels above Reality like Will McWhinney was exploring the 2×2-level (the Quaternio).

I have also played with the Higher than Quaternio levels and tried to keep the Four “types” based on the Duality (Agency, Communion) in tact.

A Generator of a cycling cycle related to the Chinese Sheng Cycle being a (Magic) Square with the Xenter or the Whole (White) in the middle (cross) connected to the other 4 points.

As you can see the Pentragram is a Fractal model. The Points of View point into many Orthogonal “Independent“) Directions where Up (Yellow) is Abstracting and Green is Implementing and Red and Blue are SpaceTime.

The types relate with the four JungianOrgans” of the human being Mind (blue, Thinking), Sensory-Motor (Red, Action-Sensing), Social (Green, Emotions, Feeling), Imagination (Yellow, Intuitive).

When we look at the Bacterium the Sensor and the Motor (Flagellum) are put into a Container (Cell, Boundary) and are related with a Chemical AutoCatalytic Process that is a Memory that operates in a Context that contains “active” chemicals (with an E/M-valence) and other Organisms (F.i. viruses).

The bacterium according to Rodney Cotterill.

The difference with the Four types of Carl Jung is the whole (1, Boundary) put into the Pentagram, the Five (3+2).

This problem was alreaday “solved” in Chinese Philosophy where the five was the symbol of the whole also called the Quintessence. the essential part of Matter we call Energy and also called Aether.

The Sheng Cycle is the result of connecting a 3×3 Magic Square called the Lo Shu.

Chinese (fractal) Sheng Cycle constructed with the PoC-model where White is the Whole (Boundary, Protect).

Kent became incomprehensible when he left the first the Meta-level trying to find alternatives for the Duality “abstraction or implementation”.

Below a website that explores all the 2**N-levels .

About meta-systems

6.8 What are Concepts?

I found a a thesis called Peirce, Vygotsky and Concept Formation by Chris Barnham. I is also about the Semiotics and Pragmatism of Peirce. Watch out. This is complicated stuff just as the theory of Kent Palmer.

7. Meta-Heuristics

8. From Biophysics to Quantum-Biology and Bio Mathematics

9. Conclusion

This blog started with additional research on Heuristics that resulted in research about the History of the human Cognitive architecture that brought me back to Rodney Cotteril a friend of my mentor Will McWhinney who rediscovered the Paths of Change of Carl Jung he called a Quaternio based on the Quaternions invented by William Rowan Hamilton in 1841 and used by Maxwell to define his theory of Electro Magnetism.

Later I found the Quaternions of Peter Rowlands that unites Physics and is based on “recent” mathematics he called Biomathematics for the reason that it also explains Biology and the Human.

Charge
Quaternions Multivariate Vectors
The Quaternio of Peter Rowlands is based on Octonions being an abstraction of the Quaternions that are an abstraction of the Complex numbers rhat are Rotations of Real Numbers.

Peter proved that our Universe is a Turing Machine based on a special language that is constantly Rewritten by a nilpotent condition meaning its Sum is Zero.

The last weeks I have explored Type Theory as a foundation of Computer languages and Cohomogy theory, a foundation of the fusion of Topology and Algebra.

Again everything got together even in my dreams where I discovered CoQ without knowing it existed.

An Eye cannot See itself. About the theory of Logical Types of Bertrand Russell applied by George Bateson to Play and Learning.

The infinite levels of Learning explained by Will McWhinney, A Chapter of his never published book.