About Software Maintenance

You can develop software at the level of the software-language itself (coding) or at the tool-level (generating). When you use a tool the complexity of the software-development-process is reduced but the complexity of the coding increases.

When you use a tool the software-language is generated but the coding of the generator is not readable. You need the tool to understand what the software is doing. If you use a tool you have to change the software on the tool-level. If you adapt the generated coding the tool is not usable anymore.

The big problem arises when a software-vendor abandons his tools. This happens often. Software-vendors go broke, are sold and merge or they simply don’t want to maintain the software of the tools.

When a software-vendor has stopped to maintain his tools he also stops to adapt his tools to the underlying hardware, the target-environment of the tools. The target-environment changes because hardware-vendors improve their software, go broke, are sold and merge or simply stop the maintenance of their hardware.

It is very easy to develop new software with a new software-tool. The software-development process becomes very complicated when you want to connect the new software to the old software and the old software is generated by obsolete tool-sets generating obsolete coding that is used by obsolete hardware.

In practice every new software-language, every software-tool and every piece of hardware becomes obsolete. This means that you always have to maintain a huge incomprehensible set of software-components.

Many companies wait until the last moment to replace an obsolete software-environment. At that moment the skills to adapt the software-environment are gone and the only thing that is left for them is to cope with the current situation.

What has happened?

The software-industry is still in its infancy. About fifty years ago the industry was born and it took a very long time to understand what was right and wrong. During that time many companies became highly dependent on immature software.

Why do 70% of the IT-projects fail?

The main approach is to define a new system “out of the blue”. When the project has to face the reality of the installed base things go terribly wrong.

How do you Face Reality?

You are able to face reality when you have made an inventory of all the software components, their relationships (the syntax) and the semantics, the meaning, of the components and their relationships. This sounds simple but it is a very complicated and expensive activity to describe the so called “installed base”. When you have never spent enough time to create a reliable inventory you have to do a lot of work. Most companies postpone this activity until eternity.

They know “everything” about their personnel, their assets and their financial situation but they are “in the blind” about the software that is keeping the books about their personnel, assets and finance. If they don’t know what the software-systems are doing how do they know that their databases are reliable? The answer is simple. They don’t.

What is Software?

A Tool, Software, generates Software but Software generates another type of Software called Machine-code. Software generates Software until the software has reached the lowest layer, bits and bytes. At a certain level the generated software is not understandable.

When the lowest level is reached the bits and bytes activate a processor that is controlled by a clock (the CPU). The processor moves the bits and bytes and sends the end-result (other bits and bytes) to the Outside. At the outside the bits and bytes are transformed into human readable symbols that are presented on a user-interface (Screen, Paper).

Why is Software Changed?

Software has to Change because something Happens in the Outside World, an Event. The Event is propagated until the lowest level, bits and bytes.

So Software (N) = Software (N-1) + Event (N-1) and Software (N, Level (L)) = Software (N-1, Level (L-1)) + Event (N-1, Level (L-1)).

If You write out both sequences the end result is a long sequence of Events.

Software = Event (1) + Event (2) + Event (3) + ………………

Problems arise if you let every Event happen at the moment it happens. If a software vendor creates a new version of its software there is no need to implement this version immediately. Sometimes it is much better to wait until the new release is stable. To prevent chaos you have to Manage the Events that are entering your Software-environment (Change & Release-management).

What is an Event?

An Event is Happening when Something is Set into Motion by Pressure (Tension). Most of the time an Event is associated with a Very Short Duration, an Explosion, but An Event can take much longer. A Movie is an Event. The Great Pyramid in Egypt is an Event.

An Event changes its Intensity all the time. A Concert has a Start and an Apotheosis. An Event is a Wave or a Vibration and every Event has its Unique Pattern.

An Event extends and compresses in Space/Time (A Hurricane). An Event is Born, Expands, Compresses, Dies and Disappears. It follows a Life-Cycle.

Software = Wave (1) + Wave (2) + Wave (3) +

If Events are Born, Mature and Die You can wait until the Event has reached the stage of Maturity. Many Events in the Software World never reach maturity. They die before they have reached this stage.

What is the next stage in the Software Wave?

To predict the Software-Cycle we have to define the Level and the Periodicity of the Wave You want to explore. Every Wave moves through five stages. At a certain point the wave moves to another level (Up or Down) and starts to cycle again.

The simplest way to describe the stages is to use the Four Seasons (Winter, Spring, Summer and Fall) in combination with a Fifth Stage called Indian Summer. This is the stage of the Whole or the Centre. It lies between Summer and Fall.

At this moment the Software Wave is in the Stage of the Centre and is preparing to Jump to another Level. In the Fifth stage the Centre, The Infrastructure, The Foundation, itself is on the Move.

What is the new Centre?

It is very clear that we are moving to a world-wide-software infrastructure. The Foundation of the Infrastructure is the Internet.

What to do?

When a new infrastructure is created the old infrastructure will become obsolete. If the old infrastructure becomes obsolete every layer on top of the infrastructure will become obsolete. This means that the best thing you can do at this moment is “wait and see”. Try to maintain the current situation as much as possible and prepare for the next step.

LINKS

About the Foundation of IT

About the Cycle of the Seasons

About Software and the Cycle of the Seasons

Why An Event is Not a Collision

 

If you search the Internet with the phrase “What is an Event” nobody is able to give an answer. Most of the time an Event is simply “Something that Happens“. If we look at the Dutch Language an Event is called a “Gebeurtenis“. The Dutch verb “beuren” means “to bear“. In Dutch an Event is a Bearing.

Bear: O.E. beran “bear, bring, wear” (class IV strong verb; past tense bær, pp. boren), from P.Gmc. *beranan (cf. O.H.G. beran, O.N. bera, Goth. bairan “to carry”), from PIE root *bher- meaning both “give birth” (though only Eng. and Ger. strongly retain this sense, and Rus. has beremennaya “pregnant”) and “carry a burden, bring”. Many senses are from notion of “move onward by pressure.” O.E. past tense bær became M.E. bare; alternative bore began to appear c.1400, but bare remained the literary form till after 1600. Past participle distinction of borne for “carried” and born for “given birth” is 1775. Ball bearings “bear” the friction; bearing “way of carrying oneself” is in M.E.

Strangely enough an Event is related to the Birth of Something. An Event is Happening when Something is Set into Motion by Pressure (Tension). An Event is an Act of Creation.

Most of the time an Event is associated with a Very Short Duration, an Explosion. An Event can take much longer. An Event can take one second or thousands of years. A Movie is an Event. The Great Pyramid is an Event. The Earth is an Event. You are an Event.

An Event changes its Intensity all the time. A Concert has a Start and an Apotheosis. The Great Pyramid was almost forgotten but at this moment many books are written about the mysterious background. An Event is a Wave or a Vibration and every Event has its Unique Pattern.

An Event has a Bearing (the direction or path along which something moves or along which it lies), it moves into a certain direction. An Event extends and compresses in Space/Time (A Hurricane). An Event is Born, Expands, Compresses, Dies and Dissepears. It follows a Life-Cycle.

If an Event is a Vibration it can be described by a combination of Harmonics and Sub-Harmonics. Dependent on the type of Vibration an Event “dies out” (Damping, converges to a limit) or never stops.

When Events are Vibrations or Waves they are able to Add Up. When an Event is “combined with” another Event a new Event is created. This is called Cause and Effect in the World of Particles.

The world of Particles was created by the Greek Philosopher Aristotle. He denied the existence of the Dynamic by stating ‘There cannot be motion of motion or becoming of becoming or in general change of change’. The Greek based their view on the world on Logic and Euclidean geometry. They considered the word As IT IS.

When you look at the Event of the”man who has just been run over” by a car, The Greek View is of two Colliding Parts. In this view somebody is Responsible for the Accident. When you look at the Event from the perspective of the Wave the Accident is an Addition of Two Waves that are producing a Peak of High Intensity. There is no one to blame. The accident “Just Happened”. It was an Act of the Force of Creativity, The Elan Vital of Bergson.

Let’s have a look at the Design of Information Systems.

A long time ago the Designers of the Computer left the path of the Analogue Computer. An Analogue Computer is based on Waves. A Digital Computer is unable to represent Real numbers and Irrational numbers (π). It is also unable to represent many rational numbers (1/3). Many “real” problems are happening in Real and Irrational Space.

Digital Computers are representing the Dynamic World in a Static Way. A Program and a Database are a Static Representations of Reality. The Static changes into the Dynamic because of the Regular Pulses of the Clock of the CPU (Central Processing Unit).

NIAM is still by far the most “advanced” way to define an Information System. It is hardly used because many designers don’t have the ability or have lost the ability to Listen to and to Analyze Sentences that are Spoken by the User of the System. The result of not-using NIAM is a highly chaotic internal structure of the Information System. The System is not representing Reality at all.

NIAM uses the concept of the Elementary Fact (an Elementary Event), A Man is-run-over-by A Car. An Elementary Fact is a connection between two Nouns (Man, Car) and a Verb (Run-Over-By). Mostly the Verb is forgotten. The Static is still Dominating the Dynamic. The Car (A Movement) and the Man (A Movement) are dominating The Accident, The Run-Over-By. Strangely Enough the Memory of the Car and the Man fade away much faster than the Memory of the Accident. A War is remembered. The Soldiers are forgotten.

I am afraid we have to wait a little while until the Very Strong Wave of the Particle has finally died out.

LINKS

“What is an Event”, About Whitehead and Deleuze by Steven Shaviro

Bergson, Mathematics, and Creativity by Pete A. Y. Gunter

About Events by Jerymy Dunham

About NIAM

 

How the Proof of the Pudding is Really in the Eating

When you want to know the truth you are looking for facts. This seems very evident but Philosophy and especially the field of Epistemology has spend a lot of time to find out if this Statement about Truth is really True.

The first step is to look up the definition of the word “fact“. We use Wordnet to do this. WordNet is a semantic lexicon for the English Language. The database contains about 150,000 words.

Fact: A piece of information about circumstances that exist or events that have occurred.
Fact: A statement or assertion of verified information about something that is the case or has happened.
Fact: An event known to have happened or something known to have existed.
Fact: A concept whose truth can be proved.

The meaning of words changes in history. If you want to know how the meaning is changed you have to look up the Etymology of the word.

Fact: 1539, “action” especially “evil deed,” from L. factum “event, occurrence,” lit. “thing done,” from neut. pp. of facere “to do”. Usual modern sense of “thing known to be true” appeared 1632, from notion of “something that has actually occurred.”

When we combine the result of both dictionaries we see that the original meaning of the word “Fact” is-related to the word “Event”. Later around 1632 it changed into a concept “whose truth can be proved”.

To find more about the meaning of the word Event we can look for all the occurrences of this word in the sentences of English language. One of the scientists who spend a lot of time researching the meaning of the word “Event” is George Lakoff. He defined The Event Structure Metaphor.

A Metaphor Is-A Mapping. A Mapping Is-A Relation between two Domains, the Source and the Target.

The Event Structure Metaphor is one of the most widespread of all the conceptual metaphors in the world. It maps from the source domain of Space to the target domain of Events, and leads to the following concepts:

A State Is-A Location (a bounded region in space).
A Change Is-A Movement (into or out of bounded region).
A Cause Is-A Force.
An Action Is-A Self-Propelled Movement.
A Purpose Is-A Destination.
A Mean Is-A Path to destinations.
A Difficulty Is-A Blockage.
Expected Progress Is-A Travel Schedule.
A Schedule Is-A Virtual Traveler, who reaches pre-arranged destinations at pre-arranged times.
An External Event Is-A Large Moving Object.
A Long-term, purposeful activity Is-A Journey
.

An Event Is-A Blockage that prevents us to Move from One Destination to an other Destination in the Journey called Life. To Move from one Destination to an other Destination we are Propelling our Self. Sometimes we are propelled By something else, An External Event. If this Happens it feels like we are hit by a Large Moving Object.

When we are Hit by an External Event “things get out of hand” or “we are not able to keep a tight rein on the situation” or “we are not going with the flow” or “things take a turn for the worse“.

A Fact is an Event that Causes the Emotion of Frustration (Anger, Irritation, Sadness, Worry,..). An Event Forces us to Move Away from our Original Route, the Path that leads us to the Destination that we wanted to Reach in Life. We have to take a Detour.

What happened around 1632?

Around 1632 Francis Bacon advocated a new method for achieving knowledge, based on careful observation and eliminative induction. Bacon warned that effective reasoning must be freed from the “idolatrous” influence of human nature (Emotions & Imagination).

Francis Bacon started The Age of Enlightenment. The Enlightenment advocated reason as a means to establishing an authoritative philosophical system which would allow human beings to obtain objective truth about the whole of reality. Much later Emmual Kant dedicated his Critique of Pure Reason to Francis Bacon.

What happened?

Facts were moved from the Emotions (Judgement, Opinion) to the Level of the Mind (Truth). With the help of Logic it would be possible to Prove Everything.

According to Aristotle there are four types of truth: universal affirmatives take the form: All S are P, universal negations take the form: No S are P, particular affirmatives take the form: Some S are P, particular negations take the form: Some S are not P. Later so called contingent truths were added. They are dependent on the situation/context.

The Quest for the Eternal Logical Truth is still going on. Many very bright minds have tried to find a solution but the terrible thing is that the Truth of a logical proposition is entirely dependent on the Truth of the Facts that are put into the Proposition. We are again in a State of Infinite Regress.

One of these bright minds was Frank Plumpton Ramsey (1903-1930). Ramsey lived and worked in Cambridge and was befriended with Bertrand Russell, G. E. Moore, J. M. Keynes and Ludwig Wittgenstein. Ramsey created a theory called Pragmatism.

In his paper ‘Truth and Probability’, written in 1926, Ramsey shows that if people in their behaviour obey a set of axioms or rules, the measure of our ‘degrees of belief’ will satisfy the laws of probability. The Truth is highly related to Judgment and “if we have analysed judgment we have solved the problem of truth“.

“..it is, for instance, possible to say that a chicken believes a certain sort of caterpillar to be poisonous, and mean by that merely that it abstains from eating such caterpillars on account of unpleasant experiences connected with them. … An exact analysis of this relation would be very difficult, but it might well be held that in regard to this kind of belief the pragmatist view was correct, i.e. that the relation between the chicken’s behaviour and the objective factors was that the actions were such as to be useful if, and only if, the caterpillars were actually poisonous. Thus any set of actions for whose utility p is a necessary and sufficient condition might be called a belief that p, and so would be true if p, i.e., if they are useful“.

What Ramsey is telling is that “the proof of the pudding is in the eating“.

What happened?

We are finally back to square one! After about 400 years of Enlightment we have to admit that the only way to find the Truth is to find out if what we Think is true is really True. We don’t have to use very complicated reasoning to prove what we are already experiencing in the Real World.

LINKS

About the Age of Reason

About Pragmatism and Ramsay

About Truth

About Ontology

magic chaldrounMetaphysics is a theory of being in itself, of the essence of things, of the fundamental principles of existence and reality.

A major part of Metaphysics is concerned with the Static Part of the Reality, Being (Ontos, Ontology). The main issues of Metaphysics can be simply derived by playing with the verb to-be.

Behind Ontology (Being) is the verb to Be. The noun Being is-a-State-of to Be. When we take the first-derative, the difference of Being, Being becomes Becoming.

When you apply Causal Reasoning you have to find out Who is the Cause of the change of Being to Becoming. You also have to find out how a Static System changes into a Dynamic System.

A solution is to Imagine an Ultimate Being (The Absolute) who changed his Being into Becoming. This Absolute Being is the One. The change from the Static to the Dynamic is called Creation.

There are two possibilities. The Creator is Outside the Becoming or the Being is part of the Becoming. In the first case we are talking about an Ultimate Being, God, the Void, who is the creator of the Dynamic System.  In the second case God IS the Dynamic System. Let’s call this Being “All That Is“.

The Difference between God and “All That Is” is the way the Act of Creation takes place. The Act of Creation of God is an Explosion, a Unique Act. The Act of Creation of “All That is” is an enfolding. Creation as an Enfolding moves slowly. Every new Expressions of the Unfolding show itself at the Right Time and the Right Moment.

The distinction between Being and Becoming has resulted in a major Fight on every Scientific Battleground we can imagine.

Let’s have a short look at Information Technology.

Data-oriented methodologies emphasize the representation of the Static relationships between the parts of the whole, the Data or the Database. On the other hand, process-oriented methodologies emphasize the actions Performed By a software artifact, a Program.

When we dig a little deeper into this subject we see that A Program (something written in a Programming Language) is a Static (Stored) Representation of a Process. When the Computer Executes a Program it Becomes a Process.

So the Dynamic is Stored in the Static and the Static becomes Dynamic because something called a Computer (An Actor, the Operating System) activates the Static. Interesting Enough the Computer is also a Program that is stored in itself. The basic part of the Computer is the Clock. The Clock generates a Rhythm.

So the Static is really a Dynamic and the Essence (The Metaphysics) of the Computer is a Clock, A Rhythm.

The Dynamic Structure of the Computer is an Enfolding of the Basic Structure of the Computer Itself which is Stored in Itself, which is a Rhythm. During the Rhythm the Computer moves through a Cycle.

I don’t want to dig deeper but I hope you see that the Computer Metaphor is a representation of the idea of “All What Is”.

The interesting point is that in the Reality of the Computer Metaphor there are Many Beings (Monads).

If we dig a little deeper we see that the Many Beings Communicate (by the Internet Protocol). They Unite on a deeper Level and transform into a Network. The Network is What it Is.

To a Human Observer the Network makes no Sense. We are unable to understand the essence (The Metaphysics) of the Network. We understand our Part but don’t see the Whole.

The Whole, the One, is beyond our Understanding. It is Unknowable (“neti neti“, “not this, not that“).

Language is a Static Representation of the Dynamics of Speech. A Human executes Language to perform the Process of Speech but Speech is not captured by Language. Human Speech is constantly adapting to Practice and Language is adapting to Practice. New (Computer) Languages are created all the time.

A Computer Language is a sub-set of Human Languages called Logic. Logic is a sub-set of Human Speech called Reasoning but Reasoning is not able to Understand the Whole.

Theory is a Static Representation of the Dynamics of Practice. A Human executes a Theory to perform the Process of Practicing. But Practice is not able to Understand the Whole so When a Practice fails we create a new Theory. Theory is adapted Practice and Practice is applied Theory. Being is adapted Becoming.

Being changes in Time because we are Experiencing (Being (t) = Being (t-1) + Experience). Experience is the Difference of Being is Becoming. The Becoming who is The One is generating Experience.

God is the Experience of God.

roseAs You see it is possible to create many concepts and theories of Metaphysics just by Playing with the Verb To Be.

There is one more Language Game to Play. If we Play this Game we are entering the World of Deleuze.

Deleuze was fascinated by the Mathematician and Philosopher Leibniz. Leibniz invented a new Mathematical Game called Differentials. When you calculate a differential you calculate the way a function is changing in time.

Leibniz found a way to move from being to becoming and his formula is very easy. Becoming = Lim (t -> 0) (Being (t+1)-Being (t)). Find the smallest distance between two moments of Being. The smallest distance between two Beings is an Event.

The basis Structure of our Reality is not a Substance (The Static) but something that Moves Us (Emotion). The basic Structure of our Universe are Moments, Nows.

We are Points of View that are Experiencing a Beautifull Fluent Crystal, a HyperDiamond. Every Point of the Multi Dimensional Diamond is an Event.

 We are trying to explain the Beauty of this Crystal to the other Points of View but we are unable to do this because we are only able to see a very small part and we are looking from our own angle.

 We will never See the Whole until we are able to become a Circular Point of View, A Communion.

LINKS

A Website about Ontology

About Events, Time, Being and Becoming in Physics

About Leibniz and Differentials

The Relationship between Events and Free Will

Deleuze and Events

Why the Universe is a Configuration of Nows

 About Spinoza, The Philosopher of the Emotion

About the Relationship between Events and Creativity, the Ontology of Deleuze

 

 

Why Traveling Time is Really no Problem at All

Human perception is perhaps an illusion. If we understand how the illusion is created we are able to understand what is behind the veil of our senses. When people are is this state the quality of the “calculated” present lowers.

It becomes more vague. This effect “proves” that we are part of a Holographic System. In a Holograpic System the parts contain data about the Whole but when a “part of the parts” is united the quality of the “picture” goes down.

The senses are sampling data at a certain rate. The samples are combined in a “picture” of reality”. In the next step the pictures (Gestalts) are combined into a flow. The senses can be compared with a movie-camera and the brain produces the movie.

Memory is the most important reason why we don’t see what really ”is”. We are extremely biased by our experience of the past. The Gestalts trigger “old movies” that are stored in the long term memory. These old movies are integrated into the projection on our internal screen.

Our Memory is also the main reason why time is slowing down when we get older. When we are not flexible (a rigid or dominant memory) the amount of new experiences slows down and our experience of time changes accordingly.

The basic building block of experience is called the specious time. Its duration is about 1 second (about three notes of music).

The frequency of sampling can be changed. If this happens it looks like “time slows down”. Slowing down time happens when people are in a very distressful situation (an accident) or in a meditative state.

The clock that is managing the sampling process (the Zeitgeber) is synchronized with our external clock, the Sun. The Sun controls the so called Circadian Rhythm in our body.

Not only the senses are managed by a dedicated clock, The Circadian master is the conductor of a huge number of peripheral clocks, including those found in heart, liver, lung, and retina cells (Eyes).

When the circadian rhythm is destroyed organisms display many physiological problems, including infertility, high cholesterol, and conditions that resemble diabetes, obesity, and metabolic disorders.

The location of the master clock can be found in a network of neurons in the hypothalamus called the superchiasmatic nuclei, or SCN. When the connection with SCN is broken the other clocks don’t lose their rhythms. They lose synchrony and start to work alone.

The Zeitgeber of the specious moment are called thalamocortical oscillations. They connect the thalamus (The Clock) with the Cerebral Cortex (The Sensory Motor System). The oscillations are produced by neurons that fire at a rate of about 40Hz. This frequency is called the Gamma Wave. This wave is associated with higher mental activity.

With every tick of the clock a sample is taken but it takes time to “calculate” the result. Images take more time to be “calcaluted: than sound and touch. This is the reason why the time-interval of a Gestalt (a combination of sound, image, …) is much longer than 1 sec.

If something happens that is faster than 1 second (a single note) it has an effect in more than one Gestalt. The very fast “happenings” outside are taken more than once in the calculation.

The existence of the specious moment has created many philosophical problems related to time and consciousness.

The first and most important point is the question of consciousness.

If time consists of independent moments (EVENTS) why do we experience continuity, a flow of time?

The sad answer is that continuity is an illusion. There are only “nows” and a feeling of the past time is a present feeling. The past is a correlation, a similarity of moments. The “feeling” of continuity could be created because the specious moments overlap. The clock ticks but the results of the “calculation” take longer than the time-interval of the clock.

Why is time moving to the future?

Again only a sad answer is available. We are not moving! The movement of time is a construction of our cerebral cortex.

So traveling time is really no problem. The only thing that will be a problem is to detect if we are time-traveling because we are doing it all the time!

The last and probably the most important question is what is there behind the veil of our senses.

I think the answer is : Immense Beauty or the Hyper-Diamond-Feynman-Checkerboard or the Holographic Universe or framed into Group Theory: The Monster.

LINKS

Everything you want to know about thalamocortical oscillations

About Circadian Rythms

Why all Organisms are Moving Memories

Rodney Cotterill explains a lot about the structure of very simple bacteria. What he shows is that even bacteria have Emotions.

To agree with this we have to agree on a definition of the Emotions. Agreeing about “What an Emotion is” is one of the most complex discussions in Psychology. The discussion is so complex that there is really no discussion possible.

The simplest way to solve this discussion is to start with the meaning of the word Emotion. Emotion simply means “Movement“.

So an Emotion could be described as “Something that moves us” or “Something that shows to other People that we are Moved“.

We are moved by an Event, Something that Happens. Something that “Makes a Difference“.

An Event is a Change in our Environment or Context. This Context could be our Internal Environment (our Body, Pain) or our External Environment.

When you are a bacterium you are moving in an environment that contains Food. You need Food to produce Energy. The environment is not homogeneous. The concentration of food is different in the Space the bacterium is exploring. It even contains deadly food, Poison.

A bacterium like Escherichia coli  procures information by probing its surroundings, through the propulsion provided by its flagellum. In effect, this creature integrates incoming chemical signals during a few-second period of its travels, and adjusts its direction of advance accordingly. The integration is achieved through temporary chemical modifications to molecules located in the bounding membrane, which transfer nutrients to the cytoplasm, and also through changes to certain other molecules in the interior of the cell. Such integration is essentially a short-term memory mechanism”.

The bacterium is probing his environment. When he finds “food” he acquires “energy” and his mover, the flagellum, reacts. The process of intake and movement is a cycle.

The Cycle takes time (a few seconds, a delay, a Rhythm) and acts as “a short term memory“.  Memory is not stored in the body of the bacterium. The Memory of the bacterium is his Cycle.

When the bacterium finds Food he circles around. He is attracted to the Center. When he finds Poison, he moves away. When he moves away his flagellum rotates anticlockwise.  When he is attracted his flagellum moves with the clock. The bacterium shows spiraling behaviour.

The Bacterium LOVES Food and he HATES Poison. In between he is EXITED (Chaotic). He starts to Probe, to Explore, his Environment to find Food (Love) again.

The Emotional State of the Bacterium is a 100% correlated to the State of the Bacterium itself.

The Bacterium Is His Emotions.

When the Bacterium could be AWARE of all his INTERNAL states he would need many words to explain his emotions to us.

When we could show the bacteria that his states are “just” related to a few EXTERNAL states that are related to “the amount of Food in his environment” he could reduce THE AMOUNT OF WORDS to DESCRIBE his emotions to a few.

Cotterill shows that in time many new features (mostly Sensors) are added to the Organisms that followed the Bacterium in the process of Evolution but the basic structure of the bacterium stays in place.

I cite:

The ultimate evolutionary product was the brain itself, though there is not universal agreement as to why this structure actually developed. One obvious view is that it served to gather the sensory organs and their interneurons into a single unit, an alternative idea being that its precursor emerged at a primitive stage, as a device for coordinating the two sides of the body“.

The peripheral reflexes can act independently of the brain, but they can also be coordinated and sequenced by it. The main point to be grasped here is that the brain’s primary purpose lies in the need for inhibiting peripheral reflexes, when particularly sophisticated sequences of muscular movements have to be executed“.

The Brain is not Thinking. It is inhibiting Thinking.

We think independent of the Brain.

The Brain is INHIBITING our thinking when we want to override the Action Patterns that are stored in our Bodily Cycle.

We want to override our Experience when something happens and the Event is not related to our Goals.

Goals are related to Expectations and Expectations are something we, Mammals, are able to “calculate“.

We, the Mammals,  are able to create an Image of the Future. By the process of Abstraction we are able to generate “schema” or “actions patterns” that are imaginary.

When our Goals are violated we are just like the primivitive organisms able to permit the current movement, switch to  another, or stop altogether.

Just like them we have a choice but our choices are not only applicable to the real world.  We are able to switch between the real world and other worlds. The underlying system is comparable it just works on another level.

We, the organisms, are Moving Memories that ARE our Emotions. We are all looking for Love (Energy) and when we are without Love we start to Probe to find it again.

LINKS

Why an Event is not a Collision

About Deleuze and Events

About Deleuze and Ecology