About Loci

Method of loci

To use the method of loci bring to mind a familiar building, such as your house. Take a moment to conduct a mental walk through the rooms in your house.

Pay particular attention to the details , noticing any imperfections, like scratches: anything that makes your mental images more vivid. Make sure you can move easily from one room to another.

Along your route create a list of “loci” :i.e. well defined parts of the room that you can use later to memorize things.A locus can be a door, a bed, an oven, etc. Be sure that you can easily go from locus to locus as you visit the house.

Now, when you are faced with a list of words or ideas to be memorized, you must form visual images for each of the words and place them, in order, on the loci in your route. To recall the words or ideas now you take a mental walk throughout your house, asking yourself , “What is on the living-room door? What’s on the sleeping room bed. What’s in the oven?” And so on.

Associating the words or ideas to remember with the loci, you should create surprising images. More striking is the created image, more easily you will remember the thing.

This is all about the method! What follows is,instead, just a short FAQ if you are curious about what is behind this method.

Who invented the Method of loci?

According to Cicero’s De Oratore, the greek poet Simonides invented it. The legend says that Simonides escaped a disaster that destroyed the building where he was having a dinner with other dignitaries. He was able to name the victims by recalling where they had been seated.

What is the relationship between the method and the “Art of Memory”?

The Art of Memory was about the use of space to remember things and was based indeed on the method of loci.So the method of loci is almost a synonym of Art of Memory.This mnemonic technique was used by the ancient rhetoricians and later orators until the invention of the press.The major points of speeches were remembered using the method. The orator would visualize walking through the rooms of their memory palace and associating the next point to be addressed with a successive locus. This is perhaps why we now say “in the first place.”

Why Frances Yates is often cited when speaking of the Art of Memory ?

Frances Yates has written the best in depth account on the history of the Art during its long evolution from Simonides to its demise in the 17 century. In this book,named “The Art of Memory” and easily readable by anyone,Frances rediscovers the Art after two centuries of oblivion.Yates main point is that the learning of the Art was central to the formation of cultured people for twenty centuries. For this reason the Art is one of the central points in Western Culture.

Are there signs of the influence of the Art still visible in our cities ?

Medioeval cathedrals were build to work also as memory places.Dante also, in the Divina Commedia, builds a kind of memory place.

Can you give examples of uses of the Art by cultured people?

Monks used the Art to commit to memory their sermons, lawyers would memorize their speech in the same way.

What is the connection between the Art of Memory, Giordano Bruno and Hermetism?

Giordano Bruno , a dominican monk, left the convent where he learned the Art and wandered throughout Europe telling the secrets of the Art to all who would listen to him including the King of France.He was in 1600 burned at the stake for heresy.You can read online the most famous of his books : The Shadows of Ideas in latin but with some fascinating drawings of “memory wheels”.Bruno,following the teaching of Neoplatonists ,thought that learning the Art gave magic powers:this was the Hermetic Art of Memory. This is a short Introduction To The Hermetic Art Of Memory
Images stored in the loci become more than a mnemonic device. They help us in getting a better understanding of the world. Through them we discover the true essence of things and their relationship. They have also magical powers acting like talismans.They are in fact the “Shadows of Ideas”:the essence of reality.

After his death he was and is presented as a martyr of Science.The truth is that ,when he lived, modern science was not really born and we don’t really know why the Inquisition decided to condemn him( all documents about his process have been lost). But, if the idea that Bruno lost his life because of his support for Copernicanism is probably false, the idea that he was condemned because of his beliefs about the magic powers of the Art of Memory, is probably true.So he may very well be a martyr of the method of loci!

(Here other online texts from Bruno.)

What is the connection of the Art with the discipline of Rhetoric?

The Art was learned as part of the Rhetoric by Greek and Roman orators. Later it was integrated by Thomas Aquinas under the virtue of Prudence.

Can you give some specific example of striking images?

In an ancient text about the Art (Rhetorica Ad Herennium) there is this image to be used by a lawyer working on a case of poisoning to gain an inheritance with many witnesses: the defendant is at the bedside of the poisoned man holding in his right hand a cup(the poison) and in his left, tablets (inheritance) and a ram’s testicles (testes i.e. the witnesses in latin).
If you are curious this manual about mnemonics contains hundreds of examples of ridiculous images used to remember things plus some rules on how to create them.

What is the link between the Method of Loci and the Camillo Memory Theatre?

The “Idea” of the Theatre by Giulio Camillo, was essentially the following: instead of having cultured people imagine complex architectures to store all the knowledge,why not build a physical place and then store all knowledge in this place. Now you can learn simply by walking in this Memory Theatre.

Should we use necessarily real buildings or we can use also a imaginary place?

As “building” for the loci almost every structure both real and imaginary that extends in space, has been used.A city, an abbey, a tree, the human body, a schematic drawing, etc,etc.The so called mnemonic major system or peg system uses as loci images connected to the numbers 1 , 2, 3 ..This manual about mnemonics describes how these images are created in a systematic way from a list of words connected to the original numbers. You start from 1(t,d,th), 2(n), 3(m),4(r),5(l),6(g),7(c,k,gh),8(f,v),9(p,b),0(z,s) and then 16 becomes the word “dog” (d=1,g=6) and the image of the dog.

Is the method still used today?

Some memory performers on stage or television use the method.One of these is the famous italian mnemonist Gianni Golfera.
Also the most studied mnemonist, a certain Shereshevsky(S.) followed for 30 years by the russian psychologist Luria, discovered the Method by himself.He really didn’t need it to remember things: apparently ,for him, being synaesthetic,every experience was so compelling to be unforgettable.But when asked to remember ,for example, 50 items in order, he would put them along some street that he knew very well.This would make the recollection of the items in the right order more easy for him.
This paper reports that in many known cases of normal people with exceptional memory (excluding thus autistic people with savant syndrome) this method is used.
Many Universities and colleges include the Method as a mnemonic device in their pages of advices to students. This is a typical example of information on mnemonic devices for students.
The famous novelist Thomas Harris in the novel about Hannibal Lecter (“Hannibal”) describes in detail how Dr. Lecter uses the method . Unfortunately all this has been lost in the movie version.

How many things can you memorize with the method of loci?

People would memorize palaces with hundreds if not thousands of loci .With such a memory palace you can remember a lot of things but you also need to train a lot to use properly such big places. Memory performers use them routinely but their experience is that they have to rehearse for hours every day to use them.

There are images left by the ancients of these memory palaces?

Yes there are some striking images included in memory treatises or just printed without accompanying text to be used specifically for this purpose.Medioeval university teachers would,for example,represent all the items of their subject matter organized spatially in some striking image and have this image used by students to learn their topic.
You find some examples here.

Why some authors consider the Art of Memory as a tool of creation?

Mary Carruthers and others modern authors point out that the ancient Art of memory was considered more than a way to remember things, a tool to create new things. We now think about this technique as something where you have, for example, a sermon already written and then you memorize the main points using the Art and then recollect your images to deliver the speech. Something that in modern days would be done by reading the words from a sheet of paper. In fact, things were slightly different. There was no previous written sermon! The sermon was created directly from the memory images! In the same way people would create also literary composition like poems or simply meditate about God or other items. For example, in the case of meditations, the written word (in the Bible) was only a starting point, then the creation of the memory images and its recollection walking in memory palaces would organize and expand the original material allowing the person to explore and learn more about the subject matter.

What is the relationship between memory palaces and hypertext?

Both use space to make learning easier.An hypertext with its clickable icons and images is like a memory palace and each link is a locus .When you click, the idea stored there appears as a new document.The only difference is that you don’t have to memorize the structure . From this point of view hypertext is much more like the Camillo Theatre: a physical space where you learn by walking.
See also Hypertext and the Art of Memory from Visible Language 31.2:1997

What is the relationship between the memory palaces and virtual reality?

Virtual Reality is essentially a 3D hypertext.You now navigate not only with the mouse but with all your body:the dream of Camillo becomes true.We can now build a place where you learn only by walking.

What is the relationship between the Art of Memory and computer interface?

It is by now clear that both the human and digital memory aren’t merely a repository, but a theatrical stage. We access computer data by clicking and in general using an interface based on a spatial metaphor.The same we do with our memory using the method of loci.So the Art has been the first computer interface invented by man and used to make better use of the biggest computer ever built:our brain.It was the first model for data storage and retrieval and now is driving the the research on new computer interfaces.
You can read an introduction on this fascinating matter on this paper by Peter Matussek about the The Renaissance of the Theater of Memory

What is the relationship between the Art of Memory and scientific visualization

The Art of Memory is a special case of visual thinking : i.e. high level manipulation of visual information by our brain. Scientific visualization tries to help our powerful capacity to handle visual information by creating visual representations of abstract or invisible objects for example a molecule or the interactions between particles. Like for the development of computer interfaces, we don’t know why some representations seem to work and others no, but the method of loci is a powerful paradigm that we know works, and that helps us find effective visualizations. In the method there are two fundamental components:

  1. the interiorization of the images in the loci
  2. the interiorization of the path (a muscular activity)

So ,for example, the successful visualization of a complex molecule includes not only static images of its parts but also the capability to travel inside the molecule using the mouse.

Does the method really work?

Yes,although there is no proof that it works better than other methods, like for example rote learning.An interesting article on this subject(This is the electronic version without pictures of:

Bower:Analysis of a mnemonic device-Am.Sci. Sep,Oct 75?

. See also this Master memories are made not born. And also Testing-the-Limits in a mnemonic technique: A study of cognitive plasticity in very old age.In these studies the participants are trained in using the method as a mnemonic device to remember word lists.

Works Cited

  • Carruthers, Mary. The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990.
  • Carruthers, Mary. The Craft of Thought: Meditation, Rhetoric and the Making of Images, 400-1200. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998.
  • Parker, Cahill,McGaugh A Case of Unusual Autobiographical RememberingNeurocase(2006) 12, 35-49
  • Rossi, Paolo. Logic and the Art of Memory. Trans. Stephen Clucas. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2000.
  • Yates, Frances. The Art of Memory. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1966.

First Time Right Engineering (FiTiRi)

Hans Konstapel Born 1951. My CV.

FITIRI is the result of a meeting with Theo Lohman 15 years ago. Theo is the co-creator of Collin (Collective Intelligence). Collin is a system designed to manage complex engineering projects.

I discovered soon that Theo was playing with the same model I used for a very long time called Paths of Change (PoC). Theo was trying to improve engineering but failed because his theory was too complicated.

In february 2019 I have started a cooperation with old friends that is able to do what almost Nobody is Able to do.

We have the intention to Make the Best for the Lowest Price in the Shortest Time.

The “First Time Right” or “Right First Time” (RFT) Principle is part of the Lean Six Sigma method . Lean Six Sigma is aimed at Preventing Failures.

FiTiRi is a Software / Business / General multidisciplinary Engineering Firm that is able to Produce Machines (“a factory”) and Structures Managed by Software (and related products (Strategy, Advice, Research, Auditing (testing), Training, etc). According to the FTR-principle.

We are expirienced in Change Management and Education.

A Design of a City that deploys itself.

We are not only Technical Engineers but also Social Engineers with a lot of experience in Change Management including Education.

We have development new tools that train people by providing real-time feedback on what they do. At this moment our educational tools are operational in the IT-domain and we are developing tools to train Nurses.

Our tools provide the students with a real certificate provided by a Instituion that is certified to do that.

We are specialized in Analytics.

This is the Model of Walter Russell mapped on the Model of Paths of Change. showing that the Action Potential of the Emotion generates an Impulse (Need) that can be ANalyzed to Find Rules that can Inspire Insight that can fuel the Action Potential. that can be fulfilled with a Personal Tranformation (“an AH erlebnis“).

We Build Smart InfoSystems.

We are able to built Intelligent (Smart) Information Systems that automatically collect Quantitative (Numbers) and Qualitative (Content, Facts) data and combine them in a Shared (Semantic) Model.

We are are connected to many highly experienced people who are able to see the Whole. We are specialized in IT, Banking, Healthcare, Real Estate and many other Domains.

We Build Smart Buildings, Smart Hospitals and Smart Cities.

We are able to model 3 and 4D flexible virtual structures (“buildings) and are able to design factories that produces these structures on demand.

Components of smart buildings. | Download Scientific Diagram

We use Statistical techniques but also tools out of Machine Learning (AI) to find patterns and build software that reacts to these patterns.

We are able to make (High Functionality, ( Many Function Points)) Complex Software) and Simple Software. In the last case our Price is Low.

We are also able to Design and Build Software-Generators based on a (Business-)Domain Model (for instance Healthcare).

Our First Meeting in which we gladly Hear Your Story and Answer your Questions is always For Free. We are prepared to work No Cure No Pay.

To make Contact use the link.

We are also able to Sell the Products we make together with our customers.To do that we are part of big International business Networks.

Our Favorite Aproach is No Cure No Pay.

As we want o create Value by helping you to create Value we prefer to start by making a
Shared Business Case. To make the case we prefer using the tools of our partner Theodoor van Donge who developed VDML (Value Delivery Modelling Language and a tool VDMBee to use VDML.

We are experts in 2-3-4D, VR/Ar, Games, Simulation and Configurators

We are able to model the outside and the inside world transforming it into a Game , Simulate the Future and connect this it to configurators to build what you like.

We Are experts in Value Engineering.

The nice thing about VDML is that it is possible to generate BPML (Business Process Modelling Language).

Proces Improvement by combining many POC-cycles

It is possible to generate software out of a BPML model. THis means that it possible to generate a proces-model of your business out of a business-case that describes your business.

A BPML-model is not only a business-model but als a value-chain in Value-based-Healthcare.

With VDML we are also able to design Business-Ecologies

We are able to Reengineer Models out of Content and Software.

It is also possible to reengineer a Business Model out of the Content related to your business/practice (Dcoments, Software, ) using the tool developed by Wim Goes and Marco Dumont we called Alchemist.

This means that it must be possible to distelate a business-model and a proces-model of your business out of all the content that is available in your business.

We can also use your bookkeeping data quantative (numbers) and qualitative (facts, content, paper bills, invoices).

It is also possible to map the BPML model to a TOP-model (Task Oriented Programming), a toolset developed by Rinus Plasmeijer written in CLEAN. CLEAN is a Functional-Programming Language.

Our speciality is the design of Autonomous (Smart) Systems and Highly Secure Systems.

Smart Computing mapped to the Paths of Change model which is a model of the Human being. It shows that ICT is able to Imitate Humans.

We are the only IT-company that Guarantees its Products.

To do that we use the PoC-approach combined with special SMART tools that are able to detect possible mistakes before they occur.

If you Want you can Buy or Rent our Tools. We are also able to Select, Train and Search for highly qualified Engineers.

We are able to engineer or to re-(reverse) engineer (or adapt) Highly Complex Software-systems. In the last case we move Back in the Development-cycle.

Input in this case can be Software-code or generated code by a tool or documents/content that contains a “Sample” of the current situation. This sample can be documents describing processes but also chats that are part of a dialoque.

We are experts in Quality Management.

We are able to Verify if software correlates to the designed architecture. We are also certified to Test software or to Mediate in a Legal Conflict with a software vendor.

We are able to Train People in Programming or in other Processes. Our most effective method uses Feedback in which we Analyze the result of a process Real-time and show (mostly using movies) the best way to make the result with the highest Quality.

We are able to correlate the activities of many practioners. called a Community of Practice.


FiTiRi is a Cooperative in which many different Practices are Combined. Our Team covers Many Years of Experience.

Germt van der Veen: Business Planning, Operations Management, Innovation Management, Healthcare. Germt is the Manager of the network.

Hans Konstapel : (RE)Search, Strategy, Mathematics Architecture, Programmagement, Business Development. Banking. Education, Change Management: Hans is the Strategist of the network.

Wim Goes: Research, Design, Architect, Auditing.Mediator. Wim is the Software Architect of the network.

Peter Pronk, Real Estate, Design, Architect, 4dModelling.

Erik Vreedenburgh, Design, Architect, Designing Houses & Buildings.

Felix Janszen Professor Innovation Management Owner of Inpaqt.BV.

Martin Knuijt, Design. Landscape architect.

Theodoor van Donge: 30 years of IT Innovation and Leadership in the Software Sector (Baan, Cordys, VdmBee). Business Modelling, Business Cases.

Rinus Plasmeijer: Professor Software-Technology. Expert in Functional Programming Technology.

Marco Dumont: Software Engineer, Teacher

Paths of Change.

Paths of Change (PoC) is a very old general theory about Change reinvented by Will McWhinney of UCLA (University of California Los Angelos).

Poc Uses the concept of a World View, a specific way to Observe, See, Feel the world.

The World View can be represented by the four Senses or the Four Humors.

Carl Jung called the World Views Archetypes. Myers Briggs transformed the Archetypes in a Personality Typology.

A Type is a combination of Two World Views.

John Holland used the types to define a Career Development Model.

The Types can also be used to describe the learning proces. In this case the World Views are called Learning Styles.

The types can also be used to describe a general Development or a Communication Process.

Panarchy Process Model of Innovation.
First Time Right Process Model.

George Klir Complex Adaptive Systems. In complex adaptive systems, the whole is more complex than its parts,[2] and more complicated and meaningful than the aggregate of its parts.

About The Future of the State


are you interested in a possible new State? Read this.

This blog started as (and is still) a blog about the Future of the State we are part of.

In the first version of this blog (now Part 3) I detected that The Democratic State is a Facade for an Aristocratic Elite (“A TRIBE). This has been the case since the first King of Ur Gilgamesh returned after the Great Flood.

It looks like the state is collapsing everywhere in the world and a Big new type of state (China) is growing and expanding based on Big Brother Technology,

The 2nd version of this blog ended with a search into the history of the State.

During this search I detected that our Ancient Forefathers build advanced Forecasting Systems like Stonehenge to predict Calamities. It looks like we are now not prepared to face such a calamity.

In Part 2 I introduce Bruno Latour with his ideas about the new Constitution. It looks like Bruno is pointing to a Political Ecology which is a nice way to look into the Future.

In Part 7 you will find a List of Chapters of the previous versions.

Today I have started a new Blog to discuss a Design for a new State .

The Code behind Stonehenge
ccording to Hopi Myth we now live in the Fourth World. This World is Ending Soon. What will the Fifth World bring?Probably a new Great Flood that will come when the Earth Magnetc Field Moves.


Konstantin Meyl: Why the Earth is Growing, The Magnetic Field is Turning and the Big Flood will come after we connect with a Super Nova.


The Earth is facing many Calamities all the time. Many of them are cyclic and therefore predictable. In old times the Timekeepers of the State watched the Sky to make sure nothing bad was coming.
This is a short clip made from the documentary Entheogen – Awakening the God Within.entheogen documents the emergence of techno-shamanism in the post-modern world that frames the following questions: How can a renewal of ancient initiatory rites of passage alleviate our ecological crisis? What do trance dancing and festivals celebrating unbridled artistic expression speak to in our collective psyche? How do we re-invent ourselves in a disenchanted world from which God has long ago withdrawn?

According to Behavioral Economics Humans are highly Confused Predators. As a Predator Humans Protect their Territory with every means possible. They are Confused because they are incapable to Observe and Reason about their own behavior and the behavior of others. The predators are often called Hawks and their victims Doves.

A lot of people don’t believe or don’t know that the Spirit of Inspiration is a Conscious Being.

This spirit is specialized in The current Time (Anima Mundi) or Place (Genius Loci). The Russian Philosopher Bahktin called the combination of Place and Time, the Chronotype.

The Twilight of Democracy. :by Ann Applebaum. The book. describes how the Power of the State was grabbed in Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Brazil and now Italy and probably the USA and the UK.

In all of these countries the Leaders change the rules of the Game of Politics to get a Majority and take control over the Media especially the Social Media.

The Treason of the Clerks by Julien Benda. One of the arguments of Applebaum is taken from the book of Julien Benda. He shows how Intellectuals join a powerful group by Changing their Arguments using powerful Rhetorical tools.

It happened in Germany to stay out of trouble of the Nazi’s and the Russians in East Germany but also in the US in the time of Mccarthy and in Turkey during the time of Erdogan.

We are forgetting to Ask our Creator-Ancestors for Guidance. We have forgotten that that they are able to See the Future from a Far-Away Perspective.

The Nation State has a very long history that begun when Humans started to Organize themselves in the Stone Age.

Certain Civilizations (Egypt, Sumer, Inca) were (Re)Created at About the Same Time by comparable entities Enki (Sumer), ( Thoth Egypt) ( Viracocha, Inca ) who warned us for possible recurring Disasters (f.i. the Great Flood, the End of Civilization ).

God Ea, seated, holding a cup. From Nasiriyah, southern Iraq, 2004-1595 BCE. Iraq Museum.jpg
Hermes Trismegistus
Thoth, Hermes Trimegistres.


ABouthe irst City of Eridu: Sumer Akad and the man Joannes that came out of the Sea.

The Creators of the old Civilizations build Celestial Observation Centers (like Stonehenge, Machu Picchu, Carnac,..) all over the World to determine the exact moment in Time of the recurring Calamity.


It is remarkable that they warned us for what is happening in our time.

The same warning comes from leaders of very old civilizations like the Maori, the Aboriginals but also of the Hopi.

According the Hopi Prophesy Three Previous Human Worlds were destroyed when people became Greedy, Worshipped technology as a god, Fought and Hurt each other, and repeatedly forgot the Ethical teachings they’d been given to Honor the Earth as the Source of life and sustenance. Our Fourth World is dying.

Hopi Phrophesy

The first State after the Flood was a City State called Ur. City-states expand into big states by increasing wealth, taken over othe states by violence or negatitation. States are destroyed by a disaster or war or internal conflcicts.

States and city-states look like organisms.

A City-State is a Distribution System. It distributes Wealth (Surplus, Food, Energy, Knowledge, Human Labor) between rich and poor people.

A State with an unBalanced Distribution system will Collapse.

Because of the Growing (Niche Weather, Fertile, soil) Surplus The Organizatonal Sructures of the States and the States themselves grew bigger and bigger and behaved as humans behaved because humans used them for their Own Benefit.

States grew by Expanding or by taking over other states.To expand states fused but also took over control which was most of the time done with a lot of Violence.

To stay alive States had to increase the amount of soldiers and make or invent new weapons.

Small States fuse into bigger structures like the European Union to benefit from the Protection of a bigger state.

Most of the time the soldiers were children out of the underclass of the state. To motivate the soldiers States became something to Die for.

States Act like humans because humans always Project humans in Agents that show an active behavior. These agents take over the role of the Parent (mostly the Father). States became a Substitute for the Family.

Currently we see a lot of Competing states that compete with other structures that coordinate Human Behavior.

Big Global Companies are sometimes more Powerful than States.

The most innovative state of the state, the constitutional state (See Part 2) has to be innovated to Integrate all of the organizational structures currently available.

If this is not done one of the new structures will Take over Control.

Current Technology is able to Control and Manipulate billions of people by Changing their behavior

Big Brother is real and wide awake waiting to Rule the World.

This blog will show you what the Big Troubles were created by not turning back to the roots of the human structures, Mother Nature connected with .the Moon Cycles

The only Ancient Culture that is still in Tune with Mother Nature lives in Australia and in New Zealand.

Let us Copy their behavior or start looking for a Place to Hide perhaps in the Old Caves in Capadocia.

Corroboree an Australian Aboriginal dance ceremony which may take the form of a sacred ritual or an informal gathering.Central Australia near Tenant Creek Northern Territory, NT Australia

Part 1: Surviving in a Cave Looking for the Secret Grove of the State.

What are all the Megalyths doing? It looks like they were Showing the Way to the Stars in an ancient landscape that was almost totally covered with Woods.
Archeology uses Astronomy to explain what all the ancient Megalyths are doing. They show that our ancestors knew a lot about the Stars and their Cycles and the Important connections between the Cycles and Nature. In this way they were able to predict important changes in Nature like Spring and Autumn.
Prehistoric wooly mammoth hunters using bows and arrows
Hunter Gatherers cooperate to kill a Mammoth: Picture out of an Article in the Gardian.
The Bronze Age
Reconstruction of a a Bronze Age ettlement (a Proto-City) in Dartmoor Wales.

The State started as a small City-State surrounded by Walls where the Keeper of the Storage of the Food became a King.

The word King comes from kin (related by birth, bloodline) probably with a God (the first Creator). It is well known that in history powerful kings openly declared that they were a God.

Jericho.is probably the oldest continually-inhabited city.

Walls of Jericho.

Archaeologists have unearthed the remains of 20 successive settlement dating back 11,000 years.

he old walls of Jericho were part of a very old Proto-City.

an Old Sanctuary in the Fertile Crescent, Goebeli Tepe, Turkey, 10.000 BC
Recently Scientists have detected the existence of an old Cataclism that caused the end of Atlantis. They assume that Kobele Tepie was created by the people who survived the disaster

Humans are Toolmakers.

One of the most interesting inventions was the Boat that made people Look at the Sky to navigate and detect the cycles and the important moments in the cycles (Spring).

Cappadocia, Turkey
Ancient rock-cut church and cave dwellings in Cappadocia, Anatolia Turkey. Capadocia was called Phrygia in old times.

Below the Churches vast Underground Cities were found. They were used to hide from the Invasions of the Sea People.

They were people that migrated with their catlle and boats out of Iran and Turkey later returning from Europe to their Homeland.

Many ancient citystates were destroyed in the Bronze Age Collapse. This happened because of the attack of the Sea People, a huge force of returning seafaring hungry people from Europe because of a sudden Climate Change caused by a Vulcano in Iceland.


The State looks like a Beehive.

Phrygia is well known for the Gordian Knot a puzzle solved by Alexander the Great and its King Midas who wanted to create Gold with his touch.

The Goddess of the Phrygians was Cybele, an old Moon Goddess. At that Time the culture was Matriarchal.

Beehive Houses Harran Turkey.

Cybele was the Goddess of the Bees. She originated from a big Black Stone, a meteorite, fallen from Heaven. This Stone became the Kaaba, the Black Stone in Mecca.

The Statue of Cybele was always accompanied by a priesthood of eunuchs who dressed like bees.

The male priesthood castrated themselves during an ecstatic celebration, called the Day of Blood’, which took place on 24 March.

Cybele carries the Wall of a City as a Crown on her head.

Cybele the Mother Goddess with her Lions

Cybele and her priests played an important role in Rome by keeping the Cybilline Books that contained prophesys about the End of the State of Rome.

The methaphor of the Cave must have come from the ancient cavedwellers. All of them developed the same concepts probably related to the Bee-hive of Queen Bee Cybele containing citizen-Working-Bees that provided for the Food of the state.

Egypt was known as the land of the bee, its kings were called ‘beekeepers’ and the founders of the Nile Valley appear to have travelled from the Source of the State Mesopotamia with bees in their boats after the flood, circa 3,000 BCE.

Egypt became one the most stable Nation States on earth for a very long time.

It produced, because of the cyclic flooding of the Nile, a vast amount of Food, was so Wealthy that it was able to defend itself by hiring Mercenaries, even against the Sea People and was therefore able to store a long history of knowledge in its Archives that were taken over by new rulers, the Greek (Alexander the Great) and later the Romans. Alexander was extremely impressed by the Priests of the center of knowledge Heliopolis.

Heliopolis attracted many intelligent people from all over the world to learn the State of the Art in Navigation, Prediction, Architecture, History etc.

About the Hunter Gatherers.

The Maori Culture and the of Australia Aboriginals are the oldest culture on earth.

The Maori made a conscious choice not to start Agriculture but to live from Mother Earth.

The Hunter Gatherers developed an intuitive knowledge of what Mother Nature needed. In these cultures only people with a “gift”, the shamans, become priests.

The Origins of the State according to Plato.

The roots of the State go back to Greece where Plato wrote about it. He believed in a city-state he called kallipolis. The state was ruled by a Philosopher King.

Plato got his teachings in Heliopolis, the Center of Wisdom of Egypt and the whole world at that time. His teacher was the Horite priest, Sechnuphis. His teachings came from Thot also called Hermes Trismegistus. Plato mixed the ancient teachings with the dialogs in his books.

The Books of Thot.

The books of the ancient library of Heliopolis were transported to Alexandria and later to Byzantium, , the Center of the new Roman Empire. Later they were taken to Venice and played an important role in the Renaissance.

Part 2: Bruno Latour: About The New Constitution.

Latour speaks about the New Constitution.

A Constitution is a Law that Controls Laws, a Meta-Law.

Accoding to Latour a State is an Ecology.

To formulate the right Laws we have to Solve the Distinction Between Hard and Soft, Science (Facts) and Politics (Society, Values) ,  Nature and Culture, Thing and Subject.

The adaptive cycle as a dynamic map for resilience thinking
The theory of complex dynamic systems called Panarchy describes the periodic, rhythmic dance of the spiral of the holy spirit between order and chaos, between stability and transformation as a fundamental pattern of self-organization in complex (living) systems

An Ecology (= a State) Grows when the parts of the ecology are not too connected (“autonomous“) and the Wealth of the Economy is widely available for action.

The Panarchy Cycle ends with the end of the Ecology (in the Conservation-state), This state is always saved in a Sacred Grove.

I hope that you realize that the Sacred Grove of the state is kept alive in the Maori- and Aboriginal Culture and in humans that are able to Feel and/or See, the new Bards and Druids.

In a Conservation-state a State (a Political ecology) is old and fragile only busy with itself, spending all of its energy (wealth) to reproduce

The windows of a Cathedral show the Spiral of Life. Cathedral are always build on a Sacred Grove.
The Medicine Wheel is the basic form of Model of the Cycle seen in the way animals behave. .

The Sacred Grove was the place were the Spiritual Buildings (Churches/Cathedrals) were build by the Priests of te Old Orders. Atlas (“the Mapmaker“) and the creator of Atlantis shows the Maps that were made to Navigate all over the World and to Predict the Future by projecting Time in Space (f.i Lightyear).

To find the Future of the State we have to research the time we lived in the Caves,

Politicians have to realize that the State is an Ecology that Contains a Diversity of Matter (Things) and Life Forms (subjects) and

Scientists have to realize that Objects are also Actors, they move and/or are a cause and/or an Effect .

Politicians (Thinking(Unity) <->, Feeling (Social) <–> Manipulate and negociate Consensus and

Scientists (Thinking (Unity) , Sensing <–> Make, Analyze) ) have to realize that besides their Archetypes there are other Archetypes like Seeers (INtuiting) and Empats (Feeling). that Play a Role in the Cycle of Paths of Change.

Paths of Change mapped to the Tarot where Mythic (= Imagination, idea, Intuitive, Seeer, Cups), Social (= Opinion, Status, Emotion, Feeling, Pentacles), Sensory ( Fact, Experience, Wands, Action, Grow) and Unity (= Knowledge, Order, Rule, Law, Swords).
The Parliament of Things has to make a full Rotation of PATHS OF CHANGE with the Clock (Generating, Producing) or and / or Against the Clock (Consuming). With and Agaianst the Clock = a Moebius Ring). Observe the MOEBIUS RING in the Picture of PANARCHY Above and Below.

Does the New Constitution, the new Meta Law also apply to Things-Animals and Things- Machines (Robots)?

Who will Speak for the Lakes, the ozon layer, the Trees and the Self-driving Cars in the Parliament of Things.

Are the Laws of Nature in conflict with the New Constitution or are they the same Laws (and what are these Laws)?

In Chapter 9 of this blog you will see that Humans and Animals (and even Viruses and Bacteria apply the (Ethic) Principle of Tit-for-Tat, a solution to the Infinitely Repeated Prisoners Dilemma.

We are all kept in the same Prison that is Nature and our only way to get out is to Collaborate with all of the Life-Forms.

Part 3: What is Happening?

We are witnessing a Global Transformation in which the old Organizational Mass Structures are Loosing their Power and the Struggle between the Hawks (Rich, Influentional) and the Doves (Poor, Isolated) comes back.

History Repeats itself in a completely different Context filled with Big Brother Technology.

Is it possible to create a Big Brother State that citizens Love to live in?

It looks like (Surveillance Capitalism) could become our Big Friend by Automating Us.

Jared Diamond. Societies collaps because of environmental problems (“climate, too Dry, too Cold,..) combined with External and Internal Conflicts and the Resilience of the Society, (the Way the Citizens are able to Solve their own Problems), is low.
The Panarchy 4D Model of Ecologies fits the development of the Sate. It shows that Resilience is a combination of Connectedness and Wealth (Resources). When a State is too connected (“Burocratic“) and has not distributed its Wealth between the Rich and the Poor it will Collaps.

Part 4: The History of the State.

The State was invented in Sumer translated in Akkadian as the “Land of the Civilized Kings”.

Their forefathers moved from a hunter-gatherer society to an Agrarian one prior to 5000 BCE.

The Kings and their High Priests invented Cuneiform script, the Wheel, the Sail Boat, Irrigation, Law, Diplomacy, Trade, Bookkeeping and astrology.

Machu Picchu, A December Solstice Observatory of the Inca.The Inca’s are part of the Norte Chico Civilization that existed at the same time as Sumer. The December Solstice was observed all over the world. The civilization of the Inca’s was destroyed by the Spanish Golddiggers who killed for Christ and brought many Diseases that killed the Inca too,

Part 5: Theory of the State.

State formation is explained by The production of surplus (Wealth) resulting in a division and specialization of labor: leading to Classes who worked the land and to those who could devote their time to other tasks including astrology and warfare.

Large societies tend to develop Ruling classes and supporting Bureaucracies (Systems, Connectedness) , which leads to larger organizations that want to Control the world.

When the state is too dependent on systems the state will collaps when a Not Expected Disaster takes place (a Black Swan or a Dragon King.).

For a very long time the Hierarchy was the most important Control-System in Use.

Currently the Center of the System is moving from the Top to the Bottom because of the Rise of Communication Technology (Internet).

Part 6: Summary.

A big part of this blog is about the State we live in called the Constitutional State, the Nation State or the Rechtsstaat.

All of them are highly Dependent on the Belief that People are regulated by Laws and that there is something behind all these Laws which is an Eternal principle that represents the Good.

A deep (but not very difficult) analysis shows that the State is an instrument to benefit a certain Elite (A Tribe?) that is Sustained by the Systems of the State in which the Educational System is the most important.

The article by William I. Robinson: Gramsci and Globalisation: From Nation‐State to Transnational Hegemony shows that the current Social Networks of Local Elites connect on the World level and are influenzing the Global Nation States.

The extreme wealthy creators of the Global Social-Network Technology know that they are able to Control the World with a Silent Revolution in which the Needs of their users can be changed to live in a new type of Paradise in which the old Roman theory of controlling their citizins with Food & Play will Lead the Way.

Part 7.List of Chapters.

This list contains numbered summaries of the chapters of this blog from now. It makes it possible to Jump into the blog without missing much.

Watch out: THis Blog is still in Development. It will not be the same in a few weeks from now.

Comment? <-click there.

2: What is a State?

A State was an instrument to support the Ruler of a Boundary in Space called a City State.

The Rulers became Omnipotent when they transformed themselves into a God.

Nice to Monaco

THe City State Monaco.

3. History of the State starting with the GREAT FLOOD.

Before the Great Flood Humans were organized in Tribes and later in Kingdoms. Most of the humans were owned by other humans.

After the Industrial Revolution the Slaves started a Revolution and the Kings had to share their Power with the Many still divided in the Rich and the Poor.

People no longer felt they were Owned by some Ruler; instead they now gave their Loyalty to something bigger, the Nation-state.

4. The Constitutional State.

This is a new concept in which the “good” is put into a General accepted Meta-law (a law that rules over other laws) chosen by a Majority of people. The big problems with a Meta-System is that it not bounded. It suffers Infinite Regress.

The big problem with a not bounded Constitution is that it will eventually cover All of the Humans, the Animals, the Territory of Earth (UNO) or even Space.

5. The problems of the Constitutional Sate.

To service its citizens the Rechtsstaat starts Companies that operate in the for- and the non-profit Market.

These Companies are now sold (or “given”) to the rich elite or the rich global companies that are now controlling the world.

Poor Citizens are paying Taxes for the benefit of the rich others.

This is Splitting the State and gives Opportunistic Leaders (Populist) the chance to drive their followers into a Renaissance of the Fascist State.

The STaat is also competing with other rechtsstaats (EU, UNO, ..). that control the “lower” rechtstaat giving the Nationalists the opportunity to dissolve structures that were created to Prevent a 3de World-war.

6. The End of the Nation State.

States are connected to a physical boundary. The United Nations relate to Earth.

The perspective of Humanity changed when we were able to see the Earth in the Middle (Bible, Creation Story) the Sun in the Middle ( Science Copernicus) to the Center of the Milkey Way in the Middle (Hubble Telescope, Technology).

The Cycle of History is moving to the Center. Our movement into Space_ generates a new (Space)-Spirituality created by the Meta-Myth of Joseph Gampbell that motivates people to leave Earth and move to Mars or even further.

7. About Anarchy and Terroism.

The Institutions of the state and the Elite that controls the state have been an object of Destruction for a very long time. Until now the State seems to be Resilient/ Anti-fragile. It restores and grows from Chaos.

8. Living in Caves. The Pre-Historic State.

What can we learn from the time Humans were not part of a State (and part of a Tribe).What we can learn is that a lot of the experience of that time is put into our culture and in our myths and religion.

9: Are Humans different from Animals & Organisms.

Organisms & Animals “create” organizational structures that look like States. How different are we from organisms and our cousins the Apes. An important feature we don’t want to see is Synchronization. It helps dictators to control the masses.

10. Diverging States?

In 1989 The Berlin Wall fell and the western Nation-State became the “normal” model of the World. After that moment old conflicts started all over again. The same happened when the world wanted to get rid of “real” Dictators like Saddam Hoessein.

States are not a computer program that controls citizins, we can Restart.

States revert to their Initial State which is a Tribal Structure in which Violence is a normal tool to control the Population.

The New Leaders Copy the Story of the Ancient Leaders by Remembering old Stories about Lost Battles. This happened everywhere in the World from YugoSlavia to Ruanda.

Dictators with the use of State Violence control latent conflicts.

States are a very Complex Balancing Act in which many Powers are Neutralized.

A debate with Francis Fukuyama, Professor of Political Science Stanford University

11. The Techno-State.

In 1999 I wrote a document called MOVING UP and MOVING DOWN Ideas and opinions about the connection between Small Scale specialized human networks and large scale collaborative IT-technology.

It shows that we are moving to a connected Collaborative Space mostly called the Internet (or Hyperspace).

Hyperspace is now owned by big Global companies like Google and Facebook that Sell and Predict the Activity-profiles in Hyper- and Physical Space of many people on earth.


This blog is the result of an increasing frustration about the Performance of the State I live in (The Netherlands).

My Government acts without a vision, spends a huge amount of (tax)money and makes nistake after mistake most of the time in the use of Technology but also in providing effective Healthcare, Education, Protection, etc etc.

I Spend a few weeks reading thinking and writing about the State and came to the conclusion that we are facing the end of the Nation State.

It looks like Big Brother is already there and we are facing a situation in Europe that looks like the rise of the Totalitarian fascists States around 1933.

Is history repeating?

2. What is a Sate?

A Nation State is a Top Down Management Structure that controls a lot of people that share a lot. Currently the Top (Government) is loosing its power to other powers (Companies) .

In this last case the Nation State will transform into a Network of Special Economic Zones comparable to Hong Kong that provide a Tax-haven and a Secure haven to the very Rich. .

People that look alike synchronize and turn into a crowd that follows the directions of the Leader if he (or she) uses the Rhetoric of the Common Enemy. Most of the influentual Dictators were aware (by instinct or training) that they could bring a huge amount of people in Sync doing things they never believed that was Possible.

Crowds Synchronize when they look at the same thing.

Nation States are fragmenting into small Cultural Identities.

The State is defefined by Max Weber as a polity that maintains a Monopoly on the use of violence.

The Greek philosopher Aristotle believed that questions of the State, how it should be organized, and how it should pursue its ends, were fundamental to the achievement of happiness. Aristotle was aquainted with the City-State of Athens.

Acropolis Athens

The State we live in is the result of a Top-Down/Bottom Up process that repeats itself many times.

States start as small City States, and grow into Big Burocratic States.

Burocratic states are highly fragile and are therefore easily destroyed by a calamity or taken over by groups of violent people specialized in warfare that are triggered by famine caused by a change of climate or a change of the environment caused by human activity (desert creation, the industrial revolution).

Another cause of the end of a state can be found in internal conflict between competing groups often part of the Rulers (Masters) and the Ruled (Slaves).

This conflict can result in a Split of the state and or a Fusion of comparable parts. India and the Us are an example of both in which Religion was the cause of the split and a Cultural Likeness (“Capitalistic, Calvinistic) the reason of a Fusion.

The Huns, especially under their King Attila, made frequent and devastating raids into the Eastern Roman Empire. invaded Italy and almost conquered Rome.

Chinese government build big walls to protect the country against the Mongols.

Great Wall, China

In time the Victors fill in the old framework of the burocracy with their own people and the system becomes fragile again.

Systems (and humans) Reproduce themselves with Parts that reproduce themselves ( autopoiesis. ).

3. History of the State.

The next Great Flood will probably not be caused by a collision with a meteorite but by the melting of ice caused by the rising of temperature caused by Climate Change.

The repeating process of State-production was stopped by and started again after the Great Flood. This happened around 3117 BC.

After the Flood had swept over the earth and when kingship was lowered again from heaven, kingship was first in Kish. . . . in Uruk the divine Gilgamesh . . . ruled 126 years . . . its kingship was removed to Ur

Hero lion Dur-Sharrukin Louvre AO19862.jpg

The City State of Ur.

Ur was a new .start. Soon the City States started to make war and grew into a bigger structure.

Ur has always been an important location, a harbor, part of the trade-routes that connected the East and the West. Because of the Trade The rulers (Male and/or Female) of Ur became very rich.

Rulers become God and The High Priest gets te power.

Extreme richness, Power and Praise often leads to many psychological disorders (described by Interpersonal Theory) including Histrionic, believing your Fantasy is true ) Narcissism (extreme self-esteem) and Paranoia (Believing that Everybody is a Threat).

Shulgi, the greatest king of the Third Dynasty of Ur, who solidified the hegemony of Ur and reformed the empire into a highly centralized bureaucratic state. Shulgi ruled for a long time (at least 42 years) and deified himself halfway through his rule.

The transformation from ruler to God brought the King to the highest state of Power. Many rulers copied this behavior and many new Gods appeared making life very complex.

At the time of Shulgi rulers were often adviced by Magi that had a lot of knowledge about Mass Manipulation, Personal Magic and Medicine. When the rulers became God the Magi became the High Priest.


Persian Magician.


The Egyptian Pharao Akhenaton who was probably the Master of the Biblical Mozes Defined one God as the principal God. He started a new trend Monotheism based on the worship of Aten (the Sun Disk) .

In the Egyptian state the Priests were very powerful. They rebelled against Akhhenaton and restored the cult of Ammon.

Ahkenaton worships the Sun.

Ancient Israelite religion was originally polytheistic; the Israelites worshipped many deities including El, Baal, Asherah, and Astarte. Yahweh was originally the national god of the Kingdom of Judah.

The ancient economies of China, the Incan Empire, the Indian Empires, Babylon, Greece, and the various kingdoms of Africa operated on principles of reciprocity and redistribution with a very limited role for markets.

Cycles: History repeats itself.

Below you see a picture of a cycle-generator that generates Cycles in Cycles (etc). Cycles are driven by harmonic patterns that have a lot in common with music (“the Music of the Spheres“).

The Waves and the Overtones of the cycle going Up and Down can be described with recurring themes part of a five-fold-pattern (Pentangle). This pattern shares the four World Views of Path of Change (PoC) with a center which represents a whole. . PoC is a very old theory about Change that was discovered by Will McWhinney.

Kondratiev Cycle has a cycle-time of 52 years. Currently we are in a State called a Spring. In Spring the economy is growing until it moves into a recession. Every step in the cycle is controlled by a specific issue related to a world-view of Paths of Change. The colors are reused in this blog. Green is Social, Blue is Control, Yellow is Imagination, RED is Action and White is Center/Whole (Geheel).
Cycle generator. desrcibed by a pentangle containing a pentangle etc shows how waves contain waves etc.

Two states of The State of Rome.

The Spiral of Time focused on Europe based on the Cycle of Bahktin.
The spiral of Time is based on Paths of Change Blue is control, Yellow is Imagination, Green is Social / conflict, White is Center and Red is Action/revolution. The white stage always starts a new Religion.

Rome was a state ruled by an elected emperor controlled by an elected parliament with representatives that were Roman Citizen.

Mitrash is slaying the white Bull. The Bull is a symbol for the the Star Sign Taurus.Taurus represents the Worldview Sensory.

Emperor Constantine the Great made Christianity the leading religion of Rome because it looked a lot like the belief of his soldiers the (persian) cult of Mitra. Mitra transformed into Archangel Michael.

The Emperor of Rome transformed into the Pope of Rome.

New Empires.

To the Romans, anyone who was not a citizen of Rome or who did not speak Latin was a barbarian. In Europe there were five major barbarian tribes – the Huns, Franks, Vandals, Saxons, and Visigoths (Goths) – and all of them wanted to destroy Rome.

The rulers of the barbarians soon created kingdoms, empire-states that took over the rule of Rome. As always the expansion of the new Empires generated conflicts and war.

The Secular State.

In the renaissance the Zeitgeist of Europe turned into the state of Imagination/Spirit.

The Bible was translated in the languages of the empires and a unique interpretation of the Christian Faith turned into a Work Ethic based on the theories of Calvin.

Cpitalism and the freedom of Faith were born. The State left the field of religion and the Secular _State was born.

The State of the (Capitalistic) Hawks.

“The German sociologist Franz Oppenheimer (1864-1943), said, there are only two ways for men to acquire wealth.

The first method is by producing a good or a service and voluntarily exchanging that good for the product of somebody else.

This is the method of exchange, the method of the free market; it’s creative and expands production; it is not a zero-sum game because production expands and both parties to the exchange benefit.

Oppenheimer called this method for the acquisition of wealth the “Economic means“.

The second method is seizing another person’s property without his consent, i.e., by robbery, exploitation ND/OR looting.


The Noble Price winning Economist Daniel Kahneman wrote a book called Hawkish Biasis in which he explains economic behavior with the same attitudes Exchange (cooperation, Dove) and competition (Hawk, war, immoral behavior).

Oppenheimer called the thawkish method of obtaining wealth “the political means.” And then he went on to define the state, or government, as “the organization of the Political means,” i.e., the regularization, legiti­mation, and permanent establishment of the political means for the acquisition of wealth of the Hawks (the Upperclass) .

Socialism, Communism and Equality.

Around 1789 Europe was in the Social State meaning that social-conflicts started to increase.

The French Revolution (1789) started a revolt of the underclass that was hit by an economic crisis caused by a change of the climate caused by an explosion of a vulcano in Iceland. After the revolution the Middleclass (Bourgeoisie) took over the power and created factories powered by the steammachine. This stage in history is called the Industrial Revolution.

The Industrial revolution created a new underclass, the proletariat. Marx following Hegel detected that World History follows Patterns

The French Revolution triggered the start of the Socialistic Movement in England that caused many revolutions in for instance Russia and China. Both are countries that are controlled by an Elite (“the Party“).

russian revolution historiography

Although most of the time not highly visible all countries with a State are controlled by an Elite that creates a Network connected to special Schools/Universities, Political Parties and big Companies or networks of specialized comparable Small companies (Farmers rtc).

Cultural Revolution poster.jpg

The State as an Selforganizing System.

Anthony Giddens (1985) stresses that the emergence of the “Internally Pacified State” that centralizes the Means of Violence and hence prevents Armed Struggles between opposed classes was accompanied and enabled by a large expansion of the apparatuses of Surveillance and Bureaucratic Administration.

Giddens argues that the nation state is a “Power Container” [Giddens, 1985: 13] that stores and concentrates Authorative and allocative resources and that with the rise of capitalism the nation state replaced the City as the most important power container.

The Institutions of the State are the Keepers of the Rules that facilitate the systems in the state to self-organize:

Can a human society be constrained in such a way that self-organization will thereafter tend to produce outcomes that Advance the Goals of the society? Such a society would be self-organizing in the sense that individuals who pursue only their own interests would none-the-less act in the interests of the society as a whole, irrespective of any intention to do so. This paper identifies the conditions that must be met if such a self- organizing society is to emerge. It demonstrates that the key enabling requirement for a self- organizing society is ‘consequence-capture’. Broadly this means that all agents in the society must capture sufficient of the benefits (and harms) that are produced by their actions on the goals of the society. ‘Consequence-capture’ can be organized in a society by appropriate management (systems of evolvable constraints) that suppress free riders and support pro-social actions. In human societies these constraints include institutions such as systems of governance and social norms. The paper identifies ways of organizing societies so that effective governance will also self-organize. This will produce a fully self-organizing society in which the interests of all agents (including individuals, associations, firms, multi- national corporations, political organizations, institutions and governments) are aligned with the interests of the society as a whole.

4. The Constitutional State.

At the turn of the nineteenth century, the constitutional state took its origin from a revolution against absolutist rule and feudal inequality.

‘Constitution’ as a revolutionary new concept of law meant as an ideal-type: written, supreme, secular law, decided by the people and regulating all public power.

Constitutional monarchy was the dominant type of constitutional state in Europe throughout the nineteenth century.

It was marked by a fundamental dualism between monarchical and parliamentary power, which tended towards parliamentarization and came to an end with complete constitutionalization and democratization of European states as an outcome of the First World War.

While the post-war years represented the apex of European constitutionalism, the deep European crisis of the 1930s with the rise of dictatorship destroyed the core function of constitutionalism, to legally bind state power, which came to be restored only gradually after 1989 for the whole of Europe.

Currently a big part of Europe is controlled by the European Union (EU) created 1-1-1958. The citizen support for the EU is in a steep decline culminating in the rise and come back of many nationalistic parties and the Brexit (Exit of Brittain).

5. The Future of the Dutch Constitutional State.

In 2003 the WRR ( Dutch Government Scientific Think Thank) wrote a report about the future of the Dutch Constitutional State called a Rechtsstaat.

A Rechtsstaat is a “constitutional state” in which the exercise of governmental power is constrained by the law.

The big problem not adressed in the document above is that Law is a symbolic system that could be in line with the Zeitgeist or otherwise.

It is almost impossible to program the citizins of a country unless the program is put into many examples that are thaught at primary school.

Louis Althusser is a Marxist Philosopher who claims that Education is the Foundation of the Ruling Power of the State.

Civil Society.

The ZeitGeist is currently in the State of the Center (Whole, White, Boundaries).

Citizins want to be treated as respected Individuals (Informalization) and are exploring boundaries (Intensivation) . Young people Cross boundaries, companies work without boundaries (Globalization) and countries define new boundaries.

The system of rules governing a rechtstaat is becoming too complex and the connected system becomes too bureaucratic, while capacity problems are arising on account of the large flow of applications, public participation procedures, complaints, pleas and proceedings against the government on the part of assertive citizens.

Competing Rule Systems.

Next to this there are many more “rechts states” (EU, UN) that are are creating and enforcing competing rule-systems.

The Service State moves to the Market.

Public services are what make the state visible to its citizens.

Public services are citizens’ direct line to government. They make the state tangible through an almost daily interaction, direct or indirect.

public infrastructure made the previously far away centres of power more accessible.

Currently many public services are given over to the Market making the state more and more invisible.

The Third Sector.

Especially in small cities and parts of big cities (comparable to city-states) a new third sector is growing that contains cooperatives of civilians that develop shared autarkic non-for-profit (social) functions like energy& food-production, care for the elderly etc etc. These functions are based on exchange of material and services (reciprocity ).

This a model based on Paths of Change that is based on reports of the Social Cultural Planning Bureau in the Netherlands described in this blog (in Dutch).

6. The End of the Nation State.

(THis part of Chapter 6 is Cited from a part of this long article out of the Guardian)

“Similar varieties of populism are erupting in many countries. Several have noted the parallels in style and substance between leaders such as Donald Trump, Vladimir Putin, Narendra Modi, Viktor Orbán and Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.

All countries are today embedded in the same system, which subjects them all to the same pressures.

20th-century political structures are drowning in a 21st-century ocean of deregulated finance, autonomous technology, religious militancy and great-power rivalry.

Finally, the old superpowers’ demolition of old ideas of international society – ideas of the “society of nations” that were essential to the way the new world order was envisioned after 1918 – has turned the nation-state system into a lawless gangland“;

Everything that was structured most of the time by a Top Down Hierarchical Structure and Controlled by Lawmakers that enforce their own rules is now attacked by many new connected (by a Telecom Network) bottom-up structures that make it possible to Control and Direct the Individuals in the Masses with Highly Intelligent Big Brother technology.

A Model of a Human based on the Paths of Change (PoC)-model.

The 2nd part of Chapter 6 is cited out of an Article out of Forbes.

From Top to Bottom.

There is a strong popular demand for decisions to be taken at lower levels than Central Government

At the extreme, this has fuelled Iindependence movements in Scotland, Quebec, Catalonia and Western Sahara, not to mention Palestine and Kosovo. Less dramatically, we see an increasing devolution of Central Powers in most countries.

Multinational Corporations are more powerfull than Governments:  They operate globally, unrestricted by borders

The biggest tech companies are now richer than most countries, and foreign Governments find it very difficult to tax them properly on the profits they make.  

Hannah Arendt The Origins of Totalitarianism.

At the very center of Hannah Arendt’s analysis of The Origins of Totalitarianism is her insight into the decline of European Nation-States.

Nation-states were always based on a fiction so that the demanded Liberté, égalité and, fraternité demanded by liberal States was held to be compatible with the national Homogeneity of the Nation.

But as different Ethnic Groups demanded recognition and rights and as refugees advocated for rights within traditional nation-states, the Tension between legal equality and national recognition set the nations of Europe Against the states and led to the rise of Fascism in Italy and Totalitarianism in Germany.

Today there are similar indications that nation-states are once again failing and . that the rise of populist nationalist movements around the world is a response to the widespread failure of nation-states to address 21st century problems.

This is why a strange brand of Apocalyptic Nationalism is so widely in vogue. But the current appeal of Machismo as Political Style, the Wall-building and Xenophobia,the fantastical Promises of National Restoration – these are not cures, but symptoms of what is slowly revealing itself to all: nation states everywhere are in an advanced state of political and moral decay.

7.The History of Terrorism, Anarchy, The End of the State by Violence.

Deprivation (poverty, lack of education, lack of political freedom) can drive people to terrorism.

Late in the 19th century, Anarchist labor unions began to use the tactic of general strike. This often resulted in violence by both sides and some of the strikes even resulted in the Deaths of striking workers, their replacements and security staff. In this climate, some anarchists began to advocate and practice terrorism or assassination.

Violence Against the State is used by Groups of People (“Freedom Fighters”) who do not recognize that the current State represents the (Origional) Citizins and/or that the Law of the State is not the Accepted general Law (“Religious Fighters“) of a Culture that occupies the State.

Sometimes the State uses Violence to Control the Citizens of the State (State Terrorism).

8. Living in a Cave: Lessons from The Pre-Historic State of the Humans.

Alvin Toffler , The Third Wave, After, the Hunter Gatherers the State was caused by the move to Agriculture. The big question is what the State will become in the Third Wave or What is the Fourth Wave.
Translating Rock Art. It looks like the Ancient Rock Art contains the Symbols we see in Ancient writing.

The State was created when we,the humans Stopped Moving Around, Settled Down and started Agriculture. . The first place we settled down were Caves.

Using mainly red pigments and sometimes black, groups of animals, hand stencils, engravings, dots, discs and geometric designs are depicted in the cave paintings.
Oldest known cave art was made by Neanderthals, not humans

Outside the Cave Nature was filled with many Animals and Plants we could eat.

To Kill Animals we made Weapons and to make weapons we needed Fire and Iron. Powerful Weapons were filled with Magic.

Magic is a System that gives the Focused Human Belief-System to take the role of Observer in Quantum Mechanics.

Joseph Campbell — Jung and the Right and Left-hand Paths. The Cycle of Life moves with and Against the Clock.

With the Clock moves the Path of Creation, the Path of Birth, Light, Spring and Summer.
Against the Clock (the path of Darkness, Winter and Autumn) is the Path of Destruction making place for New Life

As a a human we have to Cope with Violent Acts like an Accident, the Killing of an Animal that looks like a Human and the Strange Transformations of our Body we encounter when we Grow from a Child to a Grown-up.

Our transformation follows the Path of the Hero.


This path has a lot in common with Paths of Change, a General Theory about Change.

The Meta-Myth, the Path of the Hero describes the way Humans move out of the patterns enforced by Society and the State and come back with a new Vision.
Paths of Change. based on the Spiral of the Universal One of Walter Russelll

The Humans in the Cave became Aware of the Cycles of the Day, The Year and the Equinox.

They crated Rituals to cope with Stress and to avoid Bad Luck.

OSEPH CAMPBELL: “After the animal has been killed, the hunter then has to fulfill certain rites in a a mystic participation with the animals whose death he has brought about, and whose Meat is to become his Life.

So the killing is not simply slaughter, at any rate, it’s a Ritual Act. It’s a recognition of your dependency and of the Voluntary Giving of this food to you by the Animal“.

Dr. Stephan Hoeller at the Gnostic Society in Los Angeles talks about MAgic and Animal Powers.
During the beginning of humanity certain people (now called Shamans) had the possibility to look at the other worlds and receive inspiration from higher entities sometimes called a God. The Shamans turned into the Priests until they were replaced by people who spoke the words of the High Priests.

The humans in the cave specialized and new Crafts came to life. The oldest “jobs” were the Firemaker and the BlackSmith. Both jobs were taken by Shamans. Important crafts were projected on the Gods.

In the Creation-Myths Gods like Ptah and Vulcan were worshiped as the Creator of all things and the patron of various crafts, such as Sculpting and Metalworking.

The Blacksmiths are the Makers & the Warriors.They have a lot in common with the Druids and Bards of the Celts and the Magi of Persia. A Blacksmith was called a Merlin in Celtic Culture.


Vulcan – God of fire and volcanoes as well as Smith of the gods

The Dagda is portrayed in Celtic Myth as a Father-figure, king, and druid.He owns a Magic Staff, which kills with one end and brings to life with the other, a Cauldron which never runs empty (Symbol of the Heart Chakra) , and a magic Harp which can control men’s emotions and Change the Seasons

The Ancient Egyptians Blacksmiths, the Heru-Behutet, are associated with the Power of the Serpent (“the Ka“) and the Winged Disk, the symbol of the Zodiac (Astrology).

Image result for Heru Behutet

Heru Behutet is shown as a Hawk-Headed Man bearing the double crown of Egypt, holding Metal Weapons, and more often as a Winged Disk flanked by a White and a Black Cobra (White and Black Alchemy).

Te story of Osiris (The Old King of Egypt, The Old Order, Blind, ISIS (Queen of the Underworld, Chaos looking for her Husband, Order and the brother of Osiris Seth (the Devil, Evil) He kills Osiris and Cuts him in 42 Pieces (the Number of the Nomes of Egypt) and distributes them all over Egypt.
ISIS makes love to his Penis and Horus the Falcon with the Eye of Insight is born who brings back order. A Horus and Isis are the Black Madonna (Mary Magdelena).

This is a good example of the Cycle of Paths of Change.


Th Black Madonna with the Child Jesus is Isis, the Mother of the Underworld with Horus the Child she got from Penis of Osiris, the Old King of Egypt and of Order.

The Mesniu had shaved heads, wore short tunics that exposed their chests, and bore either an inverted Lance or some other Metal instrument.

In the rear of their temples was situated a “Holy of Holies,” called the Mesnit, which was only accessible by the Mesniu. A Holy of Hollies is Fractal Model.

In the Bible the Blacksmiths are associated with the children of Tubal Cain. One of his descendants is Hiram, the Master Builder of the Temple of Solomon. Building big Buildings became an Art.

Ron Eglash. Fractal Patterns in African Culture.
Fractal African Village
The Fractal Pattern of an African Village with a Holy of Hollies.

In African Orisha Culture, the Ogun, the Blacksmiths are always isolated in a special group outside Society because they are the carriers of the Third, (Evil) Eye of Horus and are able to manipulate the Force of Life, Nyama or Ka (Chi, Prana, Ether, the Fifth Element).

Creative People are able to manipulate the Power that Creates.

Image result for biology status symbols birds sexual reproduction

As soon as the States were created Humans started to Trade & exchange Objects, Creating a new concept called Wealth.

Humans measure their Importance by the physical objects (including caves and animals) they own or are able to buy. They show their importance just like animals in the way they look, wear clothes and the Language they speak.

Humans are experts in detecting lying but we are experts in lying when we deceive ourselves.

There many types of animals that create and defend a Territory.

9. Are Humans different from Animals & Organisms?

Robert SaPolsky: We have much more in common with all kinds of Animals and organisms we think. We all synchronize because we all vibrate and produce signals sometimes of a chemical nature (pheromones).Hmans and Animals use a solution to the Prisoners Dilemma, Tit-for-Tat as a way to survive making Tit-for-Tat a Universal Law. Tit-for-tat is called an Eye for an Eye in the Bible.

The only thing we are different from is Abstraction Methaphor and Being Motivated by something that is Almost Impossible. We love to take Obstacles.
Another Explanation about How we are Different from Apes. We have slowed down and spend a lot of time imitating and producing other humans. We are excellent Copy-Machines.
Robert Trivers The Logic of Deceit and Self-Deception in Human Life Organisms decept to survive and Humans decept themselves. the primary reason we fool ourselves is to fool others“. Humans are exceptionally good at picking up various verbal and physical cues (e.g., speech intonation, eye movements,…) that indicate when another human is practicing deception.
There are many situations such as playing “chicken” and seeing who will back down first, where it can actually benefit an organism to deceive itself, by so doing the organism can better deceive others.

Multilevel Societies emerge from Cultural Transmissions.

Organisms create Complex Organisational structures that look like a State. They do that by Imitating others that look Similar or Act Similar. Acting Similar (Copying) is the reason for Synchronization.

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Object name is ncomms9091-f1.jpg
Empirical multilevel network depicting the three nested levels in the sperm whale society off the Galápagos Islands: individuals within social units within vocal clans.


10: States: What makes them Work?

Humans attribute a human Personality to an Active process (an Agent). The weather is nice and States look like a Father ANDor a Mother. or a Family.

George Lakoff is a specialist in Metaphor. A Metaphor is a function between two models.

For instance Freud made a model of the Human by Mapping the Human Body to a Steam Machine.

George Lakoff believes in his book Moral Politics that US Citizins see the State according to their party as a Nurturing Mother (Democrats) or a Strict Father (Republicans) part of a Family (Being a Tribe).

Metaphors are also often used to motivate a country going to a War or to perform another Violent Act.

States are often represented by Humans (Mother Russia) or a Bounded Location (the Heimat, Germany).

States are Born and Grow Up just like Humans.

Just like life a birth is not a gentle process but comes with stress and pain. The Big Battles between states live for many years and the Reason can be revoked to start a new Battle.

The same applies when a State was a Superpower in the past. States without a shared dramatic story don’t motivate citizens to support the state without asking questions.

The State works when the Citizens are able to Trust the state and or be Proud to be part of the state they live in. The state is Evaluated by its Activities but also by the people it represents (PoliticianS).

When we use model of Path of Change (picture below) we can see that Politicians combine Rules and Social (vice verse) which means that they play a Game in which they make a combination between What People Believe and What they Value and are PART OF A CYCLE in which ACTION and REFLECTION takes place.

The task of the Politician is to establish Consensus between the citizens of the State.

Paths of Change model applied to Communication.
Paths of Chhange Model applied to Making.
Moral Pilitics Georg Lakoff.


11 Will The Techno State bring Real Democracy?

Many thought the internet would spawn a Digital democratic utopia: Today, we witness the opposite Hacking elections and Polarizing open societies.

Democracy is not only about Voting but also about having a Voice to articulate what is Needed. Citizens want to participate in the beginning of a project and not only use the result. One of the possibilities is to Vote with the Tax you Pay .

Roslyn Fuller: Citizen Participation in an International Context

Participatory Budgeting (PB) is a democratic process in which community members decide how to spend part of a public budget. It gives people real power over real money.

PB started in Porto Alegre, Brazil, in 1989, as an anti-poverty measure that helped reduce child mortality by nearly 20%.

Since then PB has spread to over 3,000 cities around the world, and has been used to decide budgets from states, counties, cities, housing authorities, schools, and other institutions.





De Bewegende Grens Opnieuw.

Zicht op de Toekonst in 2006. en wat er volgens het SCP nu van is uitgekomen. (4-1-2020).

Hans.Konstapel: Oorspronkelijk Document 8 maart 2006.

Het Model Paths of Change (PoC) van Will Mcwhinney lijkt erg veel op de door Myers en Briggs gemaakte Typologie gebaseerd op de Archetypen van Jung,

1. Inleiding

In dit document worden belangrijke ontwikkelingen in de cultuur in kaart gebracht. De informatie in dit hoofdstuk is overgenomen uit rapporten van het Cultureel Plan Bureau.

De algemene lijn is dat er een einde is gekomen aan het gelijkheidsstreven dat is ontstaan tijdens de Franse Revolutie en de Verlichting.

In deze periode werd de rationaliteit (de objectiviteit) als hoogste goed gezien.

Deze rationaliteit werd geacht de fantasie en de emoties te kunnen besturen. Men verwacht dat men alles kan berekenen en besturen (als een machine).

De bestaande werkwijze in de automatisering (informatisering) komt voort uit dit gelijkheidsstreven (standaardiseren).

In de toekomst wordt het individu en uniekheid veel belangrijker (individualisering).

De mens neemt de verantwoordelijkheid voor zijn eigen leven en kiest zelf. Creativiteit en (intense) emoties gaan een grote rol spelen (intensivering).

Deze ontwikkeling betekent het einde van de staat en de hiërarchisch bestuurde onderneming en alle andere centraal bestuurde concepten. Ze zullen worden vervangen door internationale netwerken van mensen en applicaties die iets met elkaar willen bewerkstelligen.

Netwerken zijn tijdelijke structuren. De onderdelen van het netwerk hergroeperen zich afhankelijk van ontwikkelingen in de context. Duidelijk mag zijn dat het Internet en vooral het Web 2.0. concept goed aansluit bij deze ontwikkeling.

Betrokkenheidgevoelens hebben een hoge prioriteit (dieren, milieu, mensenrechten). In netwerken zijn formele relaties onbelangrijk (informalisering). Het gaat om wederzijds respect voor de uniekheid van de ander en de uitdaging om iets nieuws te bewerkstelligen.

De wereld wordt het speelveld (internationalisering). De netwerken worden natuurlijk enorm gefaciliteerd door de IT en het Internet (informatisering). Door de ITC zullen vele functies worden geïntegreerd tot utilities. Complexe systemen zullen simpel bedienbaar worden.

Samenvattend kan gesteld worden dat in de komende periode vooral de grens in beweging is. De overheden proberen grenzen te stellen (normen en waarden), die door het egoïstische individu en de grote ondernemingen permanent worden overschreden. Om weer tot een samenhang te komen moeten nieuwe grenzen worden afgebakend. De oude grenzen die door landen en ondernemingen werden bepaald werken niet meer. Uiteindelijk zal de nieuwe grens ontstaan doordat er een sprong wordt gemaakt naar een ander niveau van begrenzing, de aarde (Gaya) die nu onder grote druk staat. Dit niveau zal alleen maar worden bereikt als de individualist zich niet opstelt als egoïst maar als altruïst.

De ontwikkeling wordt samengevat in vijf onderling samenhangende trends:

2. Individualisering

Individualisering is het proces van verminderende afhankelijkheid van het individu van een of enkele personen in zijn directe omgeving en van toenemende vrijheid van keuze met betrekking tot de inrichting van het eigen leven. Directe, persoonlijke en volledige afhankelijkheid maakt plaats voor ketens van tijdelijke, functionele, anonieme en partiële afhankelijkheid. De meest passende vorm voor dergelijke ketens is het project[1]. Het aspect van de individuele vrijheid zal sterker benadrukt worden op een heel breed terrein, in het bijzonder op het terrein van de vrijheid in de keuze van sociale zekerheidsarrangementen en arbeidsvoorwaarden. Deel van de individualiseringstendentie is het willen aanvaarden van meer verantwoordelijkheid voor het eigen leven en het eigen levenslot. Men kiest zijn eigen weg.

3. Informalisering

Grenzen vervagen en veranderen permanent. Begrippen hebben vele betekenissen. Indelingen werken niet meer. Alles is meervoudig verbonden en hangt met alles samen (een kluwen). Organisaties krijgen in de 21e eeuw het karakter van netwerken, die in veel opzichten virtueel van aard zullen zijn. Niet lidmaatschap, fysieke aanwezigheid of de juridische relatie zullen de belangrijke criteria van participatie zijn, maar onderling vertrouwen en communicatie. Persoonlijke kenmerken (sekse, leeftijd, ras, seksuele voorkeur), belangstellingen (en niet meer klasse, stand of godsdienst) en betrokkenheidgevoelens (dieren, milieu, mensenrechten) worden de grondslag van een organisatie. Informalisering doet de scheidslijn tussen privé en openbaar, tussen werk en thuis, tussen vrije tijd en arbeid vervagen. Alles loopt vloeiend in elkaar over. Gezagsproblemen zijn een logisch gevolg van informalisering. De bekleding met gezag en de kleding van het gezag roepen niet meer automatisch respect op; het respect moet verdiend worden en dat kan strijd impliceren.

4. Informatisering

De technologische ontwikkeling zal voor een belangrijk deel een geïnformatiseerd karakter hebben. De betekenis van informatie zal veranderen: het gaat niet meer om de beschikbaarheid op zich, want alles is er. Het gaat nu om het kunnen vinden van de juiste informatie, de selectie en het adequaat combineren van deze informatie (copy & combine). Daarmee verandert ook de rol van leren en de maatschappelijke waarde van kennis. Het is niet meer van belang om veel te weten. De versnelling van de verwerkingsmogelijkheden op informaticagebied zullen zich vooral manifesteren in de vorm van een toenemende integratie van functies. Informatisering staat zelf in het teken van innovatie, maar lokt ook elders weer innovaties uit. Het wordt bijna onmogelijk om het effect van dit alles te voorspellen. ICT zal nog goedkoper worden en vooral gemakkelijker in de bediening. Mensen met lage opleiding zullen complexe systemen kunnen bedienen.

5. Internationalisering

Informatisering heft de betekenis van grenzen, afstanden en tijdsverschillen op. Internationalisering staat zowel voor de toenemende invloed van de Europese Unie en het multinationale bedrijfsleven als voor de groeiende oriëntatie op wat elders gebeurt, de participatie in het internationale aanbod aan cultuur en levensstijl. Vele culturen en levensstijlen zullen permanent door elkaar heen gaan lopen. De wereld is een open boek. Internationalisering is zichtbaar in de processen van toerisme en migratie. Beide zullen het beeld van de samenleving in de komende decennia in hoge mate blijven bepalen. Bij internationalisering past economische liberalisering en globalisering. Het vrijemarkt-denken heeft in toenemende consequenties voor terreinen waar tot nu toe nationale grenzen en regionale identiteiten beeldbepalend waren: cultuur, media, gezondheidszorg, welzijnszorg & onderwijs. Alles wordt onderhevig aan marktwerking.

6. Intensivering

Intensivering verwijst naar de veranderende dynamiek en de toenemende betekenis van de belevingscomponent in het moderne leven. Er moet veel meer in één leven en dat meer moet zowel afwisselend als belonend zijn. De beleving van werk, relaties, het eigen leven en het eigen lichaam, vrije tijd, sport enz. staat steeds sterker in het teken van het verlangen naar een intense en intensieve beleving en ervaring. Ontremming door middelengebruik, agressie als groepsgedrag, muziek als kunstvorm bij uitstek, een hoge waardering van seksualiteit en sport zijn de dominante uitdrukkingsvormen. De massamedia spelen daar op in en versterken deze trend. Bij intensivering van beleving en ervaringen hoort ook een sterkere oriëntatie op het eigen gevoel. Dat is in de plaats gekomen van een oriëntatie op eigen belang en de eigen maatschappelijke positie in relatie tot anderen. Het eigen gevoel wordt zo de toetssteen voor wat het leven biedt (‘is het nog leuk?’), maar ook voor de kwaliteit van de omgang met anderen. Dat leidt enerzijds tot een verhoogde vorm van gevoeligheid voor krenkingen, anderzijds tot een versnelde geneigdheid daar in gedrag uiting aan te geven, bijvoorbeeld in de vorm van fysiek geweld. Bij intensivering past ook collectivisering van ervaring: het gezamenlijk deel hebben aan een collectief evenement, juist uit het verlangen naar gemeenschappelijke beleving. Popconcerten, voetbalwedstrijden, demonstraties e.d. ontlenen daar voor een belangrijk deel hun aantrekkingskracht aan.

7.Grenzen overschrijden, stellen, bepalen en afbakenen

Op dit moment is de intensivering de belangrijkste drijvende kracht. Er wordt op vele fronten gestreefd naar extreme combinaties van extremen. Een prachtig voorbeeld is de chipsindustrie. Chips moeten zich steeds sneller aanpassen aan de markt, sneller werken, kleiner worden, een zeer hoge kwaliteit hebben en steeds goedkoper worden.

Door de intensivering ontstaat er een enorme druk op het planmatige handelen (productiemethoden en research). Men moet permanent de grenzen overschrijden.

De kosten om de noodzakelijke doorbraken te kunnen realiseren worden steeds hoger waardoor steeds minder partijen in de race blijven. De intensivering veroorzaakt extreme omstandigheden waardoor alleen extreme structuren kunnen overleven (bv. monopolies). De grote meerderheid sterft af (rat-race).

De intensivering is de motor achter het (neo-)kapitalisme. De ondernemingen die nu nog deel uitmaken van de rat-race zijn, net als de trill-seekers, op zoek naar mogelijkheden om zich aan wetten en regels te ontrekken. Vandaar de trek naar de lage lonen landen en enorme druk die men uitoefent op de overheden om alle belemmeringen weg te nemen. Aangezien de belangrijke spelers internationaal zijn georiënteerd zijn ze moeilijk te besturen door de lokale overheden.

De overheden hebben grote moeite om aan deze ontwikkeling grenzen te stellen. Bijzonder is dat zij dit wel doen ten aanzien van de burgers (verbod op roken, alcohol, drugs, …). Deze acties werken averechts. De burgers zijn niet meer gediend van een centraal regulerende overheid.

De intensivering wordt in stand gehouden omdat de consument gewend is geraakt aan de voordelen van het kapitalistische systeem. Hij kan steeds zonder al te grote problemen zijn steeds extremere behoeften bevredigen.

De ontwikkelingen van het SCP geprojecteert op het PoC-model.

Er is slechts één macht die deze ontwikkeling kan stoppen en dat is wederom de consument.

In dit geval wordt de consument niet aangesproken op zijn zintuigen maar op zijn verantwoordelijkheidsgevoel (rekening houden met de ander).

Hij bepaalt zijn eigen grenzen. De individualisering is op de lange termijn de remmende kracht van de intensivering.

De roep om verantwoordelijkheid dwingt de ondernemingen om maatschappelijk verantwoord te gaan ondernemen.

Deze trend werd eerst als marketinginstrument gebruikt maar de intelligente consument heeft dit snel door.

Integriteit speelt een steeds grotere rol in de beoordeling van de ander.

Individualisering kan leiden tot egoïsme.

Het kan ook leiden tot het omgekeerde, altruïsme.

De egoïst wil alles alleen doen. De altruïst wil samenwerken. Deze samenwerking vindt echter alleen plaats als de relatie met de ander meerwaarde oplevert (complementariteit).

De individualist gelooft heilig in wat hij zelf heeft uitgevonden. Wat anderen vinden of wat door een autoriteit als de absolute waarheid wordt gebracht wantrouwt hij onmiddellijk.

Een altruïst kan echter zeer gelovig zijn. Zijn geloof is echter een persoonlijk geloof en niet het geloof dat door de instituties wordt opgedrongen.

De altruïst gelooft in grote samenhangen (de kosmos, de aarde, de natuur). Hij is een holist[2] bij uitstek. Zijn streven is er op gericht om deze samenhangen te behouden.

8. Wat is in 2019 van uitgekomen?

1. Snel veranderend mediagebruik.

We dachten destijds dat er in 2020 minder zou worden gelezen. Het televisiekijken (de belangrijkste vrijetijdsbesteding van de Nederlander) zou stabiliseren in aantal uren,

maar ook steeds verder verschuiven naar de commerciële zenders, en het ICT-gebruik zou nog steeds in opmars zijn. Hoe jonger, hoe sterker deze trends zouden zijn. Voor de toekomst werd verwacht dat het mediagebruik zowel door eigen bezit als door betere technische mogelijkheden om zelfstandig thuis te programmeren en muziek en beeld vast te leggen, verder zou individualiseren.

‘Streamen bestond nog niet’
Deze voorspelling is uitgekomen. Het grootste verschil is dat het kijken niet zozeer verschoven is naar commerciële zenders, maar naar andere vormen van kijken (streamen, uitgesteld kijken, maar dat waren termen die in 2004 nog niet uitgevonden waren. De meest recente inzichten in mediagebruik zijn overigens te zien in het recent verschenen rapport Media:Tijd.  

2. Het geslacht van je kind kiezen

De helft van de Nederlanders dacht weliswaar dat dit in 2020 zou kunnen, maar ruim 90% gaf ook aan dit (zeer) onwenselijk te vinden.

En dat klopt ook. Want ja, technisch gezien kan het wel, onze moraal is nog niet veranderd. Uit het maatschappelijk debat komt naar voren dat we genderklinieken voor zwangere vrouwen onwenselijk vinden. Verandering van geslacht op volwassen leeftijd (transgenders) heeft inmiddels wel ingang gevonden.

3. Acceptatie rondom euthanasie

Ook over andere grote levensvragen werden uitspraken gedaan: Zo verwachtte 71% dat in 2020 ‘euthanasie algemeen geaccepteerd’  zou zijn. Bijna evenveel mensen (72%) vonden dat ook (zeer) wenselijk.

Ook deze voorspelling is uitgekomen, wanneer het gaat om euthanasie bij ondraaglijk lijden van de persoon. De huidige discussie over levensbeëindiging bij ondraaglijk leven was toen nog niet in beeld.

4. Vereenzaming

Destijds dacht 80% van de bevolking dat in 2020 meer mensen vereenzaamd en vervuild zouden worden aangetroffen en 90% verwachtte dat er dan meer zieke mensen afhankelijk zouden zijn van hun familie. Bovendien vond vrijwel iedereen dat onwenselijk.

Ook deze voorspelling is uitgekomen hoewel vrijwel iedereen dat dus destijds onwenselijk vond.

Het aantal eenzame mensen is toegenomen. De afhankelijkheid van mantelzorgers is eveneens toegenomen. Zie hierover ook ons magazine Mantelzorg.

5. Bevolking kijkt soms rooskleuriger

Opvallend om te zien is dat de bevolking soms wat rooskleuriger naar de toekomst lijkt te kijken, zoals in het geval van behandeling bij ziekten als dementie of kanker. Medici gaven aan geen grote doorbraken in de behandeling van dementie, kanker, reuma en astma te verwachten, in de periode tot 2020. En dat is ook uitgekomen.  De bevolking had daar een heel andere kijk op: volgens 40%-50% zouden dan de oorzaken van deze ziekten bekend zijn en kon genezing ‘meestal volledig’ zijn.

6. Een elektronisch patiëntendossier

Hetzelfde geldt voor een zorgnummer of patiëntendossier. ‘In 2020 zal er zeker per patiënt een uniek zorgnummer en één elektronisch patiëntendossier zijn’, aldus de bevolking. Er is inmiddels een uniek zorgnummer, maar nog geen algemeen patiëntendossier.

7. Internet anywhere, anytime

Het percentage Nederlanders dat thuis toegang heeft tot internet nam toe van 21% in 1998 tot 74% in 2004. De voorspelling was dat 82% van de bevolking in 2007 online zou zijn.

Volgens de CBS publicatie Digitale economie 2007 had in 2004 77% van de personen van 12-74 jaar in particuliere huishoudens thuis toegang tot internet. In 2007 was dat aandeel al gestegen tot 88%. Nu in 2019 is zelfs 97% van de bevolking online (Statline). De verspreiding van internet is zelfs nog iets sneller gegaan dan gedacht. Destijds spitste de discussie zich toe op het hebben van een breedband aansluiting. De eerste iPhone zou in 2006 op de markt komen. In SCR 2004 schreven we destijds: ‘De snelle verspreiding van de mobiele telefoon biedt echter wel zicht op toekomstige mogelijkheden voor een flexibeler internetgebruik.’ Maar dat internetgebruik zo snel anywhere, anytime zou zijn is in SCR 2004 niet voorzien.

8. Bang voor cybercriminaliteit

Zeer veel mensen (87%) hielden er in 2004 rekening mee dat door de ICT-ontwikkelingen de face-to-face dienstverlening zou verdwijnen. Daarnaast was de helft van de bevolking bang voor een information overload en was 82% bang voor cybercriminaliteit.

Er zijn inderdaad veel bankfilialen, postkantoren, loketten met kaartverkoop (bijv. NS) en dergelijke gesloten. Weinig mensen zijn in behandeling voor information overload, maar wel wordt er geklaagd over sociale druk door het gebruik van sociale media en gameverslaving. Cyber criminaliteit is nog steeds iets om bang voor te zijn.

9. We gaan ouder met pensioen

Maar liefst 66% van de bevolking sprak de verwachting uit dat de pensioenleeftijd in 2020 hoger dan 65 jaar zal zijn. En dat is uitgekomen; de pensioenleeftijd is in 2020 66 jaar en 4 maanden.

10. Minder sociale voorzieningen

Bijna driekwart van de bevolking voorspelde dat de sociale zekerheid ‘minder zou worden’. Maar liefst 70 à 80% verwachtte dat uitkeringsgerechtigden, inclusief AOW’ers, meer problemen zullen hebben om van de uitkering rond te komen. Ook dit klopt, de koopkracht van de uitkeringsgerechtigden is achtergebleven bij die van werkenden (zie CBS 2019, Koopkrachtontwikkeling personen; huishoudenskenmerken).

Hadden we het in 2004 dan alleen maar bij het rechte eind? Nee, en dat is ook onmogelijk. Zo dachten we bijvoorbeeld dat we inmiddels zelf konden beslissen of we pensioen wilde opbouwen of niet, dat gepensioneerden ook AOW zouden moeten betalen en dat er een daling in deelname in vrijwilligerswerk zou zijn.

9. Links.

Wat dachten de Babyboomers van de Toekomst?

[1] Een voorbeeld is enorme opkomst van project-koren in plaats van vaste koren. Men doet mee om een bepaald werk uit te voeren. Daarna wordt de intensieve samenwerking weer beëindigd.

[2]Holisme (Grieks: holon: het geheel) is het idee dat de eigenschappen van een systeem niet kunnen worden verklaard door de som van alleen zijn componenten te nemen. Elk geheel ontleent uiteraard kenmerken aan de samenstellende delen, maar ook (en wellicht meer) aan de samenhang of ordening van die delen en hun interactie zie: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holisme


Ideas and opinions about the connection between small scale specialized human networks and large scale collaborative IT-technology

Written: April-1993.

1. Introduction

For a long time people believed that, the world had entered a period of sustained growth (the long boom) that could eventually double the world’s economy every dozen years. New waves of technology would lead to big productivity increases that would cause high economic growth.

The long boom assumed an evolutionary process where governments, companies and consumers could easily absorb new waves of technologies. In practice, new technologies act as a shockwave.  Every time when companies become aware of the shockwave (a hype), they react quickly. The wave acts as a threat (the competition will beat us if we don’t act) and at the same time as an attractor (it will generate high benefits for us if we win). Therefore, everybody starts to experiment, sometimes on a very large scale. After a long time best practices emerge and the new technology is absorbed.  At that moment it becomes often clear that the technology has a completely different effect than everybody thought it would have. Most of the time there are many losers and a few winners.

Not many technologies keep their promise (e.g. Client/Server, E-Commerce). The frequency of shockwaves is much higher than the absorption time of the new technology. The effect is that companies are in many stages of adoption at the same time. More and more managers are very skeptic and hesitant to start a new absorption wave. They are left with many layers of software. Some of the software-layers are so old that almost nobody knows what is does or how to get rid of it. Most of the companies first want to clean the mess of all the waves that hit their company before they start with something new. The big problem is that the software-industry never stops to launch new shockwaves and nobody knows for sure if the new wave (perhaps for the first time) will keep its promise or his threat.

Behind the scene, something else is happening. Western culture is encountering a paradigm shift. Slowly the era of rationalism is ending.  The rationalists were obsessed by objectivity and perfection. In their view, objectivity and perfection can only be accomplished by controlling the subjective parts, the emotions (detracting the brain) and the imagination (creating illusions) by the logical reasoning of the intelligent calculating machine, the brain. The rationalists created the big corporations (with the brain at the top), the general-purpose computer (with the brain in the operating system) and the standardized mass production systems that eliminated the craftsman and replaced him with the perfect objective human, the robot. The brain is not capable to understand the effects of his interventions in nature and society anymore. His aim to control has the opposite effect. Nature and society are complex systems with many unknown short-term and long-term feedback loops.

The new paradigm takes its metaphors out of biology. The world consists of numerous networks of cooperating and competing human agents. A network is uniquely determined by its human- and technology-patterns. These patterns act as an imaginary boundary. They shield the network from changes in the environment.  New participants have to learn to use the technology and the internal procedures to survive in the network. The behavior of the human participants in a network changes slowly. When they do not like the network, they move to another. Human members come and go but the technology-patterns of the network stay alive.

On a high level, we can see that the opening of a new space of possibilities causes the movement of all the networks. When one of the networks moves into the new space, others have to follow in due time. The movement of a network can be slowed down by physical boundaries (islands, mountains), physical space itself (traveling) and cultural boundaries (languages).

The invention of symbols opened up mental space. It caused a major change in human society by enabling the creation of writing, mathematics and the development of the automatic calculator, the Computer. The Internet is opening a vast new space (Cyberspace) of new opportunities on two levels. It makes new technology-patterns possible and it facilitates the bridging of human networks (communication). The last factor will speed up of the movement of networks heavily. New networks and new patterns of behavior (products, services, cultures) will arise (and fade away) that nobody has ever imagined.

The Internet is enabling a level of collaborative creativity that was not possible before. The corporations try to manage the collaborative creativity by giving the customer a choice (mass customization), speeding up the product development processes by introducing advanced systems of product life cycle management and involve the customer in de product-design (customer-innovation). Outside the corporations, consumers and small flexible specialized companies merge spontaneously into networks that produce unique products that carry the signature of the craftsman again.  In the future big corporations, consumers and small-scale businesses will merge and create a completely new business-ecology.

The Internet and its new general purpose technology-patterns will make it possible to move down to the human scale of cooperation, the network. By connecting the networks, the world will move up to a level of collaboration that was never possible before in history.

2. Smart Customer Networks

When a customer connects his multimedia PC, using a broadband connection (e.g. ADSL), to the Internet an enormous amount of possibilities confront him.  He can download and share software, music and movies, buy almost everything he wants for the lowest price (often for free), arrange his own holiday, learn more about a subject than a specialist, join a specialized community and communicate (without using the telephone-network) with his friends, colleagues and family everywhere in the world by means of text, voice or video.

To make use of all the possibilities of the Internet the customer has to learn new skills. He learns a lot by trial and error. When he is in trouble friends and relatives that are more advanced help him. After some time the customer becomes an experienced user of the Internet. He changes into a smart customer and becomes a trusted expert in his field of interest. Every time when he finds out a new possibility, he communicates it to his network. The people that trust his expertise join him to use the new feature in a very short time.

Smart customers become smart citizens when they want to use political pressure to accomplish something. They join or create pressure groups. When a smart customer gets sick he becomes a smart patient. He searches the Internet to find the cause of his problems, joins a community of people with the same illness, asks an expert for advice and gives all the information he has gathered to his general practitioner or his medical specialist. There he negotiates his treatment. If he does not get the medicine he wants he is able to buy it somewhere on the Internet.

Most of the companies and government agencies cannot capture the smart consumer. He is navigating from vendor to vendor, from one pressure group to another, always looking for the best fit. The needs of this kind of customer are constantly changing and expanding. Smart customers are not only buying services in the network, they are inventing, developing and selling their own products combining components from different vendors.

Smart customers can save a company and governments a lot of money. They take over the activities of high paid specialists. Vendors that understand this issue, cooperate with the customer in every stage of their processes. They let them sell the product (through their personal network), make it possible to assemble their own combinations, give them information about the state of the process, help them to enhance their network and skills and let them even participate in the development of new products.

Not everybody has the time, the money, the facilities, the network or the capabilities to make optimal use of all the opportunities of the Internet. The number of smart consumers and the amount of smart customer networks is growing very rapidly. They are leading a new revolution that will change the marketplace and eventually every aspect of our culture.

3. From Mass Production to Smart Customer Networks

The Industrial age is the age of mass production. The Taylor school of management dominated the organization of business. Taylor believed one should manage people (and customers) in the same way one manages inanimate assets and the machines on which people work. Mechanization and standardization of components and interfaces, careful supervision of quality standards, and minute division of labor characterize the mass production process itself. The division of labor was accomplished by breaking down work into simple, repetitive tasks eliminating unnecessary motion and limiting the handling of different tools and parts. The consequent reduction in production time and the ability to replace craftsmen with lower-paid, unskilled workers or even robots resulted in lower production costs and a less expensive final product.

After the phase of mass production, the industry is now in the phase of mass customization. By carefully standardizing it is possible to make a distinction between components that customers like to vary (mostly visible) and parts that are part of the essential  (invisible) infrastructure. A good example is the production line of Dell computers where customers can choose their own configuration.

A next step is to involve the customer in the design-process of the product (Customer Innovation). Companies like BMW or Audi give customers already access to innovation platforms where average drivers are invited to create the next generation of cars.

The move from Mass Production to Smart Customer Networks is the move from one united production and sales model aimed at the customer, to a network-model involving the customer in all stages. The challenge is to combine large-scale mass-production with small-scale user-involvement.  It will be impossible to coordinate all the processes from one single point of control. Many coordinators have to synchronize their activities.

Manufacturers, retailers and customers have to act together in a collaboration network. Retailers and suppliers have to maintain customer relationships by sharing customers, margins, and intangibles like brand, as well as jointly planning marketing, merchandising, and sales activities and becoming more like companions (in a good marriage) than master and servant.

Mass Customization and Customer Innovation puts a high strain on the customer. The amount of choices a customer has to make is constantly increasing. The number of possible combinations of components that relate to a product and to a combination of components of different products will soon surpass the complexity a human being can handle. People simply do not have the time and the cognitive capacity to make all the choices that are needed. This problem can only be resolved when product-developers take the capabilities of the complete human cognition system into account.

Mass Customization and Customer Innovation give the customer a small stake in the business cycle. The customer is treated as a consumer and not as a co-producer. All the major design-decisions are still made by the executives in the corporation. In the future customers want to be treated on an even footing.

If customers really get frustrated, they can generate an enormous collective power. With this power, they can change the policies of a corporation (e.g. the Brent Spar affair of Shell) or even take over the complete business cycle. An example is the Open Source Movement where a network of programmers wanted to destroy the monopoly of the big software corporations on operating systems. They developed a new free-ware operating system called Linux. The corporations are now trying to stop this fatal development by taking over the commercializing of the product (Red Hat) and by fighting the developers in court because they have infringed their patents.

A war between consumers united in Smart Customer Networks and the Big Corporations is not in the benefit of both the competitors. They have to cooperate and combine their expertise. The big problem is that organizations, supply chains and their supporting systems were never designed to be demand driven. The challenge is to find an evolutionary path where a new fully collaborative infrastructure cooperates with the existing legacy-systems and business-processes.

4. From General-Purpose Computers to General-Purpose Technology

4.1. Introduction

The IT-Industry has evolved in nearly 50 years. In that timeframe, it became the most influential business in the Industry. Everybody is completely dependent on the computer and its software. The IT-Industry has gone through various technology waves. The waves generated integration problems that were solved by the construction of abstraction layers. The layers not only solved problems. They also created new problems that were solved by other layers. The effect of all intertwining layers is an almost incomprehensible, not manageable, software-complex. The main reason behind this development is the architecture of the general-purpose computer. It was developed to control and not to collaborate. The Internet makes it possible to leave the prison of the general-purpose computer and to move to a new collaborative infrastructure that supports general-purpose IT-Technology.

4.2. The General Purpose Computer

Charles Babbage invented the first computer (the Difference Engine) in 1833. Babbage wanted to automate the calculation of mathematical tables. His engine consisted of four parts called the mill (the Central Processing Unit, the Operating System), the Store (the database), the Reader, and the Printer. The machine was steam-driven and run by one attendant. The Reader used punched cards. Babbage invented a programming-language and a compiler to translate symbols into numbers. He worked together with the first programmer, Lady Lovelace who invented the term bug (a defect in a program). The project of Babbage stopped because nobody wanted to finance him anymore.

It was not until 1954 that a real (business-) market for computers began to emerge by the creation of the IBM 650. The machines of the early 1950s were not much more capable than Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine of the 1830s. Around 1964 IBM gave birth to the general-purpose computer, the mainframe, in its 360-architecture (360 means all-round). The 360/370-architecture is one of the most durable artifacts of the computer age. It was so successful that it almost created a monopoly for IBM. Just one company, Microsoft, has succeeded to beat IBM by creating the general-purpose computer for the consumer (the PC).

IBM and Microsoft are both protecting their markets by developing technology that is difficult to connect. Both are moving to the same area, the connection-point between the PC and the Mainframe (the Server), creating tremendous integration problems.

4.3. Integration Problems

Programming a computer in machine code is very difficult. To hide the complexity a higher level of abstraction  (a programming language) was created that shielded the complexity of the lower layer (the machine code). A compiler translated the program back to the machine code.  Three languages (Fortran, Algol and COBOL) were constructed. They covered the major problem-area’s (Industry, Science and Banking) of that time.

When the problem-domains interfered, companies were confronted with integration problems. IBM tried to unify all the major programming-languages (COBOL, Algol and Fortran) by introducing a new standard language, PL1. This approach failed. Companies did not want to convert all their existing programs to the new standard and programmers got accustomed to a language. They did not want to loose the experience they had acquired. Integration by standardizing on one language has been tried many times  (Java, C-Sharp). It will always fail for the same reasons. All the efforts to unify produce the opposite effect, an enormous diversity of languages.

To cope with this problem a new abstraction layer was invented. The processes and data-structures of a company were analyzed and stored in a repository (an abstraction of a database). The program-generator made it possible to generate programs in all the major languages. It was not possible to re-engineer all the legacy-systems to this abstraction-level. To solve this problem a compensating integration-layer, Enterprise Architecture Integration, was designed

The PC democratized IT. Millions of consumers bought their own PC and started to develop applications using the tools available. They were not capable to connect their PC’s to the mainframe and to acquire the data they needed out of the central databases of the company. New integration layers (Client-Server Computing and Data-Warehouses) were added.

Employees connected their personal PC to the Internet and found out that they could communicate and share software with friends and colleagues all over the world. To prohibit the entrance of unwanted intruders, companies shielded their private environment by the implementation of firewalls. Employees were unable to connect their personal environment with their corporate environment. A new integration problem, security, became visible and has to be solved.

It looks like every solution of an integration problem creates a new integration problem in the future.

4.4. Competing Infrastructures

The process of creating bridges to connect disconnect layers of software is going on and on. The big problem is that the bridges were not created out of a long time perspective. They were created bottom up, to solve an urgent problem.

IT-technology shows all the stages of a growing child. At this moment, companies have to manage and to connect many highly intermingled layers related to almost every step in the maturing process of the computer and its software. Nobody understands the functionality of the whole and can predict the combined behavior of all the different parts. The effort to maintain and change a complex software-infrastructure is increasing exponentially.

The IT Industry has changed his tools and infrastructure so often that the software-developer had to become an inventor. He is constantly exploring new technical possibilities not able to stabilize his craft. When a developer is used to a tool he does not want to replace it with another. Most developers do not get the time to gain experience in the new tools and technologies. They have to work in high priority projects. Often the skills that are needed to make use of the new developments are hired outside. The effect is that the internal developers are focused on maintaining the installed base and get further behind. In the end, the only solution that is left is to outsource the IT-department creating communication problems.

After more than 40 years of software-development, the complexity of the current IT-environment has become overwhelming. The related management costs are beginning to consume any productivity gain that they may be achieving from new technologies. It is almost impossible to use new technology because 70 to 90% of the IT budget is spent on keeping existing systems running. If new functionality is developed, only 30% of the projects are successful. If the complexity to develop software is not reduced, it will take 200 million highly specialized workers to support the billion people and businesses that will be connected via the Internet.

4.5. General-Purpose Collaboration Technology

In the manufacturing industry, the principles of generalization and specialization are visible. Collaboration makes it possible to create flexible standards and a general-purpose infrastructure to support the standards. When the infrastructure is established, competition and specialization starts. Cars use a standardized essential infrastructure that makes it possible to use standardized components from different vendors. Car vendors are not competing on the level of the essential infrastructure. The big problem is that IT-Industry is still fighting on the level of the essential infrastructure, blocking specialization. To keep their market share the software has to stay in the abstraction framework (the general purpose architecture) they are selling and controlling.

A new collaborative IT-infrastructure is arising that is able to solve the current integration problems. The new infrastructure makes it possible to specialize and simplify programs (now called services). Specialized messages (comparable to the components in the car industry), transported over the Internet, connect the services. This approach makes it much easier to change the connections between the services.

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), founded in October 1994, is leading the development of this new collaborative infrastructure. W3C has a commitment to look after the interest of the community instead of business. The influence of W3C is remarkable.   The big competitive IT-companies in the market were more or less forced to use the standards created by the consortium. They were unable to create their own interpretation because the standards are produced as open source software.

The basis of the new collaborative foundation is XML (eXtensible Markup Language). XML is a flexible way to create “self-describing data” and to share both the format (the syntax) and the data on the World Wide Web. XML describes the syntax of information.

XML has enabled a new general-purpose technology-concept, called Web-Services. The concept is comparable to the use of containers in intermodal shipping. A container enables the transport a diversity of goods (data, programs, content) from one point to another point. At the destination, the container can be opened. The receiver can rearrange the goods and send them to another place. He can also put the goods in his warehouse and add value by assembling a new product. When the product is ready it can be send with a container to other assembly lines or to retailers to sell the product to consumers.

Web-Services use the following standards:

  • SOAP

SOAP is the container. It standardizes the exchange of envelopes containing data, programs and content. 

  • WSDL

WSDL (Web Services Definition Language) enables a flexible software-assembly-process. It does this by standardizing the Application Program Interface (API’s).  API’s are used to connect software-components (now called Services).

  • UDDI

UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery and Integration) identifies the appropriate warehouse, where Services are stored.  

  • URI

URI (Uniform Resource Locator) identifies the computer where a resource can be located. A resource can be a page of text, a video or sound clip, a still or animated image, or a program.

Web-Services facilitate the flow of complex data-structures (services, data, content) through the Internet. Services, can rearrange data-structures, ad value by combining them with other data-structures and can send the result to other services. 

All kinds of specialized data-structures are defined that are meant to let specialized services act on them. An example is taxation (XML TC). XML TC (a part of the Oasis standards organization) focuses on the development of a common vocabulary that will allow participants to unambiguously identify the tax related information exchanged within a particular business context. The benefits envisioned will include dramatic reductions in development of jurisdictionally specific applications, interchange standards for software vendors, and tax agencies alike. In addition, tax-paying constituents will benefit from increased services from tax agencies. Service providers will benefit due to more flexible interchange formats and reduced development efforts. Lastly, CRM, payroll, financial and other system developers will enjoy reduced development costs and schedules when integrating their systems with tax reporting and compliance systems.

Web-Services are the next shockwave that is bringing the IT-community into a state of fear and attraction. Their promise is lower development cost, and a much simpler architecture. Their threat is that the competition will make a better use of all the new possibilities. The same pattern emerges. Their installed base of software slows most of the companies down. They will react by first creating an isolated software-environment and will have big problems in the future to connect the old part with the new part. 

Web-Services will generate a worldwide marketplace for services. They are now a threat to all the current vendors of big software-packages. In essence, they have to rewrite all their legacy-software and make a split in generic components (most of them will be available for free) and essential services users really want to pay for. Big software-vendors will transform themselves into specialized market places (service-portals) where users can find and make use of high quality services. Other vendors will create advanced routing-centers where messages will be translated and send to the appropriate processor.

It will be difficult for small service-providers to get the attention and the trust of companies and consumers to make use of their services.  They will join in collaborative networks that are able to promote and secure their business. It is impossible to see if they will survive in the still competitive environment where big giants still have an enormous power to influence and a lot of money to create new services. If the big giants succeed, history will repeat itself. The new emerging software-ecology will slowly loose its diversity.

Web-services are an example of the principles of mass-customization and customer innovation. All the software-vendors are restructuring their big chunks of software into components that can be assembled to create a system. Small competitors and even customers will also create components. In due time the number of possible combinations of components that are able to create the same functionality will surpass the complexity a human (or a collective of human beings) can handle. We are faced with the same problem we encountered in Chapter 3. To solve this problem we have to find out what differs humans from machines.

5. Understanding the Customer

5.1. Introduction

Until now, this paper was focused on new developments in IT-technology. The last decade the rational approach has dominated the human being. In the next chapters, we will show what can be done to create technology that considers the human scale.   In the approach of Taylor and Ford, the employees and customers are treated as programmable machines.  The focus was on a perfect coordination of the senses, the muscles and the production system (the assembly line).  The emotions and the imagination were neglected. In mass customization, the emotions are involved. In customer innovation, the imagination is imperative. In a demand oriented system all the parts of the human cognitive system have to play a role in a coherent and balanced way. In this chapter a model of the individual human cognitive system (Mental Space) is presented that will be expanded to the group and the collective level in the next chapters.

5.2. Mental Space

The human body acts on its environment with messages and action-patterns. The incoming and outgoing messages are observed by the senses and transformed to an internal format. The internal communication system sends the messages to the appropriate place in the body. The emotions are always looking for danger. They want to control the priority of the actions to make it possible for the body to react immediately. The imagination creates an image of the outside world and helps the body to generate scenario’s to improve its action-patterns. 

  • The Senses

The senses are the connection to the physical outside world. They shield the human being from the enormous amount of signals that are trying to enter the body. They filter incoming data and transform the data in a standard internal format. When the senses detect an event, it is evaluated by the emotions. If the event is not important, nothing happens. It the event is unusual it becomes aware in the conscious. Events that are highly repeating are not noticed after some time. An internal program (an action-pattern) automates the handling of the event.

The muscles act in physical space. They acquire an enormous amount of reaction-patterns by repeated practicing. Humans learn from their failures. When the senses detect an event, many appropriate patterns are located and enabled. 

When the patterns enter mental space, they change into models. Complicated patterns are compressed into models. Humans use all kinds of compression techniques to make the world compact and therefore more understandable. Static models (e.g. an organization contains employees) compress the world in wholes (nouns) and parts (attributes). They create identities. Dynamic models (the employee sells a product) compress causal chains (event, actor, result). They make it possible to reason.

Models behave the same way as sensors do in physical space. They shield the mental space of the human being from the enormous amount of ideas that the imagination is producing.

The emotions act on hostile and friendly forces. They shield the body from physical injuries (avoiding pain) and take care of the self re-production process of the body (looking for food and a sexual partner).

The emotional system determines the amount of resources that is allocated to the evaluation and the search for adequate action patterns. If an event is dangerous, all resources in the body are used. The body reacts without thinking and uses a biological inherited and fast pattern (fight, flight, freeze, the primary emotions). If there is enough time to react, the emotional system evaluates its preferences and enables the preferred actions-patterns.

If the preferences are related to a long-term perspective, they enter mental space and the human has a choice to make. In the evaluation of long-term preferences, the other plays an important role. People want to take care of the other (family, friends, children), are afraid to get in to a conflict (dominance, status) and want to be praised by the other for what they are accomplishing.

Humans imagine (by creating pictures connected with feelings) what events they like to happen (a wish). When they are pessimistic, they imagine what events they do not want to happen (a fear).  The imagination is the innovative part of the human mental space that generates all kinds of new connections (ideas). The imagination is also the most free to play with new ideas. People can simulate and practice in their imagination without getting into trouble. The imagination produces the idea of the identity.

The imagination uses visual metaphors to create an understandable world. On the lowest level the metaphors are connect to the action patterns. The image of a cup is connected to picking up the cup, holding the cup and moving the cup. New structures are blended with old familiar structures. Many metaphors make use of the human understanding of technology.  Freud based his theory of the unconsciousness on his understanding of the steam-machine (“I am steamed up with emotions”). Many theories of the mind are based on the metaphor of the computer. People always relate new phenomena to something they already understand. They sometimes do this (in the eyes of others) in very strange ways.  A skilful teacher knows this and tries to find the bridge (the right metaphor, a story) between his world and the world of the student.

The way the human collaboration system works is comparable to the way web-services are communicating using the SOAP-standard.  In the human body, all the sub-systems (e.g. the services, the organs) are connected by shared communication-channels. There are fast (the nervous system) and slow reacting shared channels (the endocrine system). All the sub-systems use specific messenger-molecules to communicate their actions and act on incoming messengers.  Messengers materialize with every thought we create and with every emotion we feel. When a messenger enters the boundary of a sub-system, (e.g. a cell) it triggers messengers that are specific for that sub-system.

The action patterns make the muscles move according to a movements-plan that is stored in memory. The movement-plans of the muscles enable people to walk, to work (using tools) and to talk. In this last case, people communicate their intentions. The human communication contains a complicated mix of signals that are related to the emotions (e.g. visual expressions, gestures), the patterns (assertions) and the imagination (visual images, ideas).

5.3. Understanding the Mental Space of the Customer

People resist change. The patterns they have acquired control their behavior and determine their potential. People do not want to change their patterns dramatically. They want to acquire new patterns (by doing) without noticing the change. Only a major event (a critical moment), mostly with negative impact, can have a radical effect. If this event happens it takes a very long time to recover and get into harmony again. When people have to adjust their patterns too often, they experience stress and on the long run get sick.

If people cannot adjust their patterns, they have to involve the other parts of the cognitive system. When they involve the emotions, they have to set priorities and make a choice. People do not like making choices. They are incapable of evaluating all the possibilities. They can also make use of the senses and look at the real opportunities in the outside world. People are almost incapable of doing this because their imagination produces the images it wants to see. If the imagination really faces the facts, the identity is attacked. It feels powerless and unable to control his path of destiny. The last possibility a human has is to adjust the imagination. He has to realize that the possibilities he imagined were just illusions.

If everything stays the same, people get bored. They hope that an event will occur that relates to their wishes. People are the most satisfied if their environment produces just enough change (a challenge) they can cope with. They want a balance between the will (what they want, the imagination, variation) and their capabilities (what they are able to do, predictability, the patterns, their skills).

In a perfect demand oriented economy, a supplier has to provide a challenge to the customer. To provide this challenge the supplier has to understand the wishes and the fears (the imagination) of the customer, his behavior (the patterns) and the balance between the two parts. If the customer is out of balance the supplier has to help the customer to acquire new patterns (learning), help him to make a choice (advice) or show him the real opportunities (scenario’s) taking care of the customers identity.  

It is very difficult for a supplier to get accurate information. Most people are unable to make their behavioral patterns conscious. When people are asked about their opinion (an aspect of the emotions), they often do not want to offend the other and give proper answers. People only want to share their most secret wishes with people they trust (partner, family, friends). Correct information about the customer can only be acquired by carefully observing and analyzing the activities of the customer (what he is doing).  It is completely impossible for a company to observe the activities of all their customers. The only one who can do this is the customer himself.

Customers can observe their activities if they were able to gather personal activity-patterns, get the opportunity to analyze their behavior, and share their activity-patterns with others to get an advice. Most of the needed data is somewhere already available (patient records, buying behavior, payments etc) or can be made available by making connections to the tools the consumer is using in his personal- and work-environment (Emails, Content). The only thing that has to happen is that companies and government agencies make these patterns, which are most of the time privately owned by the customer, available.

It can be envisioned that in the far future all personal data is kept in a private space. Only the customer (the owner) can make the data available to others. This approach would prevent many problems in the current situation (e.g. spam). The last step in a perfect rational demand oriented system is reached when the personal activity-patterns are automatically transformed in standardized need-messages that are sent out to appropriate providers. It will be clear that the full realization of this concept will take a very long time.

Smart Customer Networks make it possible to use the group and not the individual as the level of communication and interaction. An open dialogue in a group gives the individual the opportunity to look in the mirror of the other and make his challenges more conscious. Others are able to observe every aspect of a person. Shared challenges give a group a common goal.

6. Specialized Cooperating Human Networks

6.1. Introduction

People have to cooperate to survive. Children need their parents to nurture and teach them. Parents need the help of their children when they are old. The basic principle behind cooperation is long-term reciprocity. People give something voluntary and sometimes for free to others or help the other trusting they get something of the same value back in the future. To survive people have to have a long-term perspective. They have to sustain their environment and the supporting infrastructures to make sure that there are enough people and tools to help them when they are old.

The need to survive created the basic level concept of cooperation (the tribe). The tribe transformed into higher and more complex levels of cooperation (town, guild, state, corporation) when human society evolved.

To coordinate the complex structures the mental concept of the many leveled hierarchy was formed. This concept fails when the environment of the organizational structure becomes turbulent. Hierarchies adapt too slowly to their environment. At this moment, hierarchies are falling apart in cooperating self-sustaining specialized network. The networks are gaining control over many activities that are now taking place at the level of the big corporation and the state.

This chapter contains a description of the basic roles in a specialized network. It describes the way networks can be connected and formulates the ways the members in the network have to cooperate to sustain the network.

6.2. The Basic Roles in a Network

A specialized network produces activities and products that are consumed by other specialized networks. To realize the output people have to play complementary roles. The basic roles can be constructed by a combination of two of the components in the human mental space described in Chapter 5.

When we use the four components of the mental space, we can distinguish six basic roles:

  • Craftsmen (Senses, Patterns)

A craftsman has acquired experience by practicing. Craftsmen do not like too much change. Change requires new practicing and keeps him from producing.  A craftsman loves to make what he sees. He learns by copying. Examples are carpenters, painters, musicians, technicians and programmers. The craftsmen are the producers in the network. In many cases, programmable machines can replace their activities. Craftsmen use specialized tools. If their processes are standardized a process-model can be used to coordinated their activities.

  • Entrepreneur (Senses, Emotions)

An entrepreneur feels what preferences people have. Examples are retailers and brokers. Entrepreneurs sell the products the network is producing and buy products the network needs. They also are the people that negotiate contracts and make connections to other specialized networks. Entrepreneurs use technologies like relationship-management-tools and procurement-systems.

  • Politicians (Emotions, Patterns)

A politician structures collective emotions by creating consensus. He feels the opinions of the collective, has the gift to influence opinions, and gets people into collaborative action.   A politician looks after the social cohesion in the network. He uses opinion polls and media.

  • Creators (Imagination, Patterns)

A creator visualizes the whole of a structure. A creator can balance variety (his imagination) and predictability (the patterns). Examples are composers, architects and designers. A creator designs the machines and the products the network is producing.

  • Motivator (Emotions, Imagination)

A motivator visualizes what makes people move forward. Motivators develop concepts.  Many of them operate in the media (actors, writers, poets and movie-directors). Motivators cannot live without variety. Other examples are coaches and psychiatrist. A motivator looks after the long-term perspective of the network by creating and implementing a shared vision.

  • Inventors (Senses, Imagination)

An inventor makes sense of his imagination. Inventors generate ideas and create prototypes (R&D). They use brainstorming tools and analyze trends.

The roles are not evenly distributed in the network. The majority of the people play the role of the producer, the craftsman. In the current situation, the basic roles are concentrated in specialized corporations (e.g. media, retail, production-plants) or   staff-department of big corporations. Many high talented people are already leaving the big corporations and take part of specialized networks. The amount of one-person-companies is increasing.

6.3. Cooperation

People can cooperate with persons that share with them one of their basic cognitive components. An entrepreneur can convince a craftsman what products people he has to sell. They are both practical people (the senses). A creator (e.g. an architect) can show a craftsman what to make. They share a focus on structure (patterns). When complementary roles are working in a cooperative environment, they join their forces in an open dialogue. This dialogue has many stages ranging from brainstorming (inventors take the lead) to realizing material structures (craftsman work together with creators).

Politicians, entrepreneurs and motivators can only perform if they are able to observe and express emotions (visual expressions, gestures). To ensure a successful cooperation they have to meet. New technologies like video-conferencing make it possible to cooperate anytime, any-place and anywhere. 

6.4. Innovation, Sharing Ideas

To collaborate people have to communicate face to face. In a competition patents (legal actions) and secrecy (rules and walls) shield ideas to prevent the competitor to take the lead.  In cooperation, ideas are shared to sustain the network.

The most used model in communication is the sender/receiver-model.  People send and receive content (e.g. email, documents, pictures, plans, designs) Specialized networks need advanced content-management systems to support this model of communication.

The sender/receiver-model supposes that the brain converts ideas directly into words and that another person can easily draw out the meaning of the ideas from the words. It assumes little effort to understand or interpret what is being conveyed. The sender/receiver-model only works if there is a high level of common conceptual understanding (a shared model) between all the people involved in the communication process. In reality, this is mostly not the case especially when experts (inventors, craftsman and creators) are communicating with laymen (entrepreneurs, motivators and politicians). The dialogue between an expert and a layman is often a monologue. The expert confuses the layman with all his knowledge and the layman is not capable of asking the right questions. In the end, the layman stops asking questions and accepts the situation. 

The sender/receiver-model reduces a specialized network to a production-process. The model lowers the social cohesion (politicians), reduces the external cooperation (entrepreneurs) and removes the long-term perspective of the network (motivators).

People have to invest time to understand (ask unsophisticated questions) and explain their ideas (inventions) in many ways. It also takes time to generate trust. Ideas of others have to be tried out (in the imagination or in the real world) to understand them. People have to have the opportunity to fail and learn from their mistakes. Sometimes they generate personal inventions that can be given back to the others to create reciprocity. Eventually ideas create new personal patterns that can be shown and praised by others.  Collaboration does not take place instantly but evolves in a cycle where the pleasure of finding things out is the motivator.

6.5. Connecting Patterns

Specialized networks can connect their production- and design-process by exchanging content, products, data-structures and transactions using the Internet.

6.6. Quality Management

Specialized networks can share experience and improve their behavior.

6.7. Competition

When people are pessimistic and afraid the other becomes the enemy. They shield themselves from the outside world by creating fixed boundaries (walls). To make sure that they get something in return they use a threat (e.g. physical force, the legal system). Before they start, they have to spend time to prevent a possible conflict (making contracts, detailed specifications). When people trust each other, they cannot wait to start.

The fear of losing something (possessions, status, existence) changes a collaborative relationship into a battle. In a competition, the focus is on winning and selfishness. Fear has a negative impact on the senses (tunnel view), the emotions (stress) and the imagination (creativity block). In a competition, priority is given to stay in front and to prohibited possible actions of the enemies. To win one has to predict and control by defining strict rules and make sure that people obey the rules. Internal and external competition finally kills a cooperative relationship. To prevent the move from cooperation to competition people have to sustain a free and open communicate-process.

7. Human Scale Technology

7.1. Introduction

Humans are the most advanced toolmakers in nature. The main reason is that they are the less specialized organisms. They need tools to survive. People are also the most complex organisms in nature. This complexity makes it possible to invent new possibilities and to work with specialized tools and animals (horse, cow, hammer, car, computer).

All the time people have tried to make a better living by inventing new tools. If the basic needs were met (food, housing, health, safety), people got the time to get their emotional system into balance (love, self-esteem) and satisfy their imagination (play, explore, self-actualization).

At this moment, the amount of leisure-time to enjoy family life, relax, play and explore is going down. The number of people with heavy levels of stress is growing. The pressure on the emotions is increased by the current state of technology. The tools have overlapping functionality, take too much of the attention, do not communicate with each other and dominate the human being.  

Tools have to be integrated completely in the cognitive system of the human being. If a tool takes over a part of the sensory-motor system (glasses, hammer, car) the imagination has to learn a new way to create the outside world. In the end, after practicing, people become united with their hammer or their car. They are not aware that they are carrying their glasses. If people have to practice too long or the tool is constantly intervening in their workflow the emotions get involved. They get frustrated and angry.  

7.2. The Basic Human Tools

When we use cognitive model of chapter 5, we can distinguish the basic human tools. In this document, they are called mover, memory, sensor, comparator, advisor and simulator. The tools were first invented to support basic human activities like talking, moving, looking and hearing, remembering and learning. In a later stage of development, the use of the tools generated a new space of exploration. In this space, new tools emerged. The invention of symbols started the exploration of Mental Space. Program Languages, Telecommunication and especially the Internet has opened up a new space to explore, called Cyberspace. 

  • Advisor or Master

Advisors and masters involve the emotions. An advisor helps to make a choice or to set priorities. A master (e.g. a physician, teacher, manager) makes a choice for a person. The Cyberspace version of the master and the advisor is the Expert System. It uses advanced ways of pattern-recognition (e.g. Neural Networks).

  • Simulator

Simulators stimulate the imagination. Theaters and movies are examples of passive simulators.  Games are actively involving many people. The Cyberspace version of the active simulator is the Collaborative Computer Game. The passive form can be seen in the Movie and the Television-program.

  • Memory

A memory archives the results of an internal or external dialogue. In the beginning, human communication was only verbal. Important issues to remember were incorporated in stories that were told from one generation to the other. When people specialized their activities, they needed a method (bookkeeping) to keep track of all the transfers. People invented symbols and the external memory to do this.  The writing-symbols made it possible to share and exchange memories (letters, books) without talking. Writing enabled the movement of memories. The library was invented to store the external memories and protect them from fading away. Cyberspace is filled with the versions of static and moving memory called the Electronic Message (Email, Transaction) and the Database. 

  • Mover

Movers were the first tools used in human society. A mover is an extension of the muscles. The first generation was invented to help the human move in physical space. Examples are hammers, cows, horses, steam-machines, cars, bicycles and robots. The next generation supported the movement of symbols (e.g. moving numbers) in mental space. The Difference Engine of Charles Babbage was invented to automate the calculation of mathematical tables. The most advance version of the mover, the telecommunication network, enables the movement of external memory’s in cyberspace.

  • Sensor 

Sensors transform and filter data. Glasses and hearing aids were invented to support people when they get old.  Humans looked at the stars and invented the telescope. In a later stage very advanced sensors were developed (Radio-telescope, MRI). They use complex statistical calculations to filter and transform the sampled data into pictures or sounds.

  • Comparator

Human survival and learning is based on comparing data and acting on the result. A comparator acts on an exception. To compare data a measurement instrument is needed and a agreement about the object of measure.

Human beings started to measure time and space a long time ago. It was needed to navigate and to predict the movement of the stars. In the first phase, the human body was used as a measure-instrument of space and the cycle of the sun and the moon as a measurement for time. The big problem with this approach was that every person and every place on earth came up with a different measurement and a different time. When the human networks started to connect, standardization on a global level became necessary.  The process of standardization of time and space took many ages. It needed numerous inventions in technology to support the process. The measure-instruments changed from mechanical devices (the clock) to software-devices.   

7.3. The Invisible Servant

A servant coordinates the activities of sensors, comparators and movers. Servants take over repetitive patterns.  Humans find these activities boring (not imaginative). A servant has to act invisible (a black box). When the use of a servant is prohibited, humans get frustrated. It has to be there all the time and do its job inconspicuous. With the help of the comparator and the sensor, the servant has to detect events and take appropriate action (coordinated movements, action patterns).

The big problem at this moment is the visibility and the interference of the servant in the human activity. People have to fill in the same form all the time. Processes stop in the middle of a company. The customer has to handover the data to the other processes. 

Humans do not like to be emotional involved in boring activities.  Therefore, the needs (their wishes) have to be defined in a very simple way. It must be possible to imagine the behavior of the complete system without knowing how the system is operating. 

A good example of a perfect servant is the central heating system. People define their needs (a temperature) and everything works. The temperature is a control variable that represents the performance of the total heating system. People are able to imagine the effect of adjusting the thermostat (a comparator) on the environment they live in. They do not need to know how the servant works. His behavior is hidden. The central heating system is a black box, loosely coupled with another invisible servant-system, the utility-system (gas, electricity).

7.4. From the General-Purpose Computer to the Appliance

The servant and its associates were in the first era of IT locked into the physical space of the general-purpose computer. They had to stay close together because of the speed of communication. The speed and the capacity of the telecommunication network is going up fast.  This makes it possible to specialize and connect computers (called Appliances). In the next chapter we will show how all the parts of the basic human tools will work together in the new exploration space, Cyberspace. 

8. The Collaboration System

8.1. Introduction

Collaboration of humans takes part at the level of the network. Participants create a network, share a common goal, exchange ideas, communicate intensively, specialize and create stable patterns of behavior. The specialization of the network takes place at the level of the creators and the craftsmen. They design and produce unique products.

The repetitive patterns of the craftsmen are automated and are transformed into invisible servants. The servants work together and exchange data. If the networks and the participants are not located on one physical place, they have to communicate using the Internet.

A network is uniquely determined by its human-and technology patterns. These patterns act as an imaginary boundary. They shield the network from changes in the environment.  New participants have to learn to handle the machines, the tools and the internal procedures. The have to accustom themselves to the patterns to survive in the network.

The internal patterns (the behavior) of the human participants in a network change. They learn new behavior by cooperating with other people outside the network. If the technology of the network is not adaptable, the most innovative participants get bored. They need a new challenge, leave the network and move forwards to another network. When the technology is not adapted, the networks dies and the most conservative participants (mostly the craftsmen) are suddenly out of work. To keep the network alive the technology has to adapt itself to the learning process of the participants in the network.

This chapter contains an abstract general IT-technology framework that supports connected specialized human networks working in cyberspace.

8.2. Systems, Sensors, Servants and Appliances

A system (a context, an ecology, a network, a collaboration system, a software-package, a legacy-system, a back-end, a client) is anything with a boundary. A system contains sub-systems and servants. 

When the system is a software-system, it needs an appliance (a specialized computer resource identified by an URI) to perform its activities. The appliance uses an operating system (now called a virtual machine) to calculate and to move objects internally and externally. It uses an internal and external memory (a database) to store its objects.

The activities of a system can be distributed over the Internet. Sub-systems can make use of other appliances to work with. The appliances can be localized by their URI. The objects that are needed to coordinate the activities of the appliances flow over the Internet from one appliance to another.

The boundary (A Sensor, an Interface) protects and sustains the identity of the system. It shields the system from unwanted intruders (filtering) and transforms input it wants to handle into an appropriate internal format.

A sensor can act in physical space  (a wall, a door, eyes, ears), in mental space (a model) and in cyberspace (a program). A sensor mirrors the patterns of the servants and the sub-systems in the system. A sensor connects external data that flows through the system with the internal patterns of the servant. Such a connection is called an Application Program Interface (API). API’s are defined with the XML/SOAP/WSDL-standard. The sensor has the same functionality inside out. It blocks output and transforms output into a format that the outside cyber-world can handle. Messages are send out to other systems.

A system consists of a dynamic assembly of many parts and relations. To manage the complexity of such a system the parts and their relations have to be bundled in independent servants (Services, Application Programs) that communicate with each other. 

In a well-defined system, it must be possible to remove and replace a servant without destroying the complete system. On the contrary, it must be impossible to divide a servant into different parts without destroying the component. A servant has to be invisible, rigid (undividable) and highly predictable.

8.3. Designing for Change

The environment of a system generates major and minor changes. Changes (events) take the form of structured data-objects, unstructured objects (e.g. documents) and assignments (e.g. change A to B). To realize a stable system, the system has to be designed to process the majority of the changes by its servants.  To accomplish this the famous 80-20 rule has to be applied (20% of the exceptions take 80% of the code). The exceptions are handled by comparators.  Comparators make it possible for the system to be adaptive.

An adaptive system has to contain just enough servants and comparators to articulate the expected behavior. When a system contains not enough comparators, his behavior is rigid. A legacy-system is an example. When a system contains too much comparators its behavior is too flexible. The system has grown out of its essential functionality. Vendors create over-articulated systems when they add new functionality without a real need of their customers.

It is merely impossible to design a well-articulated system in one step. Well-articulated systems have a long history of internal transformation. The transformation process has to have no effect on the environment of the system.

8.4. The Communication System

The servants have to communicate freely within the boundaries of the system. This is done by exchanging specialized data-structures (based on XML/SOAP-messages). When the messages pass their boundary, they have to travel to the appropriate system. The servants must be able to recognize the messages. This is accomplished by incorporating a matching instrument in the servant.

8.5. Reusing Sensors and Comparators, The Cyber Warehouse

The sensors and comparators are shared by other systems. They are stored in a specialized Cyber-Warehouse (based on the UDDI-standard). The systems are filed with the sensors and comparators they need when their appliances are activated.

8.6. Incorporating Legacy Systems

Most of the servants that have been developed are not well-articulated. In these legacy-systems, the data is fragmented. It travels around in the system in an obscure way. The system contains many entrances (Interfaces). Some of the interfaces give an entrance to a highway. Other interfaces lead to loops or dead-ends.  It will be very difficult to connect such a system to the collaborative infrastructure.

To connect a legacy-system it has to be divided into sub-systems, servants and comparators. After this is done the sub-systems, have to be enclosed (wrapped) by a boundary that is capable of transforming the external events in appropriate messages. It will be easier to connect modern systems (e.g. packages like SAP).  Most of them already have well-defined interfaces. 

8.7. The Collaboration System

The collaboration system emerges out of the behavior of the sub-systems and the servants connected by the communication-system. The collaboration-system acts on changes (events, signals) outside its environment. When a change enters the collaboration system, the communication system propagates the changes to the appropriate sub-systems or servants. The servants do their job. They combine the inputs they receive and produce output they send out to the system. Human beings can observe the behavior of the collaborative system using the Human Interaction Level.

8.8. Supporting Specialized Human Networks

The specialized human networks can be connected by incorporating their Process-Managers, their Commercial Systems (Buy, Sell) and their Quality-Management Systems into the Collaboration System.

Cooperation and Innovation needs Face-to-Face-Interaction. The results of the Interaction (Content) can be handled by the Collaboration System. When the messages have to reach the Human Interaction Level (now called a Client), they have to be transformed and incorporated in the appropriate tools (e.g. the Advisor, the Simulator).

In en Boven de Context

This is the English version of this blog.

Een beschrijving van de vele manieren

die er zijn om een context te vernielen of  te behouden. Tekst behorend bij een presentatie voor het LAC-congres d.d. Oktober-2003.


1…. Inleiding. 3

2…. In en Boven de Context 4

2.1. Inleiding. 4

2.2. De betekenis van het woord context 4

2.3. De relatie tussen een context en de zintuigen (schaal en gezichtspunt) 4

2.4. De relatie tussen een context en zijn creator 5

2.5. De relatie tussen een context en zijn onderdelen. 5

2.6. Representatie van de context door karakteristieke onderdelen. 5

2.7. Het koppelen van woorden aan beelden in een context 5

2.8. Het koppelen van emoties aan een context (het krachtenspel) 6

2.9. Het koppelen van het levenspad aan een context 7

2.10. Drie verschillende vormen van denken. 7

2.11. De impact van het schrift (het ontstaan van  abstracte woorden) 8

2.12. Het abstracte denken (in kaart brengen) 9

2.13. Samenvatting. 9

3…. Boven de context 11

3.1. Wereldbeelden. 11

3.2. Het Analytische Spel (Boven de context) 12

3.3. Problemen met het Analytische spel 13

3.4. Communicatie in het Analytische spel 15

3.5. De relatie tussen de Analyticus en zijn Object 15

3.6. Technologie en Vakmanschap. 15

1       Inleiding

Mikhail Bakhtin[1] werd geboren in 1895 in Orel, vlak bij Moskou.

Hij werd in 1929 gearresteerd en veroordeeld tot tien jaar in een kamp op de Solovetsky eilanden in het noorden van de Sovjetunie.

Met hulp van invloedrijke vrienden en in verband met zijn slechte gezondheid werd hij uiteindelijk verbannen naar Kazahkstan waar hij als boekhouder te werk werd gesteld.

In die tijd heeft hij zijn beroemdste boek over Dostoevsky en de geschiedenis en de structuur van de novelle geschreven[2].

Rond 1950 rees zijn ster in de Sovjetunie.

Na zijn dood in 1975 drong zijn roem via Parijs door in de VS. Hij wordt nu gezien als één van de meest innovatieve filosofen van onze tijd[3]

Bahktin heeft zich altijd verzet tegen alle manieren van structureren (“A context is potentially unfinalized; a code must be finalized. A code is only a technical means of transmitting information; it does not have cognitive, creative significance. Code is deliberately killed context[4]).

Om een context in kaart te brengen worden regels (indelingscriteria) geformuleerd.

De context wordt op basis van deze indelingscriteria opgedeeld in eenheden (en hun onderlinge relaties). De indelingscriteria (de classificatie) bepalen ook  de uitzonderingen op de regels.

Naast de mensen die indelen zijn er ook altijd mensen die de indeling betwisten. Om hun gelijk te krijgen voeren beiden een machtstrijd.

Uit die machtstrijd komt slechts één winnaar voort, de classificatie zelf, omdat het gevecht de focus op de classificatie enorm versterkt.

Door te classificeren verdwijnen de relaties tussen de eenheden en de uitzonderingen op den duur uit het zicht.

De context wordt uniform en verliest zijn uniekheid.

De losstaande eenheden vormen meerdere nieuwe losstaande contexten die opnieuw kunnen worden ingedeeld.

Op den duur wordt de werkelijkheid hierdoor gefragmenteerd.

Ze verwordt tot een verzameling hokjes die netjes aan elkaar zijn verbonden met pijltjes.

Zowel de classificeerders als hun opponenten hebben het unieke van de mens en vooral de potentie (de mogelijke transformaties) van een mensenlijke context uit het oog verloren. Deze is niet te vangen in één classificatie.

In dit dokument wordt uiteengezet wat een context is en welke manieren er zijn om een context te vernielen of  te behouden.

2       In en Boven de Context

2.1. Inleiding

Een context wordt meestal beschreven door een schema (meestal bollen en pijlen}. Men laat op die manier de dynamiek tussen de verschillende onderdelen zien. Deze context-beschrijvingen zijn een model van de context. Het beschrijft de context niet zelf (“the map is not the territory”). Die bezit veel meer details dan een model kan beschrijven.

Het model fungeert als een kaart die de onderzoeker de weg wijst in het landschap. Als men met een kaart in de hand door een landschap loopt is de kans aanwezig dat men  de belangrijke details in het landschap over het hoofd ziet.

In dit hoofstuk wordt het begrip context uitgewerkt en de verschillende relaties tussen denken en context beschreven.  Het blijkt dat er in principe twee manieren zijn om met een context om te gaan. Men kan in de context opereren en er boven gaan staan (toeschouwen, observeren).

2.2. De betekenis van het woord context

Het woord context komt uit het Latijnse woord con-textere, dat samen-weven betekent.  Het woord textere (weven) is verbonden met de woorden tekst, archi-tect (timmerman), tech-nologie (techne, kunde of vakmanschap), textuur (weefsel). Er zijn relaties met het woord bever (het dier dat bouwt,  Tazgo) en Tantra (Tan, Sankriet).

2.3. De relatie tussen een context en de zintuigen (schaal en gezichtspunt)

Men kan zich in een weefsel hullen (een jurk, de huid). Op den duur voelt men het weefsel niet meer. Men is één geworden met het weefsel.

Een weefsel kan worden bekeken, gevoeld en geroken (zien, voelen, ruiken).

De laatste twee acties kunnen alleen op korte afstand plaatsvinden. Een weefsel kun je niet horen behalve als het wordt gedragen (het beweegt dan mee, het ruist).

Het bekijken van een weefsel is afhankelijk van de afstand (het gezichtsinterval).

Van dichtbij zien we het constructieproces en de onderdelen.

Van veraf zien we de vorm, het patroon en de kleur. Vanaf een grote afstand lost het weefsel op in een andere context (de omgeving). De kleur en het patroon zijn ook afhankelijk van de hoek waarmee we kijken. Een context verandert ook als we omhoog gaan. Het gaat hier om de schaal (oorspronkelijke betekenis: klimmen).

Een context heeft een zeer sterke relatie met  zien en minder met voelen, ruiken en horen.. Het beschouwen van een context is afhankelijk van de hoogte (de schaal) en de afstand tot de context (het gezichtspunt[5]). Als de schaal en het gezichtspunt wijzigen, verandert de context. Binnen bepaalde grenzen (het gezichtinterval) is de context constant. Buiten deze grenzen ontstaat een totaal andere context. Er is vermoedelijk een ideale plek om een context te beschouwen (het ideale gezichtspunt).

2.4. De relatie tussen een context en zijn creator.

De kwaliteit van het weefsel is afhankelijk van de gekozen grondstof (wol of zijde), de inspiratie en het vakmanschap van de wever . Een mooi en uniek weefsel toont de wever. Als contexten erg op elkaar lijken is de kans groot dat ze door een (mechanisch) reproductieproces zijn gemaakt (een machine, een weefgetouw). 

Bij een context veronderstellen we actoren die de context gemaakt hebben. Als we een context mooi of bijzonder vinden kunnen we er vanuit gaan dat de context door een vakman is gemaakt.  Als contexten  sterk op elkaar lijken (vele copieen) duidt dit op een (mechanisch) reproductieproces.

2.5. De relatie tussen een context en zijn onderdelen

Een context verdwijnt meestal als hij wordt opgedeeld in verschillende onderdelen. Er zijn oneindig veel manieren om een context op te splitsen. Sommige contexten hebben een voor ons bekende opbouw. We kennen het constructieproces. Uit dit innerlijke constructieproces ontstaat een generalisatie (een representatie van de context (bijv. een huis)). We kunnen ons een voorstelling maken van een specifiek huis als we zelf ervaring hebben met het bouwen van een huis, de beschikking hebben over het bouwplan en informatie hebben overde makers (hun stijl en vakmanschap).

Een context kan worden opgedeeld in zijn onderdelen als we het constructieproces kennen. Uit dit innerlijke constructieproces ontstaat een generalisatie van de context (bijv. een huis).

2.6. Representatie van de context door karakteristieke onderdelen

Als we een huis uit elkaar halen en alle onderdelen naast elkaar leggen is de kans nog aanwezig dat we ontdekken dat de samenvoeging een huis was omdat er karakteristieke  onderdelen (bijv een deur) te zien zijn. Als de essentiele onderdelen zijn verdwenen lukt dit niet meer.

Een context kan worden gepresenteerd door karakteristieke onderdelen van de context. Dit karakteristieke onderdeel roept de totale context op.

2.7. Het koppelen van woorden aan beelden in een context

Als we een ander attent willen maken op een context of een onderdeel van een context wijzen we naar de context en spreken een woord uit (bijv “huis“)[6].  Op deze wijze wordt een woord aan een beeld gekoppeld (benoemen). Door veelvuldig te wijzen op de onderdelen in een context worden verbanden tussen woorden en beelden gelegd en ontstaat een samenhangende beeldenverzameling van deze context (het weefsel). We kunnen er uiteindelijk een heel (visueel) verhaal over vertellen (een beschrijving)[7].

Een context kan worden beschreven door naar de onderdelen te wijzen en ze te benoemen. Het  samenspel van de klanken dat de context vertoont noemen we een verhaal.

2.8. Het koppelen van emoties aan een context (het krachtenspel)

Contexten kunnen worden gekoppeld aan emoties. Aan een huis wordt de emotie heimwee gekoppeld. De heimwee trekt ons naar het huis toe.

Het emotionele systeem in de mens houdt zich bezig met het stellen van prioriteiten[8] op korte en lange termijn. Een emotie is een reactie op een gebeurtenis.  Een vaak voorkomende emotie kan omslaan in een stemming. Een context kan via het geheugen emoties en stemmingen oproepen. Deze emoties en stemmingen beinvloeden de waarneming.

Een context kan ons ook overweldigen door zijn schoonheid. Vaak is er dan sprake van een  spanningsveld in wankel evenwicht (bijv. een balancerende koortdanser) Dit spanningsveld[9] bepaalt de ontwikkeling van de vorm van de context[10].

Er zijn in principe drie soorten emoties[11].

  • De primaire emoties (Macht, Kracht)

Men reageert op macht en en gevaar. Het gaat om aantrekken en afstoten (lust, fight, freeze or flight). Deze categorie is direct gekoppeld aan de zintuigen (met name de ogen). Als er sprake is van gevaar reageert het lichaam autonoom (reflexen, aurosal). Het denken komt tot stilstand.

  • De Ander 

Iedere gebeurtenis heeft een oorzaak en achter die oorzaak ziet men een veroorzaker (een mens). Men kan trots, boos zijn of afgunst hebben. Vaak worden abstracte oorzaken vervangen door een mens (personificatie). Men is boos op het weer.

  • De Verwachting

Er wordt nu in de toekomst gekeken (Angst, Hoop) of de verwachting ten aanzien van de toekomst wordt met het verleden vergeleken (Teleurstelling). 

Als de primaire emoties gaan opspelen is het gewoon niet meer mogelijk om een context waar te nemen. De twee andere emotietypen kunnen de waarneming enorm vervormen. De (meestal negatieve) ervaring uit het verleden (het geheugen) neemt de waarneming over. Een oorzaak wordt door de ervaring vervangen door een andere oorzaak. Een historische ontwikkeling wordt gekleurd door teleurstelling. De toekomst ligt al per definitie vast terwijl hij zich nog moet ontvouwen. De waarneming  wordt vervangen door de eigen verwachting.

Een context is een samenspel van krachten (een spanningsveld). Dit spanningsveld bepaalt de mogelijke vorm. Om dit veld te kunnen waarnemen moeten we de context vanuit het heden in een staat van ontspanning en kinderlijke openheid (vertrouwen, interesse) tegemoet treden (gespannen verwachting).

2.9. Het koppelen van het levenspad aan een context

Contexten hebben een eigen historie en een relatie met onze levensgeschiedenis (het levenspad). Het beschouwen van van een context wordt beinvloed door de herinneringen die de context bij ons oproept. Ze doet bijv denken aan het ouderlijk huis.

Een context kan ook een signaal geven dat er een keuze moet worden gemaakt in het levenspad[12]. Men is bijvoorbeeld aan het werk in de geestelijke gezondheidszorg en raakt erg onder de indruk van de omstandigheden die zich daar voordoen. Het lijkt er op dat de patienten in een gevangenis leven (de inrichting). Deze situatie resoneert met het gevoel dat men zelf in een gevangenis zit. Door de patienten te bevrijden bevrijdt men zichzelf.

De eigen context bepaalt het kijken naar een andere context (projectie). Om een context werkelijk te kunnen waarnemen moet men zich los kunnen maken van zijn projecties. Men wordt gebiologeerd door dialogen omdat men zelf geen dialoog kan te voeren. Men is verslaafd aan het onderzoeken van verhalen (narratives) omdat men thuis zijn eigen verhaal nooit heeft mogen vertellen.

Het verweven van het eigen levenspad met de wetenschappelijke arbeid is bijna niet te vermijden. Het lezen van een biografie van een genie als Wittgenstein[13] geeft een enorm inzicht in de relatie tussen zijn persoonlijke en zijn wetenschappelijke queeste. Het wordt problematisch als men zijn queeste (en de vaak daarmee samenhangende frustratie)  oplegt aan anderen. 

Een context heeft een historische ontwikkeling doorgemaakt. Om deze ontwikkeling te kunnen waarnemen moeten we ons  ontkoppelen van onze  projecties. 

2.10. Drie verschillende vormen van denken

Het woord denken heeft als bron het woord thencon (rond 900)[14]. Dit woord betekent zichtbaar maken. Er zijn vele uitspraken die de relatie leggen tussen denken en zien (bijv ik zie het niet, inzicht[15], ..).

Er is nog een andere kant van het denken n.l. “het verstand gebruiken“. Het woord verstand komt van het woord verstaan, dat horen maar ook aantasten en naar het gerecht gaan betekent. Nog verder in het verleden betekent het stil staan bij of er onder staan (zie ook understand). 

Denken heeft hier een sterke relatie met het oor, ‘horen’ en ‘spreken’  en “staan”. Het staan wordt bestuurd door het evenwichtsorgaan in het oor. Dit orgaan zorgt ervoor dat we staande in balans blijven. Het oor heeft ook een relatie met muziek. Daar gaat het om het ervaren van harmonie. In combinatie met de benen ontstaat het ritme en de dans. Denken is het horen van de harmonie in wat we zien zodat we (ritmisch) in beweging kunnen komen.

De derde vorm van denken zien we in het woord begrijpen[16]. We willen iets beetpakken (vatten). Hier speelt de hand een rol. Met de hand kunnen we een context betasten en proberen een beeld te krijgen van zijn vorm. 

Het oudste denken is verbonden met het oog (het zien). In een later stadium is er een behoefte ontstaan om iets te pakken te krijgen (be-grijpen) en (stand-)recht te doen (het streven naar waarheid, zekerheid en status (de stand)). Denken is hier passief (stil staan bij) en geeft bescherming (we staan ergens onder).  Denken is een afweermechanisme tegen de steeds veranderende buitenwereld geworden.

Er zijn drie  samenhangende vormen van denken. Het primaire denken is de waarneming (het zien). Deze waarnemening doen we rechtop staand en in balans. Door een context te benoemen kunnen we intern en extern een dialoog voeren (het verstand). Door naar onszelf te luisteren kunnen we de harmonie in onze dialoog horen. We kunnen een context ook met de hand benaderen. We kunnen hem beetpakken (begrijpen) of hem aanraken en  zijn vorm proberen te voelen. Hierdoor kunnen we uiteindelijk in de huid (het weefsel) van de context kruipen.

2.11. De impact van het schrift (het ontstaan van  abstracte woorden)

De uitvinding van het schrift en later de boekdrukkunst heeft op het denken een enorme invloed gehad[17]. Uitgesproken woorden hadden in eerste instantie een directe relatie met een beeld. Het eerste schrift was ook beeldend. Langzamerhand zijn de beelden tekens geworden. Het teken voor water in het Egyptisch was een golf  en werd uitgesproken als “NU”[18]. Het golf-teken is later getransformeerd in de letter N.

Door deze transformatie werd de koppeling tussen beeld en klank losgelaten. Woorden gingen letterlijk hun eigen leven leiden. Naast woorden met een visuele relatie hebben we nu ook woorden die geen directe visuele relatie meer hebben (bijv. Organisatie).  Ze zijn soms via zeer complexe tussenstappen (metaforen) aan een groot aantal visuele representaties gekoppeld. We zijn ons niet meer bewust van deze tussenstappen maar ze spelen wel degelijk een rol in ons denken.

Door de uitvinding van het schrift is er een splitsing ontstaan tussen woorden die een beeld benoemen en woorden die geen relatie meer hebben met de werkelijkheid. Dit zijn de woorden van het abstracte denken.

2.12. Het abstracte denken (in kaart brengen)[19]

Het denken is de laatste eeuwen van het lichaam (het zien, het horen, het voelen en het bewegen) ontkoppeld[20]. Denken doen we nu volgens de meeste wetenschappers met onze hersenen. Dit denken vindt plaats op een gevoelloze plek boven de zintuigen.

De hersenen besturen alles. Ze produceren gedachten (abstracte woorden). Mensen die veel denken zijn wandelende hoofden geworden en onderdrukken hun emoties. Denken moet objectief plaatsvinden. Denken vindt hier plaats door omhoog te gaan en van boven naar beneden te kijken.

Naarmate we hoger opstijgen wordt de wereld meer uniform. Om een plek te herkennen hebben we een kaart nodig. De kaart wordt nu de manier om naar de wereld te kijken. We schakelen over van de derde naar de tweede dimensie. De werkelijkheid wordt plat geslagen. We brengen de context in kaart. Daarna wordt de kaart ingedeeld (classificatie).

De classificatie wordt weer naar de aarde gebracht.  Het bijzondere van dit alles is dat als we niet oppassen we uiteindelijk één schaal  boven de oorspronkelijke context uitkomen. Door het abstraheren hebben we de oude context uniform (een eenheid) gemaakt en dus gedood.

Als een context uniform is is hij bijna niet meer terug te vinden in de nieuwe abstracte context.  We moeten heel goed (van dichtbij) kijken om de oude context terug te vinden. Er is maar een zeer beperkt gezichtsinterval waarvan uit we hem kunnen waarnemen. De oude context is verder niet meer scherp te krijgen. Een voorbeeld is het proces van Ruimtelijke Ordening. Hier wordt de wereld met behulp van een kaart ingedeeld. In plaats van huizen ontstaan er uniforme wijken. 

2.13. Samenvatting

We kunnen een context doden door hem van uit de hoogte, als een kaart,  te beschouwen. De context wordt dan twee-dimensionaal in plaats van drie-dimensionaal.  Als we de kaart als richtsnoer gebruiken voor het aanpassen van de context verdwijnt de context uit het zicht.  Ze wordt geuniformiseerd. De oude context is nog wel aanwezig maar is bijna onzichtbaar geworden. Ze is alleen van heel dichtbij te zien.

Om een context te behouden moeten we hem vanaf de goede plaats (het gezichtspunt) bekijken, hem goed benoemen en vooral mee durven gaan met het reeds in het verleden ingezette transformatieproces van de vorm van de context[21].   Het waarnemingsproces wordt sterk belemmerd door ons eigen beeld van de context (projectie, emoties). Daarom moet de context ontspannen en open (als een kind)  worden beschouwd.

3       Boven de context

3.1. Wereldbeelden

Er is de laatste tijd veel werk gedaan aan het typeren van de manier waarop mensen naar de wereld kijken (hun wereldbeeld).  Alhoewel er natuurlijk sprake is van een hoge mate van versimpeling zijn sommige modellen erg bruikbaar. De modellen zijn omgezet in testen. Voorbeelden zijn Myers Briggs [22] en Spiral Dynamics[23].  Spiral Dynamics is  gebaseerd op de denkbeelden van Graves[24] uit de school van Maslow. Myers Brigss baseert zich op de archetypenleer van Jung, de grote opponent van Freud. Het blijkt dat mensen de wereld bekijken met behulp van een combinatie van twee wereldbeelden. Op deze manier komt Myers Briggs tot zes basistypen.

Geen keuzeEenheid De enige waarheid wordt beschreven door modellen. De wereld is statisch.Zintuigen Wat ik met mijn zintuigen waarneem is de echte wereld. Veranderingen hebben een oorzaak.
Eigen keuzeMythes De mens schept zijn eigen wereld. Ik verander mijn wereld zelf.  Sociaal Wat een groep mensen van belang vindt bepaalt mijn handelen. Alles is permanent aan het veranderen.  

McWhinney (1997)[25] typeert wereldbeelden met behulp van twee onafhankelijke variabelen:

  • Agency (Besturing)

Heb ik een keuze (free will, eigen keuze) of bepaalt iets buiten mij wat er gebeurt. Ben ik een speelbal (determined, geen keuze) van de buitenwereld (het noodlot) of regel ik zelf mijn omstandigheden.

  • Plurality (Beweging)

Ziet iemand de werkelijkheid als een niet veranderende eenheid (convergentie) of een verandert de wereld permanent (divergentie).

Als we de twee assen combineren ontstaan er vier wereldbeelden die onafhankelijk van elkaar zijn.

Er is inmiddels een enorme hoeveelheid statistisch materiaal beschikbaar gekomen van de testen die wereldbeelden meten. Het blijkt dat er een sterke relatie is tussen beroepen en de combinatie van twee wereldbeelden. 

Aangezien wereldbeeld in principe onafhankelijk van elkaar zijn beschrijft een combinatie van twee wereldbeelden een afbeelding van de ene kijk op de wereld naar een andere kijk op de wereld. Deze afbeelding kan een conflict opleveren. Als men een combinatie van twee wereldbeelden heeft (en dat hebben de meeste mensen) heeft men een manier gevonden om het conflict tussen de twee wereldbeelden op te lossen.

Experts, ook wel analytici[26] genoemd,  leven in de denkwereld Eenheid (Modellen) en willen de wereld van de Zintuigen (de Buitenwereld) besturen. Ze willen de werkelijkheid naar hun zin zetten. Ze kijken van boven naar de wereld. Ze gebruiken  feiten om hun argumenten te ondersteunen. Deze feiten baseren ze op objectieve metingen en testen. Door het uitvoeren van deze metingen kunnen ze zelf “buiten spel blijven”. Het meten wordt meestal gebaseerd op de statistiek.  Dit vakgebied wordt regelmatig misbruikt of verkeerd gebruikt. Statistiek faalt compleet als het meetgebied zelfreferende kenmerken heeft. De meting is dan afhankelijk van de schaal die men gebruikt[27]

De tegenbeweging van de analytici zien we het beste in de life-style “New Age”.  Niet voor niets baseert New Age zich op de Oosterse culturen. In deze culturen komen veel minder analytici voor. Ze nemen wel toe door de invloed van de Westerse denkwijze in de wereld.

De tegenpool van de analyticus combineert de denkwerelden Mythes met Sociaal. Men gelooft erg in autonome processen (scheppen, laten gebeuren). Men bedrijft geen wetenschap maar heeft een geloof. Dit geloof is met name gebaseerd op de eigen overtuiging (men is eigenwijs en heeft intuitie). Daarnaast is men erg gevoelig voor wat anderen er van vinden (empathie). 

Duidelijk moet zijn dat geen enkel wereldbeeld of combinatie van wereldbeelden de waarheid in pacht heeft. Juist een evenwichtige combinatie van alle vier de kijken geeft het meest complete beeld van de werkelijkheid. 

3.2. Het Analytische Spel (Boven de context)

Het analytische spel is één van de zes mogelijke spellen (3X2). Het analytische spel is het  spel van de huidige wetenschap en de techniek (De technologie). Het ziet de wereld (en dus ook de natuur) als een machine die centraal moet worden bestuurd. Het spel is overal aanwezig. Het is actief in de politiek en het bedrijfsleven (met name bij marketing, communicatie en consultancy). 

In het analytische spel wordt de wereld met de bril (wereldbeeld) van een model[28] van boven bekeken. Het aanpassen van het model aan de realiteit vindt niet makkelijk plaats. Analytici zijn op zoek naar zekerheid en willen daarom de wereld (hun model) graag constant houden.

Er zijn vele modellen beschikbaar om naar de werkelijkheid te kijken. Door de opkomst van de computer en de programmeertalen in combinatie met de denkbeelden van Taylor (de lopende band, standaardisatie) is het is logistieke model (omgezet in pakketten als SAP en BAAN) op dit moment sterk aanwezig. 

Een context wordt hier beschreven door een regelsysteem  (coderen, het programma) dat een hierararchie van gestandaardiseerde eenheden bestuurd. Mensen zijn in dit model gestandaardiseerd (het zijn Objecten).

Het opleidingsprogramma en  een selectieprocedure (examens, solicitatie, psychologische test) fungeren als standaardisatiemiddel en filter. Mensen die niet gestandaardiseerd zijn komen niet door het filter. In de gezondheidszorg werken  ziektenamen als filter. Je bent pas geestelijk en/of lichamelijk ziek als het ziektebeeld past op een standaard.

Een aantal voorbeelden:

  • een Medewerker wordt bestuurd door een Manager die wordt bestuurd door een HRM-systeem en een Budget-Systeem
  • een Patient wordt bestuurd door een Arts die wordt bestuurd door Protocollen  
  • een Leerling wordt bestuurd door een Leraar die wordt bestuurd door een Curriculum
  • Klanten worden bestuurd door een Account-manager die wordt bestuurd door een CRM-systeem
  • Kiezers worden bestuurd door een Campagne-manager die wordt bestuurd door een Opinie-peiling.

3.3. Problemen met het Analytische spel

In dit hoofdstuk worden een aantal veelvoorkomende problemen behandeld die horen bij het Analytische spel.

  • Grootschaligheid

Er worden teveel plekken van boven onder één noemer gebracht. Men wil alles in één keer veranderen. Hierdoor kan men alles niet meer overzien. Grootschalige activiteiten mislukken altijd behalve als met een enorme macht worden doorgedrukt. Dan moet alles er voor wijken.

  • Inflexibiliteit

Het is erg moeilijk om een model dat op de aarde is geimplementeerd te veranderen.

  • Losstaande plekken kunnen niet worden gekoppeld

Als losstaande systemen met elkaar moeten gaan samenwerken moeten er koppelingen worden gemaakt. Hier is bij het in kaart brengen geen rekening mee gehouden. Er is vanuit verschilende plekken en op verschillende schalen in kaart gebracht (z.g eiland-automatisering). De kaarten overlappen en/of sluiten niet aan.

  • Interferentie

Het ene systeem kan het regelsysteem van het andere systeem in de war brengen. Het tijdschrijven in een onderneming heeft negatieve impact op het spontane kennisdelen. Alle tijd moet worden verantwoord en er blijft geen tijd meer over voor spontaniteit.

  • Terugkoppeling

Meerdere gekoppelde systemen kunnen elkaars gedrag versterken of veranderen.  Het statistisch analyseren van de beurskoersen heeft invloed op de analyse. De markt gaat zich conform het model gedragen en moet er een nieuw model worden gemaakt dat de gaten in het oude model probeert te vinden. Uieindelijk is de markt uitgeanalyseerd en is er bijna niets meer te verdienen. 

  • Onvoorspelbaar gedrag

Samenwerkende systemen gaan spontaan onvoorspelbaar gedrag vertonen (chaos, emergent behavior). 

  • Schaalverspringen en veranderen van plek

Er worden twee schaalniveau’s aan elkaar gekoppeld die niet op gelijke hoogte liggen en/of op een hele andere plek liggen. Een voorbeeld is “de lerende organisatie”. Hier wordt de schaal mens aan de veel hogere schaal organisatie gekoppeld.

  • Vertroebeling

Men heeft geen scherpe blik op de aarde. De atmosfeer is troebel of de bril is vies. Het effect is dat men vaag wordt.

  • Luchtkastelen bouwen

Een laag wordt slechts onder één noemer (een term) gebracht en in snel tempo weer naar de aarde gebracht. Daarna blijkt de laag veel dikker te zijn dan men dacht en lukt het niet om “de zaak aan de praat te krijgen”. Een voorbeeld is E-Commerce. De enorme hoeveelheid interactiepunten van deze systemen met mensen en andere systemen wordt vergeten. Door benoemen en versimpelen wordt het erg makkelijk om een systeem te verkopen.

  • Niet meer op aarde komen

Men is opgestegen en daalt niet meer terug naar de aarde en blijft zweven. Een voorbeeld is Ruimtelijke Ordening waar men op het niveau wijk (in plaats van woning) blijft hangen. Er ontstaat op deze manier een abstracte clustering (men ontwerpt een wijk).

  • Vergeten dat er op aarde mensen wonen

Op een bepaald moment moet de resultaten van het spel weer door mensen worden gebruikt. Die worden geconfronteerd met iets dat “van boven is opgelegd”. In het Analytische spel wordt er meestal geen rekening gehouden met het feit dat er mensen op aarde zijn.

3.4. Communicatie in het Analytische spel

In het spel wordt er veel gebruik gemaakt van schriftelijke communicatie (men toont de kaart). Daarnaast is er sprake van zeer complexe vaktaal. Men beperkt zijn interactie tot collega’s die ongeveer op de zelfde hoogte en plek verkeren.

3.5. De relatie tussen de Analyticus en zijn Object

De analyticus ziet de mensen in de wereld als een object. De relatie tussen de analyticus en dit object vindt van uit de hoogte plaats. Er is sprake van een leraar-leerling relatie.

3.6. Technologie en Vakmanschap

Context komt van het woord con-textere. De woorden technologie (vakmanschap) en architect (de timmerman) hebben een gerelateerde betekenis.  Een vakman leert door afkijken en door experimenteren (vallen en opstaan).  Hij weet dat nieuwe ontwikkelingen nooit in één keer tot stand komen.  De stoommachine is stap voor stap ontwikkeld. Dit ging samen met innovaties in de wetenschap (de thermodynamica). De abstracte  wetenschap had de praktijk (de aarde) nodig om te leren. Het abstracte denken is het denken van de technologie (de werktuigen van de mens). Het  kan zich dan ook het beste laten inspireren door alles wat er op aarde “werkt”. Als men de werking van een technologie doorgrondt kan met dit model doorvertalen naar een abstract model. Men kan nu  heen en weer gaan, van de technologie naar het model en terug. Naast de technologie kan de natuur (het weer, de planeten, de  planten, de dieren, de mens) worden beschouwd. Het gaat hier met name om autonome en cyclische systemen. Het is van groot belang dat men de natuur niet als een technologie gaat beschouwen en de mens niet als werktuig (object) ziet. Het abstracte denken moet werktuigen opleveren die het unieke in de mens ondersteunen. Het beschouwen van de natuur (en de mens) vraagt een andere kijk. Men moet in de context in plaats van boven de context opereren.

[1] Saul Morson & Caryl Emerson, 1990, Micheal Bakhtin, Creation of a prosaics, Stanford University Press.

[2] Bakhtin, Mikhail. Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics. Trans. Caryl Emerson. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984.

[3] Dit is de URL van het Bahktin centre : http://www.shef.ac.uk/uni/academic/A-C/bakh/bakhtin.html.

[4] Bakhtin, M. M., Speech Genres and Other Late Essays, eds. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist, trans. Vern W. McGee (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994)

[5] In het algemeen staan we recht voor een context en kijken naar de voorkant.

[6] Het koppelen van een visueel beeld via wijzen aan een gesproken woord is manier waarop kinderen woorden leren.

[7] In het verleden was dit ook de manier om een context te beschrijven. Er werden zeer uitgebreide visuele beschrijvingen gemaakt van bijv. kerken. (zie John Cage, (1999), Color and Culture, University of California Press).

[8] Nico Frijda, (1987), The Emotions, Cambrigde University Press

[9] Volgens Marcus Vitruvius Pollio moet een architect drie krachten in balans brengen n.l. duurzaamheid (firmitas), het gebruik (utilitas) en de schoonheid (venustas). De mogelijke vorm wordt voor een groot deel bepaald door de zwaartekracht (de druk van de dragende structuur). en de cohesie tussen de onderdelen (zie http://www2.uiah.fi/projects/metodi/135.htm).

[10] Er is een sterk verband met de Niet-liniaire dynamica, Zie bijv. J.A. Scott Kelso,(1995),  The Self-Organization of Brain and Behavior. MIT Press

[11] Andrew Ortony, (1990), The Cognitive Structure of Emotions, Cambrigde University Press

[12] Joseph Campbell (1972), The hero with a thousand faces, Princeton Univ Press;

[13] Ray Monk, (1991), The duty of genius, Penguin USA.

[14] Zie Van Dale, (1997). Etymologisch Woordenboek en http://www.etymonline.com/.

[15] Het woord intuitie betekent naar bnnen kijken  (in- “binnen” + tueri “kijken naar”). Zie ook contemplatie “een ruimte scheppen om te kunnen observeren”

[16] Het woord grijpen komt uit het  Sanskriet (graha). Het woord graha betekent planeet en zintuig. Er zijn acht graha’s. Tegenover de graha staat de atigraha (het object). Volgens de Upanishads zijn de objecten sterker dan de zintuigen. Het willen beetpakken van een object geeft het object de macht over het zintuig.

[17] Walter Ong (1982), Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word (London and New York: Methuen)

[18] zie http://www.historian.net/hxwrite.htm

[19] Het woord abstraheren betekent wegtrekken.

[20] When we survey the subsequent course of scientific thought troughout the seventeen-century up to the present day two curious facts emerge. In the first place, the development of science has gradually discarded every single feature of the original commondense notion. Nothing whatever remains of it. The obvious commensense notion has been entirely destroyed. The second characteristic is equally prominent. The commonsense notion still reigns supreme in the workaday life of mankind. A. N. Whitehead (1934), Nature and life, Llondon Cambrigde Press

[21] Zie ook Christopher Alexander (1979), The Timeless Way of Building, Oxford University Press;

[22] Berens L, Nardi D. (1999), The 16 Personality Types, Descriptions for Self-Discovery, Telos Pubns

[23] Beck D.E, Cowan C.C. (1996), Spiral Dynamics, Blackwell Publishers Cambridge, Mass

[24] Graves W.G. (1971), A systems conception of personality, zie http:www.spiraldynamics.com/ graves/nih.htm

[25] McWhinney W. (1997), Paths of Change, Sage Publications Londen.

[26] Het word analiseren betekent “uit elkaar halen”.

[27] Larry Liebovitch, (1998),  Fractals and Chaos, Simplified for the Life Sciences, Oxford University Press.

[28] Een bril kan ook een instrument zijn (bijv. een sterrekijker, een NMR of een microscoop)

Over de Spirituele Cyclus van Walter Russell


Dit document is in 2005 geschreven naar aanleiding van het ontdekken van Walter Russell (1871, 1963) , een beroemd amerikaans Architect die in zijn tijd spontaan via een verlichting inzicht kreeg van het hoogste bewustzijn (“The Universal One”)over de werking van het Universum. Dit heeft hij beschreven in het boek .The Universal One.

Het dokument is geschreven voor een wereldwijd opererend software-bedrijf dat voor de privacy in dit document PMM wordt genoemd. In bepaalde gevallen is de tekst enigzins aangepast.

1. Samenvatting.

In dit document wordt een model uitgelegd. Het model gaat uit van drie krachten.

Twee krachten zijn expansief (.<, 1->M) en comprimerend (.<, M->1)).

De derde kracht is eigenlijk geen kracht maar een Veer die het uit-rekken aan twee kanten compenseert M:1X1:M).

Dat is ook de reden dat deze kracht Veerkracht wordt genoemd in het Engels vertaald in Resilience.

De derde kracht zorgt voor balans en eenheid (M<1-1>M).. Ze zorgt ervoor dat de krachten niet te krachtig worden.

De expansieve krachten hebben vele namen. In deze notitie en de economie worden ze productie en consumptie genoemd. In hun extreme vorm tonen ze zich bij mensen in machtswellust en verslaving.

Productie en consumptie behoren elkaar op te heffen. Als ze elkaar niet op redelijke termijn opheffen raakt alles in onbalans.

Wat wordt geproduceerd wordt door de consument op korte of lange termijn vernietigd.

Als de balans ontbreekt en de veer breekt dijen de krachten ongelimiteerd uit totdat de spanning tussen de twee krachten zo groot is geworden dat ze terug worden geroepen door de derde kracht.

Hoe groter de spanning tussen de krachten wordt hoe explosiever de terugkeer naar de rust-staat.

In hfdst 3. wordt de productie-cyclus beschreven.

Een productie-cyclus stijgt

Een productie-spiraal start altijd met een vakman, die een uniek product maakt.

Specialisten analyseren (zie hfdst 4.) de werkprocessenen bedenken een model waarin de vakman een gestandaardiseerd product maakt (een bedrijf).

Inmiddels is het bedrijf geabstraheerd tot een fabriek en is de productie-spiraal in snel tempo aan het migreren van het abstractie-niveau fabriek naar de utility.

In hfdst 6. wordt verder ingegaan op de eigenschappen van een utility.

In hfdst 5. wordt de relatie tussen technologie en de huidige staat van de productie-spiraal in kaart gebracht

Het vormen van een utility gaat gepaard met enorme concentratie-activiteiten in het bedrijfsleven (een shake-down).

Deze shake-down zal niet alleen het bedrijfsleven treffen maar ook de software-industrie zelf.

Door te anticiperen op de volgende golf  kan men een enorme voorsprong nemen op de concurrentie die nu bezig zijn om het grote gevecht te voeren.

Men kan een grote voorsprong verkrijgen door potentieele utilities (hubs) in het bedrijfsleven te helpen de grote sprong te maken.

Het gaat om het zo snel mogelijk realiseren van utility-computing.

Het samenwerken met de eerst opkomende golf (media, user-interface, buitenkant, intelligent routers) is voor de hand liggend omdat in deze bedrijfstak nog geen enkele ervaring heeft met complexe automatisering. Ze verkeerd nog in het laagste stadium van de vakman.

In hfdst 7. wordt de consumptie-spiraal beschreven Het blijkt dat er aan de onderkant van de spiraal sterke ontwikkelingen zichtbaar zijn. De consument wil af van het consumentisme en is op zoek naar de vakman en zijn unieke producten.

De volgende stap in de spiraal is de beweging. Deze bewegingen (sociale netwerken) hebben behoefte aan nieuwe technologie (Collaborative Learning) en produceren nieuwe technologie (Open Source). 

Het is sterk te adviseren om in te spelen op deze trend. Een beweging vergt een totaal andere manier van werken (collaboratie, geven en nemen).

In hfdst 9. wordt de derde kracht geintroduceerd.

Deze derde kracht bestuurt de twee andere krachten.

Ze zorgt voor rust en balans. In de expansie van de productie- en de consumptie-spiraal wordt de derde kracht al snel geëlimineerd.

Hierdoor neemt de onbalans en de onrust razendsnel toe.

Uit de analyse blijkt dat de productie- en consumptie-spiraal ver buiten hun rusttoestand verkeren en dat een grote correctie naar een lager niveau van expansie te verwachten is.

In Hfdst 10. wordt heel kort aangegeven hoe de derde kracht kan worden aangewend om een balans te vinden tussen R&D en Verkoop.

Deze notitie is complex. Ze introduceert een aantal nieuwe concepten die voor velen moeilijk te begrijpen zijn.

De lezer wordt dan ook met grote nadruk gevraagd om de tijd te nemen bij het lezen en als er sprake is van onduidelijkheid contact op te nemen met ondergetekende.

Het begrijpen van de concepten is niet nodig om de consequenties te lezen en wellicht aan te voelen dat ze ook bij de lezer leven. Als dit het geval is heb ik al veel bereikt.

Als laatste moet ik bekennen dat ik het gevoel heb deze notitie een mijlpaal is in mijn denken maar natuurlijk niet het einde is van mijn ontdekkingstocht op aarde. Het inzicht groeit met de jaren.

0. Inleiding

De laatste jaren heb ik veel tijd besteed aan het onderzoeken van de relatie tussen techniek en spiritualiteit.

Het verbinden van deze twee werelden heeft de grootste prioriteit in mijn leven. De belangrijkste mijlpalen in mijn ontdekkingstocht vermeld ik even.

Ik heb deelgenomen aan de werkgroep Menselijke Maat[1] en een aantal presentaties verzorgt op het LAC-congres[2]. De werkgroep gaf mij een diep inzicht in ware aard van de menselijke emotie en het proces van abstractie.

De denkbeelden van Will McWhinney hebben mij op het spoor gezet van zeer oude (spirituele) zelf-refererende denkmodellen (wereldbeelden).

Tijdens het onderzoek voor het project Collaborative Learning[4] ontdekte ik de Interpersonal Theory[5] die de menselijke interactie in een twee krachtenmodel (Agency vs Communion) plaatst.  

Interpersonal Theory is  erg bruikbaar om een innovatieve organisatie in te richten. Daarnaast geeft ze zicht op een andere ordening van de architectuur (o.m. toevoegen sociale netwerken).

De laatste innovatie in mijn denken heeft plaatsgevonden door de ontdekking van het boek “The Universal One” van Walter Russell (1924). Russell voegt terecht een derde kracht toe. In deze notitie wordt een klein deel van het model van Russell toegepast[6] .


De laatste weken heb ik al mijn tijd gebruikt om het document zodanig uit te schrijven dat het kan dienen als breed discussie-document.

Persoonlijk ben ik erg blij met de inspiratie die ik de laatste weken heb mogen ontvangen. Ze geven mij een goede fundering om voort te gaan met het pad dat ik wil volgen.

2. De Productie-spiraal

In dit document wordt uitgegaan van een ontwikkel-cyclus. Deze cyclus wordt bestuurd door twee onderling gekoppelde krachten, contractie en expansie.

De twee krachten zijn slingers, die heen en weer gaan tussen twee uitersten en in het midden kortstondig elkaars effect opheffen (voiding).

De slingers gaan op en neer en heen en weer. Op ieder moment in hun beweging zijn de slingers in balans.

Dit betekent dat de krachten elkaar volledig zouden kunnen opheffen. Op den duur worden ze ook opgeheven.

De twee slinger-bewegingen vormen een spiraal, die in zichzelf is gesloten. De spiraal kan rechts- en linksom draaien.

Als de rechtsom draait (met de klok mee) beschrijft de spiraal een groei-proces (de productie-spiraal). Tegen de klok in gaat het om een behoeften-spiraal.

De groei-cyclus bestaat uit vier stappen:

Het genereren van ideeën

Op het punt van rust van beide slingers springen ideeën (generate) op uit de zee (het veld) van de oneindige potentie. Als ze niet door de geest worden gegrepen, verdwijnen ze weer. Een idee is een contractie van het veld maar geen oneindige contractie. Het idee bevat nog veel mogelijkheden.


Om het idee concreet te maken is een tweede contractie-proces omhoog nodig (abstract). Abstractie haalt de essentie (the seed) uit het idee. Het trekt een deel los uit een geheel. Het deel blijft altijd het geheel voelen en wil uiteindelijk weer terug naar het geheel.


Na contractie gaan het proces over op expansie. Het zaadje gaat groeien (unfold). De essentie  (het ontwerp, het plan) wordt uitgepakt. Het groeiproces wordt gestuurd door twee krachten n.l. integratie (terug naar het geheel) en fragmentatie. In dit laatste geval wil het deel een eigen geheel gaan vormen en produceert het nieuwe delen. Integratie en fragmentatie zijn onderhevig aan de kracht van de contractie waardoor er op den duur een einde komt aan de expansie.


De expansie van het deel neemt af en keert om naar een expansie naar het geheel toe (naar beneden). Op dat moment (evaluate) wordt de diversiteit die de fragmentatie heeft veroorzaakt weer onder één noemer gebracht. Er wordt een veld gevormd dat de potentie van het groeiproces bevat.

De limiet van de spiraal

De spiraal-beweging heeft een limiet. Als deze limiet wordt bereikt, moet de spiraal weer omlaag gaan terug naar het geheel. Men kan nu eenmaal niet eindeloos fragmenteren en abstraheren.

In theorie zijn er zeven slagen omhoog mogelijk. Naarmate men verder van de basis afraakt komt er een steeds sterkere onbalans. Deze onbalans verstrekt de kracht omlaag.  In het volgende hoofdstuk wordt dieper ingegaan op de omhoog trekkende kracht, abstractie. Daarna wordt de volledige productiespiraal  uitgeschreven.

3.Abstractie, het gevecht tussen vakman en specialist.

Door abstractie wordt een deel uit een geheel gehaald. Abstractie vindt plaats door compressie van informatie.

Men laat volgens een bepaald principe informatie (gegevens) weg[7].

De abstracties en hun verbindingen worden voorzien van nieuwe termen.

Op de lange termijn verdwijnt de verbinding tussen deel en geheel en gaat het deel zich als geheel gedragen.

Hierdoor ontstaan er steeds meer schijnbaar losgekoppelde delen (fragmentatie).

Op den duur ontwikkelt iedere abstractie zijn eigen taalgebruik (vaktaal, een taalspel).

Door middel van het taalspel communiceren de specialisten onderling over de abstractie.

De specialisten vormen samen een praktijk (een nieuw geheel) die zich zelfstandig gaat gedragen.

Praktijken splitsen zich af in nieuwe praktijken.

Ook hier vindt weer fragmentatie plaats. Op den duur ontstaat er een enorme babylonische spraakverwarring.

Een abstractie komt altijd voort uit een praktijk waarin vakmensen met elkaar samenwerken.

Zelfs de meest complexe wiskunde is terug te voeren op practische (en onpractische) problemen die men in het verleden heeft proberen op te lossen (bv boekhouden).

Vakmensen staan altijd met hun voeten op de aarde en nemen de tijd om een uniek product op te leveren.

Het duurt soms vele eeuwen voor een bepaalde praktijk een nieuw niveau van vakmanschap heeft bereikt.

Er vinden vele kleine stapjes plaats die  plotseling (een paradigm-shift) worden samengevat onder een nieuw geheel.

Abstractie vernietigt een praktijk van vakmensen omdat ze het unieke van de mens (zijn creativiteit) niet accepteert.

Het abstractie-proces heeft een hekel aan tijd. Men wil alles snel doen.

Het is mogelijk om een abstractie van een abstractie te maken. Door het abstraheren van abstracties is de wiskunde, de computer, de database en de software ontstaan.

Uiteindelijk bereikt het proces van abstraheren een eindstadium. Er kan niets meer worden weggelaten. De abstractie is een essentie geworden.

Het is onmogelijk om alle informatie in de wereld tot één essentie samen te voegen. Dit betekent dat er altijd meerdere concurrerende essenties naast elkaar zullen bestaan[8].

Om een abstractie te kunnen toepassen moet men een omgekeerd proces volgen.

Men moet volledig terug naar de aarde of naar een gestabiliseerde laag boven de aarde (een praktijk). Als men gaat toepassen wordt de abstractie weer voorzien van de weggelaten informatie. Als de abstractie ver van de praktijk staat, is het proces van toevoegen complex.

Als het abstraheren volgens een onduidelijk principe heeft plaatsgevonden, is er geen weg omlaag meer.

Meestal kunnen alleen de mensen die de weg omhoog hebben meegemaakt of hebben aangeleerd (de ontwerpers) de weg omlaag uitvoeren.

Vaak  vergeten de ontwerpers de kennis van de implementatie over te dragen. Als er meerdere abstracties moeten worden gekoppeld moeten meerdere specialisten samenwerken.

Hier ontstaan enorme communicatie-problemen omdat men geen gedeeld taalspel heeft.

Iedere abstractie heeft een basis (een fundering). Die basis is soms niet meer te achterhalen.

Op zo’n moment hangt de abstractie letterlijk in de lucht en kan niet meer op aarde komen. De abstractie is een wetenschap geworden.

Als een abstractie een wetenschap is geworden is de toepasbaarheid nihil.

Het proces van abstractie gaat binnen de wetenschap gewoon verder.

Specialisten hebben de neiging om de realiteit aan hun abstractie aan te passen.

De praktijk ontstaat niet van beneden naar boven (bottum-up) maar van boven naar beneden (top-down). De specialisten gebruiken hun model als norm en dwingen een praktijk af. 

Als de specialisten een onduidelijk abstractie-principe hebben gekozen en/of de praktijk niet snappen wordt de afgedwongen praktijk ook onduidelijk. Dit heeft tot gevolg dat de medewerkers in de praktijk in onbalans raken (stress).

4.De Productiespiraal, de weg naar volledige Beheersing

Door het toepassen van abstractie gaat de productie-cyclus iedere keer een stap omhoog.

In dit hoofdstuk worden de omhoog gaande stappen (de spiraal) beschreven.

De basis: Praktijk

Vakmensen maken een uniek product.

De uniekheid van dit product is te vinden in de inbreng van de creativiteit van de vakman.

Zodra vakmensen ervaringen gaan uitwisselen ontstaat een praktijk. Een vakman leert zijn vak in deze praktijk.

In eerste instantie standaardiseren de hulpmiddelen zich en daarna volgt de werkwijze. De vakmensen gebruiken nu allemaal een standaard procedure maar ze werken los van elkaar en voeren alle taken zelf uit (verkoop en productie).

2e Laag: Van praktijk naar bedrijf

In de volgende fase wordt de vrijheid van handelen (zijn creativiteit) van de vakman beperkt.

Ze worden nu bestuurd door procedures of door een mens (een ondernemer).

Er komt een taakverdeling tussen productie, management en verkoop. De vakmensen worden medewerkers. In plaats van een uniek, persoonlijk, product wordt een copie van één van de unieke producten van de vakmensen geproduceerd. Dit maakt het mogelijk om de handelingen (de motoriek) van de medewerkers sterk te versimpelen.

3e laag: Van bedrijf naar fabriek

De volgende stap in abstractie is mechanisering. De procedures worden grotendeels overgenomen door machines.

De machines bevatten een copie van een uniek productie-proces. De machines worden aan een groot aantal bedrijven geleverd.

Het gevolg is dat veel bedrijven min of meer hetzelfde product gaan leveren en uiteindelijk moeten gaan concurreren op prijs.

Men moet daardoor steeds efficienter werken waardoor de mechanisatie steeds verder wordt doorgevoerd.

De specialisaties in het bedrijf gaan mee in de abstractieslag. Verkoop wordt marketing en gaat de klant op abstracte wijze benaderen (CRM, brochures, reclame).

Het management gaat gebruik maken van abstracte besturingsmiddelen (logistiek, computers etc). Uiteindelijk verlaten de meeste medewerkers het bedrijf. Het is getransformeerd in een fabriek.

4e laag: Van fabriek naar utility

In de laatste abstractie-slag wordt het mechaniek geabstraheerd en worden vele mechanieken verbonden tot een doorlopende stroom (waardeketen-integratie).

Op allerlei plaatsen worden sensors (meters) ingebouwd (abstracties van de zintuigen), die gebeurtenissen (events) registreren en berichten zenden naar relevante mechanieken om hun gedrag aan te passen aan buitenwereld.

Er is nu een utility ontstaan. Deze utility verdwijnt nu volledig achter de schermen (via een simpel interface, bv een stekker) en wordt een algemeen geaccepteerde onderlaag voor een nieuwe stap in de ontwikkel-cyclus.

Bovenop een utility worden weer nieuwe praktijken gevestigd. Het zal duidelijk zijn dat de afsluitende utility-laag het Internet is.

5e laag: Van utility naar media

Bovenop het Internet worden nieuwe producten ontwikkeld. Aangezien de utility naar de binnenkant verdwijnt wordt de buitenkant (het user-interface, TV, PC, Appliances) zeer belangrijk.

De eerste stap in de volgende spiraal omhoog is het standaardiseren van de mens via de zintuigen (en daarmee de emoties (desire)). De grootste innovatie vindt plaats in media-industrie. De rest van de industrie programmeert zijn klanten door de uiterlijkheid van zijn producten variabel te maken.
6e en 7e laag: Van media naar Robot[9]

De volgende stap is om de onderdelen van de mens te vervangen door machines (nano-technologie, kunstmatige onderdelen, koppeling van mensen aan machines).

De cyclus eindigt in de 7e stap met de  realisatie van de robot, die zichzelf reproduceert. De mens is nu compleet vervangen door machines.

Abstractie leidt tot concentratie van macht

In iedere abstractie-slag worden verschillende aparte eenheden (vakmensen, bedrijven, fabrieken, unieke producten, unieke processen etc) onder één noemer gebracht.

Dit proces veroorzaakt in de eerste fase integratie-problemen. Men moet uit meerdere alternatieven “het beste” kiezen. Men kiest een standaard. Als deze fase is afgerond, wordt de nieuwe eenheid compact gemaakt.

Er verdwijnen vakmensen, bedrijven en fabrieken. Deze compacte eenheden kunnen steeds meer klanten gaan bedienen.

De sterken overwinnen uiteindelijk de zwakken. Er blijven een paar concurrenten over (hubs (nu Cloud genoemd) ) die dominant worden in de markt.

Ze zijn in staat om velen hun standaarden op te leggen (vgl Microsoft).

De Abstractie van de abstractie (Automatisering)

Zelfs de abstractie heeft zich in de loop van de spiraal geabstraheerd in de vorm van de computer en de software.

De automatisering heeft een veel korter traject van abstractie doorlopen dan vergelijkbare bedrijfstakken (bijv de auto-industrie).

De automatisering is daardoor op vele abstractie-niveau’s tegelijkertijd bezig.

Uiteindelijk zullen de bovenlagen de onderlagen verslaan.

Op dit moment is de automatisering nog sterk afhankelijk van de praktijk (de vakman).

De volgende stap in abstractie is het software-bureau. Hier worden de vakmensen middels standaard-processen (methoden, technieken, tools en een project-management-aanpak) in een keurslijf gestopt.

De volgende fase is de software-fabriek. Net als in het bedrijfsleven worden nu de ontwikkel-processen zelf geautomatiseerd. Er is via het fenomeen webservices en de ontwikkeling van de service-bus een eerste stap gedaan naar utility-computing. De standaardisatie in de automatisering versnelt het proces van standaardisatie in het bedrijfsleven dramatisch.

5. Wat is een utility?

Gas, water en licht zijn een utility.

Moderne voorbeelden zijn pompstations, de kabel, het Internet, het vaste en het GSM-netwerk, de snelweg.

De basis-architectuur van een utility is een buizensysteem, waardoor water (auto’s, energie, benzine, berichten) stroomt.

Een utility is altijd beschikbaar en voor de meeste mensen onzichtbaar.

De werking van de utility is vanzelfsprekend.

Een utility wordt pas zichtbaar als hij niet werkt (bv een file).

In dat geval blijkt pas hoe afhankelijk de mensen van de utility zijn geworden.

Ze is gegroeid ten koste van een groot aantal andere mogelijkheden.

De werking van de utility is hierdoor randvoorwaardelijk voor de werking van een groot aantal diensten.

Een utility wordt aangesloten via een simpel interface (bv stekker in stopcontact).

De besturing van een utility vindt plaats via een facade die onafhankelijk is van de werking van de utility (bv. een thermo-staat).

Als een praktijk het utility-niveau heeft bereikt kan ze alleen nog concurreren op basis van prijs. Deze prijs wordt bepaald door een meter (tikken).

Hierdoor betaalt men voor het werkelijke gebruik van de utility.

Onderscheidende eigenschappen worden aangebracht door de utility te koppelen aan een zintuigelijke of emotionele beleving (kleur, image, vorm, bv groene stroom etc).

Veel gebieden bereiken op dit moment tegelijkertijd het niveau van de utility. De voornaamste oorzaken zijn:


Steeds meer diensten worden via een virtueel kanaal aangeboden (het Internet)


Er vindt een shake-out plaats op het gebied van de pakketten. Men gebruikt steeds meer  dezelfde pakketten en processen (bv SAP).


Men gebruikt dezelfde infrastructuur (Het Internet)


Er komt steeds meer regelgeving die standaardisatie afdwingt (bv via de EEG)


Voorbeelden zijn de W3C-standaarden XML, SOAP, maar ook product-specifieke standaarden (zie OASIS zie http://www.oasis-open.org ) zijn sterk in opkomst. EDI wordt werkelijkheid.


Door de toenemende gelijkschakeling wordt het onderscheidend vermogen van producten kleiner. M

en moet de klant in verleiding brengen door een aantrekkelijke buitenkant.

De consument wordt daardoor de baas. Dit veroorzaakt een sterke prijs-concurrentie, die weer standaardisatie stimuleert.


Lokale overheden verliezen hun macht waardoor grenzen verdwijnen. Dit wekt een proces van integratie en standaardisatie in de hand. Multi-nationals hebben de staat van globale integratie bereikt.

Verdwijnen van taal-barrieres en versnelde communicatie door Email

Het Engels heeft zich ontwikkeld tot de wereldtaal.

Hierdoor is de communicatie tussen allerlei landen sterk verbeterd.  

Het gebruik van E-mail versterkt en versnelt het communicatie- en integratieproces.

Aangezien abstractie een proces is van compressie worden de huidige marktpartijen uiteindelijk samengevoegd tot een klein aantal grootschalig opererende onderling concurrerende partijen.

Deze machtige ondernemingen worden met moeite in de tang gehouden door de overheid.

Het is voorspelbaar dat er een enorme shake-out en herordering gaat plaatsvinden in het bedrijfsleven.

Uiteindelijk zullen vele produkt-infrastructuren zich samenvoegen en de basis vormen voor een nieuwe geintegreerde infrastructuur waarop zich een nieuwe ontwikkel-spiraal baseert.

Waar bevindt Process-Modelling zich in de productie-spiraal?

PM heeft als fundering de fabricage (de fabriek). De fabricage-praktijk is geabstraheerd in logistieke modellen die zijn omgezet in pakketten (o.m. Baan). PM is een abstractie van een pakket. Het is een pakket waarmee men fabrieken  kan transformeren in een utility.

De Bus is de kern van OM. Door de bus stromen gestandaardiseerde berichten. Op fabrieksniveau worden pakketten via een Integrator aan de bus gekoppeld. De functionaliteit kan worden uitgebreid door software-componenten.

PM heeft veel geleerd van de implementatie-praktijk.

Om pakketten goed te kunnen invoeren, ontstond het idee om een procesmodel te gaan gebruiken.

Dit procesmodel is  vertaald naar een processmanager.

Het probleem van de processmanager is dat het de abstractie van de fabriek projecteert op de abstractie van het bedrijf.

In de abstractie van bedrijf naar fabriek zijn de mensen (emotie, behoefte) vervangen door machines.

Hierdoor is het menselijk veld verdwenen. Om de processmanager werkbaar, implementeerbaar te krijgen, dient dit element te worden toegevoegd (zie voor meer info Contexual Design).

Ten aanzien van de basislaag moet er een aansluiting worden gevonden met de oude en de nieuwe praktijk (vakmensen). Het gaat dan niet alleen om programmeurs, maar ook om businessanalisten, kenniswerkers en media-specialisten.

6.De Behoeftespiraal, de weg naar ongebreidelde macht.

Genereren, van behoeften

Als de spiraal tegen de klok in draait, genereert ze behoeften. Deze behoeften springen op uit het actie-potentieel.

Dit potentieel bestaat uit de verzameling van acties die het lichaam in de loop van zijn ontwikkeling heeft opgebouwd. Als de behoefte wordt vervuld, is het systeem in evenwicht. Als dit niet gebeurt, is het in onbalans.

Analyse, op zoek naar verklaring

Wanneer de behoefte niet is vervuld, voert men een analyse uit naar de oorzaak.

Als men de oorzaak vindt, worden er nieuwe gedragsregels geformuleerd.

Het blijkt dat er een ander reactie-patroon nodig is, om adequaat op de gebeurtenis te kunnen reageren.

Dit reactiepatroon kan men toevoegen aan het actie-potentieel (leren). 

Inspiratie, integreren van vele verklaring

Als men veel verklaringen van deelproblemen samenvoegt, kan een moment komen dat men het geheel ziet (inspiratie). Er onstaat een allesomvattend idee (insight).  

Transformatie, samenvoegen van vele acties tot nieuw gedrag

Het krachtige idee start een nieuw actie-potentieel. Loshangende acties worden onder één noemer gebracht.

Net als bij de productie-cyclus veroorzaakt een eenzijdige contractie op het gebied van de behoeften een convergerende spiraal. De spiraal begint met de basislaag: de Consument.

2e laag: Van Consument naar Beweging

Een spiritueel of autoritair leider concentreert volgelingen in een beweging. Er onstaat een gestuurde collectieve behoefte. Voorbeelden zijn cooperaties, de vakbeweging, de consumentbond.

3e laag: Van Beweging naar Markt

Als de behoeften niet meer kunnen worden bestuurd, ontstaat de vrije markt.

4e laag: Van Markt naar Monopolie

Als men het aanbod concentreert, ontstaat een monopolie of kartel.

5e laag: Van Monopolie naar Meester

De verslaafden worden afhankelijk van een meester. Voorbeeld is de drooglegging in de VS op het gebied van alcohol.

6e laag: Van Meester naar Schepper[10]

De meester voelt zich almachtig en gaat zich als schepper gedragen (vgl Lodewijk de 14e, de zonnegod)

Waar staat PM in de behoeften-spiraal?

Op het gebied van pakketten vindt er een grote concentratie plaats. Een aantal partijen (bv SAP) beginnen een monopolie-positie in te nemen en bieden utility-achtige software aan om hun klanten te blijven binden.

De Meester-laag wordt opgepakt door de amusementsbranche. Er zijn nog geen marktpartijen die complexe (game-achtige) user-interfaces koppelen aan een hoog schaalbare-utility-framework (Mosaic/Cordys).

Hier ligt een grote kans omdat de amusements-branche zelf nog in het praktijk- of bedrijfsstadium verkeert. Cordys zal een partner moeten zoeken die gespecialiseerd is in complexe user-interfaces. Deze activiteit is opgestart (zie het document “Op weg naar de media-hub” van ondergetekende).

Als CPM zich positioneert als een pakket moet ze gaan concurreren met monopolisten. Dit is een moeizaam proces. Hier geldt: “If you can’t beat them, join them”.

Er zijn nog een aantal grote software-leveranciers die niet over een bus beschikken.

Hier ligt samenwerking (of fusie) voor de hand. De algemene lijn hier is een integratie van middleware, workflow- en bustechnologie (bv Staffware, Tibco).

Het samenwerken met een gevestigde partij levert als extra voordeel op, dat er een enorme client-base wordt aangekocht. Er moet een search worden gedaan naar de beste partijen.

Samenwerken met marktpartijen die het niveau van utility willen (en moeten) is een optie. Hier valt te denken aan banken- en verzekeringsbedrijven. PM kan een sterkere positie verkrijgen door zich als een utility te gaan presenteren en te gaan samenwerken met partijen die dit stadium met moeite kunnen bereiken. Cordys moet zich dan gaan specialiseren in het verwerken van standaard-berichten (zie wederom OASIS). Samenwerking met bijv. Interpay ligt hier voor de hand. Daarnaast is een eerste contact gelegd met een consortium van Banken en Verzekerings-maatschappijen (EDC) en de stuurgroep die een nieuw Europese utility-platform voor betalingen moet realiseren.

Aan de onderkant van de spiraal smacht de consument weer naar het vervullen van een unieke behoefte. Er is een explosie gaande in zelfwerkzaamheid. De opkomst van software-ontwikkeltools voor eindgebruikers is zichtbaar (zie SnapXT [11]).

De meeste interessante laag is de laag van de Beweging. Er wordt door bewegingen software gemaakt (Open Source) en bewegingen vormen nieuwe vormen van cooperaties. De software om bewegingen te ondersteunen (Social Networks) staat nog in zijn kinderschoenen (bv. Linked In, Open BC, Hyves). Het gaat hier om het realiseren van Collaborative Learning.

7. De derde Kracht, de Spirituele Cyclus.

De productiecyclus (~de levenscyclus) en de behoeftencyclus (~de doods-cyclus) moeten elkaar op een bepaald moment opheffen (voiding). Ze vormen één geheel.

Consumeren is letterlijk verniet-igen (niets worden) van het product.

Dit kan direct plaatsvinden (eten) of door langdurig gebruik (verouderen en uit elkaar vallen).

Uiteindelijk komt het deel weer terug in het geheel (de aarde) en begint de leven/dood-cyclus opnieuw.

De controlspiraal heeft met de uitvinding van de stoommachine en andere mechanisatie-technieken (weef-machine, logica) een enorme vlucht omhoog genomen.

De producten beginnen steeds meer virtueel te worden en zijn dus bezig om de aarde te verlaten.

Er ontstaat een nieuwe weerstandloze ruimte, cyberspace, waarin het grote verlangen (desire) geen weerstand meer ondervindt en waarin dus alles mogelijk is (verlangen zonder grenzen).

De productiecyclus is vergeten om balans (balanced action) in zijn processen aan te brengen.

De controlspiraal heeft gezorgd voor een enorme overdaad aan gelijksoortige producten (massa consumptie), die aan gelijksoortige mensen (robots) moet worden verkocht.

Producten zijn steeds minder onderhevig aan slijtage en worden steeds sneller vervangen door nieuwe.

De teruggang van deel naar  geheel duurt steeds langer, waardoor de wereld gaat bezwijken aan de afvalstoffen die de controlspiraal produceert.

De behoeftespiraal is meegegaan met de uitdijende productiespiraal.

De mens neemt (desire) steeds meer en geeft steeds minder.

Het nemen van de gestandaardiseerde mens kan door de media steeds beter worden geprogrammeerd.

De afstand tot de aarde waarop het aardse leven en de aardse dood zich afspeelt wordt steeds groter.

De hoop op een oneindig leven op aarde (of nog mooier in cyberspace) neemt toe door ontwikkelingen in de DNA- en Nano-technologie en Virtual Reality.

Als de uiteinden van de spiralen zich verenigen blijft er uiteindelijk één mens over die de totale de macht over de schepping heeft verkregen en die beschikt over een oneindig groot leger van volgzame robots. Velen zien dan ook achter de uitdijende spiralen het werk van de duivel.

Als spiralen omhoog gaan, wordt altijd de creativiteit (eenheid, het scheppende, het unieke) en de emotie (eenheid, het gevende, balans herstellen, cooperatie, liefde) van de mens als eerste uitgeschakeld.

Het wordt tijd dat deze twee aspecten weer hun plaats krijgen. Als de balans niet door de mens wordt hersteld, wordt hij door een hogere kracht aangebracht.

Uiteindelijk is de potentie door de steeds sterker wordende uitrekkende krachten die er op worden uitgeoefend zo groot geworden, dat er een grote herordening moet optreden waarin er een enorme vernietiging (een contractie naar de eenheid, explosie van energie) zal plaatsvinden. De kentekenen van een naderende apocalyps zijn overal zichtbaar.

Wat kan PM hiermee?

Het is enorm moeilijk om als een exponent van de controlspiraal balans te vinden. De spiraal-beweging omhoog staat onder een enorme druk (een rat-race).

Spiritualiteit en technologie lijken twee moeilijk te verenigen uitersten te zijn. Ik ben er van overtuigd dat er een compromis te vinden is door de principes die in dit document zijn verwoord, verder uit te werken en toe te gaan passen.

In essentie moet er naast Verkoop (de behoeftespiraal) en R&D (de controlspiraal) een derde kracht wordt aangebracht die de Spirituele Cyclus op gang houdt en op deze cyclus op de  juiste plaats verbindt met de beide andere cycli (R&D en Verkoop).

Deze derde balancerende kracht[12] moet zich bezighouden met het bewerkstelligen van coöperatie binnen en buiten het bedrijf.

Daarnaast moet ze toezien op het toepassen van de menselijke maat in techniek en verkoop.

Ze heeft veel weg van een combinatie van Innovatie-management, Human Resources en een functie die zich bezighoudt met de ethiek van het bedrijf (ethisch ondernemen).

Het is voor mij duidelijk dat PPM een bedrijf is dat het aandurft om spiritualiteit met ondernemerschap te verbinden.

Veel van wat er zou kunnen gebeuren staat al in de presentaties naar voren gekomen in de gesprekken die ik met hem heb gevoerd. Spiritualiteit leeft bij PM. Er is geen enkele klant waar ik zoveel tijd aan dit onderwerp heb kunnen besteden. Vooral de gesprekken met Theodoor van Donge waren erg leerzaam, waarvoor grote dank.

Naast het inrichten van een balancerend proces zullen er ook fundamentele keuzen moeten  worden gemaakt. Het is de grote vraag of PM wil meegaan in de volgende stappen in de uitrekking van de control- en behoeftespiraal. Er zijn bijvoorbeeld al grote twijfels of men iets met de verslavende Media te maken wil hebben. Dit wil trouwens niet zeggen dat alle media de intentie hebben om de mens tot slaaf te maken.

De lange termijn vsisie van Hewlett Packard.

[1] zie http://www.it4humans.org/

[2] De eerste presentatie ging over Menselijke Emoties (samen met mijn zoon Johan Konstapel). De tweede ging over de gevolgen van doorslaande abstractie in de IT. Zie www.constable.nl

[3] J. Konstapel, Moving Up- and moving Down, October 2003

[4] Zie J. Konstapel, Vision Collaborative Learning

[5] Horowitz, L. M. (2004).  Interpersonal foundations of psychopathology.  Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association.

[6] Ik heb het vermoeden dat verdere uitwerking zal leiden tot een alles overdekkend componenten-model

[7] De beste manier om abstractie toe te passen is door gebruik te maken van zelf-referentie (fractals). Zelf-referentie heeft als positief punt dat er bij het uitpakken geen informatie verloren gaat. Vandaar dat in het product-model de term zaad is gebruikt. Op dit moment wordt zelf-refentie nog niet toegepast bij abstractie.

[8] Dit is bewezen door Gödel. Zie bijv het boek Gödel, Escher, Bach van Hofstadter.

[9] Zie de legende van de Golem http://www.ced.appstate.edu/projects/fifthd/legend.html en het verhaal van het monster van Frankenstein.

[10] Zie het sprookje Von dem Fischer und syner Fru van Jacob Grimm.


[11]  Zie http://www.snapxt.com/faq.html

[12] There are three basic laws: The Law of Assimilation (Every individualized object assimilates itself to all other objects), The Law of Individualization (Every object tends to assimilate all other objects to itself) and the Law of Dominant (Every such object is such by virtue of the higher or dominant force which controls these two tendencies).

About Collaborative Learning.

Written aug-2090.

There’s a Crack in Every Thing that’s how the Light gets in (Leonard Cohen).

The Spiritual Cycle of Walter Russell mapped on Paths of Change of Will McWhinney.
The creation spiral. Based on Path of Change.

The picture in Chapter 2 about the Collaboration-cycle is based on The model behind Paths of Change of Will McWhinney .

Behind the PoC model we find a simple 1-dimensional (<->)model called the Great Breath.

It is a rhytmic pattern of Contraction and Expansion you can see in the four pictures above. Both show the Creation Cycle.

The 1-dimensional 2×2 model can be visualized in many dimensions because the model is a fractal.

Expansion and contraction join in a point (Bindu) called a singularity and produce the energy to e-move when the void and the not-void are fused. Just like matter and anti-matter the fusion creates the Light. of Insight.

The Light of Insight happens when the two parts that are a contradiction fuse.

This fusion was first described in the Book the Act of Creation in 1964 by Arthur Koestler. He called it Bisociation.

Much later (2002) Gilles Fauconnier & Mark Turner (The Way We Think) proved that Koestler was right.

1. What is Collaborative Learning?

The concept of Collaborative Learning is used in many contexts.

Examples are:

1.1 Education

Collaborative Learning in Education refers to an instruction method in which students at various performance levels work together in small groups toward a common goal.

The students are responsible for one another’s learning as well as their own.

Collaborative learning fosters the development of critical thinking through dialogue, clarification of ideas, and evaluation of others’ ideas.

For collaborative learning to be effective, the instructor must view teaching as a process of developing and enhancing students’ ability to learn.

The instructor’s role is not to transmit information, but to serve as a facilitator.

1.2 Communities of Practice.

Communities of Practice are groups of people who share information, insight, experience, and tools about an area of common interest. 

A community’s focus could be on a professional discipline, a skill, a topic, an industry or a segment of a production process.

They focus on practical aspects of a practice, everyday problems, new tools, developments in the field and things that work and don’t work.

1.3 Evolutionary Development

The aim of Evolutionary Development (ED) is to deliver value to all of the participants (the stakeholders) within the available budget and the agreed time frame.

ED is used when the environment is instable and/or there are many different participants (stakeholders) involved that have possible conflicting interests.

The requirements are discovered in an iterative process by evaluating tangible results (prototypes).

Priorities about the functionality of a prototype are decided by the collective (developers and stakeholders).

A prototype is extended in a next iteration or completely rebuild. 

ED is a group activity. The project team focuses its energy towards success in the current step.

They succeed or fail together.

ED is about learning from hard experience what really works, and what really delivers value.

1.4 Action Research

Action research comprises a family of research methodologies, which aim to pursue action and research outcomes at the same time.

There are four basic themes: i) collaboration through participation; ii) acquisition of knowledge; iii) social change; and iv) empowerment of participants.

The process that the researcher uses to guide those involved can be seen as a spiral of action research cycles (iterations) consisting of phases of planning, acting, observing and reflecting. The underlying assumption is that effective social change depends on the commitment and understanding of those involved in the change process. 

2. A High Level Model of Learning and Collaboration.

The picture below describes a high level model of collaborative learning.

The model contains many cycles. The main cycles are related to learning and collaboration. The other cycles connect the learning and collaboration-cycle.

Collaboration and learning are active in their own space (the physical context and the social context) and join in mental space (the internal state of a person).

A special part of mental space is the imagination.

It creates the sense of a personal identity in the social context.  

The Physical Context.

The physical context consists of public space and private space  (in a home). This context contains things (objects, bodies, cars, tools, houses, books).

Causal chains relate the objects.

In the physical context a person is an object (being part of a causal chain) or an observer (looking at the context).

To the observer it looks like the physical context operates on its own. There is a limited amount of personal control possible. 

The physical world is the place where people learn because they have to react (to an event).

Virtual Space is a growing part of the physical context.

It is a space created by a simulator (e.g. software). At this moment, the Internet is the main provider of virtual spaces.

Earlier examples of simulators are stories, plays, movies and books.  Virtual space simulates the three other spaces.

This simulation is not perfect. Many things are (at this moment) impossible in Virtual Space (e.g. touching). Virtual Space makes it possible to support learning (e.g. Books, E-Learning) and collaboration (e.g. Communication, Groupware).

The Social Context.

People learn in a social context how to build up and sustain long-term relationships. It impossible to create anything without the help of others. Therefore people need to cooperate.

The social context (also called culture) is the world of relationships, collaboration and competition. 

People and things in this world are intentional (purposeful). A person can engage (connect)itself in all kinds of stages with others in the social context.

When people connect with other people they create networks (configurations).

Human beings want to control or be controlled by the social context (dominance, submission).

In a social context, people can be seen as actors. They play roles (on a stage, observed by the audience). Their roles are described by social rules (script, scenario’s, role-patterns).

Relationships can be rewarding (creating self-esteem) or can deny the existence (the identity) of the actor.

Mental Space.

This world is the private inner space of a human being. This space is created by the imagination.

It contains images, inner dialogues, feelings, moods, emotions and expectations. Mental space is related to the physical context by the senses.  It is related to the social context by the emotions (empathy).

3. Learning.

Learning is a process of adaptation to the inside (the body) or the outside environment of the learner.

To adapt to the environment the learner has to see a difference (focus). 

This difference has to motivate the learner to perform a short-term (a reflex, a reaction) or a long-term action (a plan).

A short-term action is controlled by the existing action patterns (the behavior).

A long-termaction sometimes needs a change of behavior.

3.2. Learning by Acting.

Most learning is based on copying the behavior of others (e.g. the parents in childhood). The copying behavior creates internal scripts (action patterns, experience). The patterns are changed when a person acts and an expectation failure is encountered. To solve the failure a new action pattern has to be created. This pattern can be directly copied from an expert (by observing), can be shared with an expert (by storytelling) or the new pattern can be created by problem solving (exploring).

It is possible to learn in mental space by imagining the physical context, the social context and even mental space. Mental Space is controlled by its owner (the consciousness and unconsciousness, the will). This will is resistant to change.

2.3.3. Abstraction and Reflection

In mental space the bodily action patterns can become conscious. If this happens, they are translated into internal images (by the intuition). The images become mental models.

The concepts in the images are named (using words) and the relations between the concepts (verbs) become definitions of the concepts (knowledge).  In this way, they can be used for reasoning. Must concepts in the real world are fuzzy. They have many interpretations.

In science, concepts have to be well defined to make effective reasoning (creating an “logical” expectation) possible.

Reflection is a process that starts an internal query in mental space. The process is started by asking questions (mostly why, what & how-question). The internal query reorders mental space. It creates connections between concepts, images and feelings that were until that time unrelated. 

Abstraction (categorization) is a process that observes mental space and compresses a set of concepts into higher order concepts. They make the world more simple (sometimes too simple).

2.3.4. Learning Styles.

Learning Styles.

People develop preferences for different learning styles. There are a four learning styles.

1.Reflective Observation (logs, journals, brainstorming).

The learner is mainly concerned with the why-question. They want to understand the problem and need time to reflect.

2. Abstract Conceptualization (lecture, papers, analogies).

The learner is mainly concerned with the what-question (abstraction). This is a learner who works on his own and uses theory readings

3. Active Experimentation (simulations, case study).

The learner learns by exploring. The teacher should be a model of a professional, leaving the learner to determine her own criteria for relevance of materials.

4.Concrete Experience (laboratories, field work, observations).

The learner is mainly concerned with the how-question. He wants to apply what he learns in practice.

The last two learning styles participate easily in a collaborative learning approach. People with the first two learning styles are mostly working and learning alone.

They can have an important contribution in a collaborative learning environment by generating new ideas or by creating a model that helps to understand the whole.

2.3.5. Educational Content.

In most of the learning-processes the physical and the social context is simulated (abstracted) and therefore operates in virtual space.

In virtual space the learner acquires knowledge.

At a certain moment the learner has to move from virtual space to the physical or social context. He has to act.

At that moment, the real learning-process takes place (acquiring experience, internalization).

Knowledge is abstracted experience (rules, concepts).

If knowledge is valuated (in terms of money) it becomes intellectual capital

If knowledge is transformed in virtual space it becomes educational content.

Educational content is standardized by international standards (e.g. SCORM).

The content is created by Learning Content Management Systems and can be used by Learning Management System.

There is huge amount of standardized educational content available on the market.

Most of the content is about abstract (generic) subjects (e.g. accounting, programming).

2.3.6. From Programming to Exploring

The current learning-process is a top-down linear process where the teacher programs (using a curriculum) the learner to become an expert.  It takes a lot of time and money to create a curriculum and the educational content related to this curriculum. This is only possible if the environment is stable.

The main idea behind the current process is the concept of a linear life cycle where a person is trained at his youth, works when he is an adult and rests when he is old. 

The speed of change in the physical and social context is disturbing this concept.

People have to adapt constantly to new external conditions (life long learning) and have to work, rest and learn in shorter cycles.

The educational system is incapable to adapt the curriculum and the teachers to the external changes.

The system is highly resistant to change. It will stay in place for a long time producing experts that are not adequately prepared for their professional life.

The training of professionals is therefore taken over by companies or people take care of their own education.

Companies and self-guided learners do not want to spend too much time transforming abstract knowledge into experience.

The solution is to incorporate learning in the work-processes (the practice) itself.

2.4. Collaboration

2.4.1. Introduction.

Collaboration is a process where a group of people (a network) works together to reach a common goal.

There are two types of collaboration: cooperation and alliance.

In an alliance the actors are independent but share a common goal.

In cooperation the goals and the resources of the actors are shared

2.4.2. The Value of Cooperation

Social capital theory looks at the value of collaboration.

Collaboration accumulates Social Capital.

In contrary to competition, in collaboration, the value of the connections among individuals or groups of individuals is considered high.

This quality is measured in terms of:


Reciprocity, defined as the mutual or cooperative interchange of favors or privileges, is key to maintaining productive long-term relationships. When reciprocity is assured (based on observed behavior),

individuals are more willing to help others, as they know they can expect the same in return (“returning the favor”).

When reciprocity is transformed in the exchange of objective value (money), relationships can become short-term relationships (hit and run).


Trust comes in three forms:

1.Thick trust

Thick trust is embedded in personal relationships that are strong, frequent and nested in wider networks (for example, you may trust your best friend with a loan).

2. Thin trust.

Thin trust rests on a background of social norms (“altruism”) and expectations of reciprocity (for example, you stay late at work to reply to an urgent e-mail from a coworker).

3 Transitive trust,

Transitive trust extends a trust-relationship to a wider radius, by bridging various thick trust relationships (for example, if your best friend vouches for someone, you may lend them some money as well). Transitive trust is how separate networks are interconnected or people are integrated into groups.

Humans learn social scripts (role-patterns) by the sanctioning (approval, disproval) of their parents when they are young. These scripts are internalized and control a major amount of the emotions. When people stay together for a long time, the social scripts that are shared become externalized and are transformed into laws (state and religion) and social norms.  Socials norms are highly determinated by the roles people play in a profession (e.g. a doctor).

A network of cooperating (or competing) individuals needs working rules. Formal laws themselves are often major sources of working rules especially when backed with close monitoring and sanctioning by public institutions

The difference between working rules and formal laws depends on the contexts in which the working rules operate and the extent that formal laws apply to those contexts.  When people from different professions, cultures and legal systems work together, the collaborative environment has to provide working rules, laws and institutions of its own to cope with the diversity available.

No formal laws can completely cover the problems arising in daily life. However, when the mandates from relevant laws and official regulations are deemed impractical or improper, individuals have to create their own working rules. It must be possible to revise, monitor en sanction the rules without getting into a fatal conflict. Therefore, the collaborative network needs a legal and authorities identity of its own (a replacement for the mother of father in childhood).

In some cases, (a company, a project or a learning environment) this authority (manager, project-manager, teacher) is already available. When it comes to social actions, the creation of a formal power can become the cause of the end of the collective process.

2.4.3. Control and Engagement.

Interpersonal theory looks at the world from the perspective of relationships.

According to attachment theorists, the infant’s attachment system keeps the child close and connected to the adult, thereby increasing the child’s chances of surviving infancy. 

As children come to feel sufficiently secure in their attachment to the caretaker, they separate from the caretaker and explore the environment, a first step toward autonomy. People are able to connect with others if they are working in a secure environment (simulating the parent).

When a person initiates an interaction with another person, the other assumes that the behavior is motivated (purposeful).

When an important goal is satisfied, the person experiences a positive emotion; when it is frustrated, the person experiences a negative emotion like sadness or anger. 

Internal motivations can be conflicting. This can result in serious mental disorders.

The interpretation of the motivation of the other is often ambiguous leading to misunderstanding and even conflict. To resolve these potential conflicts an open dialogue is necessary where people make their motives clear to others (and themselves).

Motivational constructs (desire, motive and personal striving) can be conceptualized in two very broad, abstract categories, namely, engagement and control. 

An engagement is   a motive for a connection with one or more others;

it is a motive to participate in a larger union with other people. 

An engagement can range from indifferent (no connection) to love (a complete connection).

Control emphasizes the self as a distinct unit; it focuses on the person’s own individual influence, control, or mastery over the self, other people, and the environment.  Control can range from dominating to submitting.

Interpersonal behavior can be described with the so-called interpersonal circumplex. This is a widely tested model that predicts the reaction of a person to a motive (a combination of control and engagement) of the other.

Types of Networks

The motivational behavior of a person is more or less determined in his youth. People that are extreme in the engagement/control-matrix  (e.g. indifferent to the other, too dependent, very dominant or submissive) are unable to work in a collaborative manner.

2.4.4. Purposeful  Systems

Figure 1: System principles

Figure 1: System principles

Systems theory looks at the world from a control perspective.

Systems theory evolved from the analysis and prediction of the behavior of mechanical systems (machines) and one-mind systems (hierarchies) to multi-mind-systems (networks). 

Multi-minded systems are a voluntary association of purposeful members who themselves manifest a choice of both ends and means.

Mechanical or biological models cannot explain behavior of a system whose parts display a choice.

A purposeful system is part of a larger purposeful whole.

At the same time, it has purposeful individuals as its own members.

Aligning the interest of the purposeful parts with each other and that of the whole is the main challenge of the system.

The elements of multi-minded systems are information-bonded.

Riding a horse (in the physical context) is an example.

Horse and driver have complementary skills (moving and guiding) and share experience.

It matters to the horse who the rider is and it matters to the rider what horse he is riding.

A proper ride can be achieved only after a series of information exchanges between the horse and the rider.

Horse and rider form an information-bonded system,in which guidance and control are achieved by an agreement that is renewed every time the goal changes.

The agreement is based on a common perception (sensing at the physical context) and preceded by a psychological contract (control and engagement in the social context).

The members of a network are held together by one or more common goals and collectively acceptable ways of pursuing them (a community of practice).

The members share values that are embedded in their culture. The culture is the cement that integrates the parts into a cohesive whole.

Nevertheless, since the parts have a lot to say about the organization of the whole, consensus is essential to the alignment of a multi-minded system. To enforce consensus an authoritive institution that resolves conflicts is needed.

Important concepts in purposeful systems theory are:

Emergent Behavior

In a mechanical system the parts determinate the behavior of the whole.

In a one-minded system (a corporation), the control-center (the operating system) coordinates determinates the behavior of the parts with mostly hierarchical power.

The relationships between the parts are mainly fixed by organizational structures. In a purposeful system the parts are much smaller.

The parts are individuals or small groups of individuals that can be easily connected and disconnected. The behavior of the whole is now related to a possible interaction-pattern of the parts (a configuration).

Changing the relationships between a few parts (e.g. rearranging certain relationships between people and/or tools, one person leaving a company) can change the behavior of the whole dramatically.


Concepts are in the old systems-paradigm described as a dichotomy. They exclude each other.

In a dichotomy a rational choice is possible (A or B).

In a purposeful environment concepts are often complementary, related and circular (extremes meet in the same point).

A combination of N complementary concepts generates a N-dimensional dependency-matrix in which the relationships are not linear (there are often based on a power- or scale free distribution).

In terms of collaboration not only the win-lose-relation exists (competition) but also lose-lose and win-win are possible outcomes of a process.


In a purposeful environment, actions intended to produce a certain outcome can generate the opposite result.

The main reason is that cause and effect relations are not linear chains.

Events can start multiple chains. Chains can be circular and effects can be delayed.

The best way to describe the behavior of a purposeful system is chaos-theory (fatal attractors).

Phase Changes

A quantitative change, beyond a critical point, results in a qualitative change (a new structure).

The system jumps to a new state-space. Just before the change occurs the system shows chaotic behavior and is not controllable.

System can stay in an old state for a long time (meta stable behavior).

Moving forward or moving back during a state-change creates different results. In a state-change it is sometime necessary to start al over again because the rules of the old situation are not applicable anymore.

Purposefull wholes (not parts) resist change

Purposefull wholes (e.g. cultures, technologies) stabilize in time.

At that moment they resist change.

The social norms and the community of practice act as a filter (a boundary) for the parts (new tools, new people) to get in or stay in the system.

People that are fond of structures (crafstman) stay. People that like change (innovators) leave. The whole is determinated to die in due time. 

2.4.5. Communication.

Communication Types.

To collaborate people have to communicate.

The most used model in communication is the sender/receiver-model also called the conduit-model.

People send and receive knowlegde put into containers (e.g. content, email, documents).

The sender/receiver-model supposes that the brain converts ideas directly into words and that another person can easily draw out the meaning of the ideas from the words.

It assumes little effort to understand or interpret what is being conveyed.

The sender/receiver-model only works if there is common space (similar motives, ideas, knowledge and perception) that is shared by the people involved in the collaboration process.

In reality, this is mostly not the case especially when experts are communicating with laymen.

The dialogue between an expert and a layman is often a monologue. The expert has to inform the layman about what is happening, he has to explain his ideas.

The layman has to find the right questions to get a proper understanding.  If people are similar it is possible to have a dialogue.

If people are too different, they have to invest time to understand (ask unsophisticated questions) and explain their ideas (inventions) in many ways.

It also takes time to generate trust.

Ideas of others have to be tried out (in the imagination or in the real world) to understand them. People have to have the opportunity to fail and learn from their own mistakes.

Sometimes they generate personal inventions that can be given back to the others to create reciprocity.

Eventually ideas create new personal patterns that can be shown and praised by others. 

Collaboration does not take place instantly but evolves in a cycle where the pleasure of finding things out is the motivator. 

2.5. Conclusion.

In the previous chapters collaborative learning is looked at from very different angels. 

The model in Chapter 2.2 is hopefully explained and validated.

In this chapter a few conclusions are formulated that can be used as a guideline to create a collaborative learning environment.

2.5.1. Short Term Cycles

The physical and the social context are changing fast.

To accomodate the vast amount of changes a highly adaptable (goal seeking) structure is needed.

One of the basic concepts behind collaborative learning is short term cycles (or iterations).

In the model in chapter 2.2. not all the possible cycles are shown.

The current model identifies 24 steps (4X3X2) that can be connected. They make many paths (possible rotations with and/or against the clock with or without crosses and jumps in dimension, knots) of change possible.

2.5.2. Decision Support

Every time when a step is realized the environment has to be sensed and a proper diagnosis determinates the next step.

To do this an advanced system of monitoring is needed.

2.5.3. Conflict Management.

Moving from one step to another step generates a possible conflict.

These conflicts can be resolved by making use of people that are more or less born to solve the conflict.

The main resistance to change comes out of the community of practice.

Steps like abstraction (changing a the process-model of the working processes) or allocating resources (changing priorities in the working process) are not liked.

2.5.4. Action Orientation

It is possible to cycle in the model for a long time without getting in to action.

This possibility has to be prevented by moving fast into the social or physical context.

Gaining experience by failing has to get a top priority.

2.5.5. Tools.

Every step or combination of steps can be supported by tools in virtual space. It is often the case that physical context (abstraction, Head up in the air) dominates the social context (Feet on the ground).

Therefore the involvement of the users of the tools is necessary to make sure that the tools are usable and are an improvement to the working processes.

2.5.6. Focus on community of practice

In Chapter 2.1. the most interesting example of collaborative learning is the community of practice.

Behind the idea of the community of practice is the concept of apprenticeship.

The practice has to be acquired (a learning environment for students)  and changed (evolutionary design).

My advice is to focus the development effort on supporting communities of practice.

2.5.7. What is the next step?

The next step is to start a collaborative learning process to develop a collaborative learning environment.

The next chapter chapter contains a suggestion how to start this process.

3. The Development Process

The development process of the collaborative learning environment is a collaborative learning-process of its own. In this chapter, the major steps in the process are described.

The model in chapter 2.2 is used. To create a collaborative process more than one person has to be involved.

3.1.  Define the Context (The Marketplace)

The first step is to define the social and physical context (the marketplace) you want to look at. The learning process could be defined as a (Future) company with a commercial goal. In this case the hours people invest could be multiplied with a realistic price per hour and the initial costs could be shared.

Please make sure that the “company” will earn enough money on the short term to break even.

When this point is reached the collective could decide to scale up.

Please forget not to stop when break-even does not takes place.

3.2. Evaluate: What is happening in the marketplace?

In this step,you have to look at the context and find out what is happening in the domain of (collaborative) learning.

This step is a collective step. The major stakeholders have to be involved. A workshop or a brainstorm-session is the best approach. The outcome of this step has to be a clear understanding of the issue and a shared motive (values and direction) to get into action.

To give input to a workshop a list of possible expectation-failures and a simple analysis (the main causes behind it all) is provided in this chapter.

3.2.1. What are the expectation-failures The Company could be experiencing?

The Company is a collaborative operation situated possibly in many countries (and cultures) and is providing a solution to support collaboration (of software-components and people).

The main problems, related to learning and collaboration, that The Company is experiencing are:

  • Insufficient internal and external knowledge transfer
  • Complex coordination between different internal (e.g. India, The Netherlands) and external producers.
  • Complex coordination between internal and external projects
  • Involving the customer in the development process
  • Explaining the product and the service
  • Defining a long term strategy
  • Positioning the product
  • Creating a network (of practice)
  • Unable to define the right components
  • Responsibilities marketing and R&D

3.2.2 Analysis

For a long time people believed that, the world had entered a period of sustained growth (the long boom) that could eventually double the world’s economy every dozen years. New waves of technology would lead to big productivity increases that would cause high economic growth.

The long boom assumed an evolutionary process where governments, companies and consumers could easily absorb new waves of technologies.

In practice, new technologies act as a shockwave.  Every time when companies become aware of the shockwave (a hype), they react quickly.

The wave acts as a threat (the competition will beat us if we don’t act) and at the same time as an attractor (it will generate high benefits for us if we win). Therefore, everybody starts to experiment, sometimes on a very large scale.

After a long time best practices emerge and the new technology is absorbed.  At that moment it becomes often clear that the technology has a completely different effect than everybody thought it would have. Most of the time there are many losers and a few winners.

Not many technologies keep their promise (e.g. Client/Server, E-Commerce). The frequency of shockwaves is much higher than the absorption time of the new technology.

The effect is that companies are in many stages of adoption at the same time. More and more managers are very skeptic and hesitant to start a new absorption wave. They are left with many layers of software. Some of the software-layers are so old that almost nobody knows what is does or how to get rid of it.

Most of the companies first want to clean the mess of all the waves that hit their company before they start with something new.

The big problem is that the software-industry never stops to launch new shockwaves and nobody knows for sure if the new wave (perhaps for the first time) will keep its promise or his threat.

Behind the scene, something else is happening. Western culture is encountering a paradigm shift. Slowly the era of rationalism is ending. 

The rationalists were obsessed by objectivity and perfection. In their view, objectivity and perfection can only be accomplished by controlling the subjective parts, the emotions (detracting the brain) and the imagination (creating illusions) by the logical reasoning of the intelligent calculating machine, the brain.

The rationalists created the big corporations (with the brain at the top), the general-purpose computer (with the brain in the operating system) and the standardized mass production systems that eliminated the craftsman and replaced him with the perfect objective human, the robot.

The brain is not capable to understand the effects of his interventions in nature and society anymore. His aim to control has the opposite effect. Nature and society are complex systems with many unknown short-term and long-term feedback loops.

The new paradigm takes its metaphors out of biology. The world consists of numerous networks of cooperating and competing human agents. A network is uniquely determined by its human- and technology-patterns. These patterns act as an imaginary boundary.

They shield the network from changes in the environment.  New participants have to learn to use the technology and the internal procedures to survive in the network. The behavior of the human participants in a network changes slowly. When they do not like the network, they move to another. Human members come and go but the technology-patterns of the network stay alive.

On a high level, we can see that the opening of a new space of possibilities causes the movement of all the networks. When one of the networks moves into the new space, others have to follow in due time. The movement of a network can be slowed down by physical boundaries (islands, mountains), physical space itself (traveling) and cultural boundaries (languages).

The invention of symbols opened up mental space. It caused a major change in human society by enabling the creation of writing, mathematics and the development of the automatic calculator, the Computer. The Internet is opening a vast new space (Cyberspace) of new opportunities on two levels. It makes new technology-patterns possible and it facilitates the bridging of human networks (communication). The last factor will speed up of the movement of networks heavily. New networks and new patterns of behavior (products, services, cultures) will arise (and fade away) that nobody has ever imagined.

The Internet is enabling a level of collaborative creativity that was not possible before. The corporations try to manage the collaborative creativity by giving the customer a choice (mass customization), speeding up the product development processes by introducing advanced systems of product life cycle management and involve the customer in de product-design (customer-innovation). Outside the corporations, consumers and small flexible specialized companies merge spontaneously into networks that produce unique products that carry the signature of the craftsman again.  In the future big corporations, consumers and small-scale businesses will merge and create a completely new business-ecology.

The Internet and its new general purpose technology-patterns will make it possible to move down to the human scale of cooperation, the network. By connecting the networks, the world will move up to a level of collaboration that was never possible before in history.

 3.3. Intent: Why do we want to create the new environment?

3.4. Abstract: What do we want to create?

3.5. Design: How do we want to create the new environment?

4. Collaboration

4.1. Create: What Roles and Role-patterns will we use?

4.2. Interest: How do we involve other people?

4.3. Allocate: What resources can we use?

5.  Action

About Meta-Engineering

This blog is about a new foundation of Technology and Science . This foundation is found deep in the Imagination where we create our Reality,

This blog is in honour of Edsger Wiebe Dijkstra who was a short time in 1969 my teacher at Leiden University when Computer Science was still a part of Mathematics.

Edsger Dijkstra never stopped to find the foundation of IT in Mathematics.

Programming is one of the most difficult branches of applied mathematics; the poorer mathematicians had better remain pure mathematicians (Edsger Wiebe Dijkstra).

An Inter
view with Edsger Wiebe Dijkstra.

Later in this blog I introduce Kent Palmer who did 4 times a PHD on Meta-engineering.
If Edsger Dijkstra would live today he would be very happy with Functional Programming (FP). In FP a Program is a Mathematical Function and Data is called a Type. In terms of a “normal” language A Program is a Function is a Verb and Data is a Type is a Noun. A Noun is a nominalization of a Verb. In terms of Time A Function is a Dynamic/ Moving/Movie, A Noun is static is a Photo or a Frame in the Movie. The Difference bewteen FP and “normal” Programlanguages is that FP can be proven just like a mathematical theory.

In this blog you will see that Meta-Mathematics provides the key to a new software-foundation and going one level deeper to a better understanding of Physics.

This blog is about the Art of Making Tools that Support Humans in every step of their Life where Making is Implementing models based on a Vision that rises out of a Collective.


“The more automated machines are, the less we rely on our own skills. But instead of relying less on automation to improve our skills, we instead rely even more on automation.”

Every New Innovation in IT makes us More Dependent on this Innovation .

Image result for What is King Solomonbaby sword"
King Solomon Solves a Wicked Problem by Introducing a not-Desirable Technical Solution..

Technology (and Science) is (and Politics are)the Cause and the Solution of many Wicked Poblems.

The reason is that Politicians forget to look at Reality and Engineers forget to look at the Users of their systems or forget to look at the Impact of their Systems on society or Nature.

In the end the problem looks Unsolvable and the engineers start with a New (Better?) Approach (technique, method).

Wicked Problems Generate New wicked problems when they are Solved and often end up in a Huge (Social) Conflict between the Stakeholders.

wicked problems are Solved by System Thinking combined with Collaborative Learning. and High Order Cybernetics (Circular Models, Many Iterations and Feedback Loops).

Controlled by a Special Type of Dialoque initially invented by the Physicist David Bohm (chosen by Einstein as his successor) in Cooperation with the Indian Philosopher Jiddu Krishnamurti. (initially chosen by the Theosophical Society to become the Maytreya) Written about in the book On Dialoque by David Bohm.

About Mental Space.
Collaborative Learning contains 3 connected Cycles connected in a Cycle. The )sub-cycles) operate in a Social Context, Mental Space and Physical Space. This model is an application of one level of Paths of Change (see Part 2 of this Blog).
The Circular Paths of Change applied to System Development. See Part 2 of this Blog. The Cycle consists of 4 Independent Points of View consists of >12 steps because every connection between two Points of View is Bilateral. Observe that the cycle is a Square and that every Square that is a Point of View can be divided in Cycles. that can be divided in Cycles (etc, etc)that Move With and/or Against the Clock.

In this Blog I Ttry to develop a Circular (Cyclic) Context-Dependent View on Technology.

Wicked Problems involve Many Stakeholders with different Values and Priorities, Issues with Roots that are Complex and Tangled. Problems that are Difficult to come to grips with and that Change with every Attempt to address them.The challenge has No Precedent. There’s Nothing to indicate the Right answer to the problem.Wicked problems can be Solved by Applying Paths of Change (Part 2)

About Dialoque Mapping:

About Dialoque Mapping.

=>List of Chapters.

Part 0: Introduction. This chapter written in a Dualistic Style ends with a Video of a Presentation of Neil Theise about Non-Dual Realism which Could Be the Theme of this Entire post.

Part 1 Managing Complex Engineering Projects using COLLIN.(Collective Intelligence) developed by Engineers of the Technical University Delft. Collin contains a Video of the Geometric Process-Model developed by Theo Lohman. This model has a lot in common with Paths of Change.

If you are Only interested in Managing Complex Engineering projects you can find a very extensive Dissertation about this subject in this part. If you want to know more you can also Contact me.

Part 2 about Change management and Paths of Change.(PoC), a very Old Philosophy highly related to the Research of Carl Jung about the Quaternion.

Paths of Change are fractal Cyclic (CirCular) models that combine many Independent Points of View (Worldviews).

in Part 3 I introduce you to the work of Kent Palmer. He defined Schema Theory as a theoretical Framework for system Design. A Schema is a 2xN-Dimensional Frame

Part 4 Why Meta-Systems, are a Schap (Scape). and why the Future lies behind the HORIZON which is where Infinity(the point we will never reach) is situated.

A scape (in for instance in landscape) is a horizontal (2×2) frame we use to project verything we See (“insight“).

A Meta-System is a scape that contains a scape (ad infinitum). We almost always forget to take the context into account when we design changes with a high impaqt.

About Projective Geometry, Space-Time, the Chronotope and the Philosophy of Bhaktin .

Bhaktin found a Pattern behind all the Books of World Literature he Read when he was imprisoned for lifetime in Stalin’s Gulag Archipel.

Part 5 is about Phenomenology

: a theory about what we as Embodied HUmans are able to See with our Emotions.

Part 6 About Ancient Science of Egypt .

Part 7 About Predicting Dreams and the Role of consciousness in Design.

Designs are not created out of nothing but are Received in our dreams from the Spirits (Gins) that Inspire us.
inner self
A Gini is a Gardian Angel that acts as the Higher Self. The Higher self is able to see the Past and the Future from the Now.

Part 8: About WHoles, holes and Holons.

Part 9; How the Future influences the Past. This is a result of Feynmann Wheeler Absorber Theory

Part 10. about Cycles TechnologyCycles, and Why Synchronization is the cause of Hypes.

In this chapter I show that it is possible to Predict the Future of Technology with a very high Accuracy.

This Cycle was known 1000nds of years ago and used to Predict the Future of Kings and States.

Part 11. about Industries, Meta-Industries,

Why a City is an Organism and why engineers have to become Ecology-managers.

Our Industry is destroying not only Earth but also our particles (CERN) and our Body (with Chemicals). We have to believe in our Biofield.

Part 12: About Creativity and Innovation (TRIZ & ASIT).ASIT is about Thinking In the Box.

Part 13:: About the Philosophy of Technology.

Part 14: About Cybernetics.

Part 15: About Art and Meta-Art. Why Modern Art is a Technology.

PArt 16 About Webs. Who is weaving the web we Live in?

Part 17 ABout Intuition, and Mathematics with many Links about Proof-and Type-theory.

and new developments in Meta-MetaMathematics (The SymbolScape) .

Part 18: About Schema-theory and Duality(Link to Document of Kent Palmer with a personal explanation of his theory.

Part 19: About Magic as a Technology. Do spirits exist? (Link to Presentation about Egyptian Magic).

Part 20: About Rhetorics, the Art of Memory and the relarionship between Rhetorics and Music.

With memory (Akasha) we keep the World Alive.

Part 21: About Architecture in Building and Software.

What is Beauty, What is a Living Building?

About Quality and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance.

About Lila, Dynamic Quality and Quantum Mechanics.

About Christopher Alexander and the Luminous Ground.

Part 22: Looking for a Theory of everything

Part 23: About Stuff and Things.

Part 24: About the Conformal Bootstrap.

Part 25: Conclusion.

The End: Bookeeping of this Blog.

Part 0: Introduction

I Started Writing this Blog on June 29th 2019.

I have spend Every Day until today to do Research or to write.

The blog shows you how to improve engineering perhaps by doing the Opposite of improving (not-Improving (maintenance, Keeping Alive) or the Opposite of the Opposite (destroying?, getting rid of?, clean up, transforming?) .

Engine-ering (Machineering) is about Making Remaking or Taking Care of something (a Seed?) or someone.

This Blog is still in Development but every part is worthwile.

Start where you want and move around.

This Blog is a Piece of (meta)-Art because It is Writing itself.

If you want to Look at a Summary of this Blog look at the Video Below about the Fundamental Awareness Model of Neil D. Theise and Kafatos.

Summary of the Summary: Everything that goes Wrong makes things Work and every New Theory we Detect is the result of an Observation at the Wrong Scale.

Engineering Innovates by Learning from the Mistakes off Others. We could even innovate by Generating Mistakes that generate Solutions to Problems that do not Exist.

Summary of the Summary of The Summary : Nature and Humans Experiment. (Just like Engineers do).

What looks like a Body at one Scale of Perception is Billions of Cells and Trillions of Molecules on Another Scale.

Life is an Autopoietic Machine which is a Machine organized as a Network of Processes of production of components which realize the network of processes that produce them.

Death caused by a Disaster is needed to invoke an Alternative Path to Improve Life.

We experience our ‘Selves’ as Both a current Set of EMERGING Feelings, Sensations, and Thoughts, as well as a Boundaryless Ocean of Memories and Imagination.

Our Universe is a Conscious Experience which expresses itself in novel ways for the purpose of Enriching Experience.

Non-Dual Conscious Realism ~ Neil Theise:

Part 1 Managing Big Engineering Projects.

Big engineering projects almost always fail (and are therefore highly Innovative).

This blog is written to improve Engineering or to create a new Type of engineering that is in tune with the Spirits of Nature. and founded on the most robust foundation of Science which is mathematics.

Thanks to Kent Palmer this blog will also bring systems-theory in line with the State of the Art in philosophy.

Out of the many documents of Kent Palmer I use you will see that he is trying to Recreate Ssystems-Theory from the Bottom. This Bottom is very old and lies in China, India and Egypt.

Imagining Nothing is Something but Nothing, “the VOID” (currently called the vacuum) , could contain the source of creation we always use when we make something out of nothing. (this is the essence of the Diamond Sutra).

After  a few lines my English Text Starts->

De inspiratie om te gaan schrijven ontstond toen ik door Harm Rozie in contact werd gebracht met ingenieurs die bezig waren met het verbeteren van hun vakgebied onder de noemer (First Time Right).

De reden is dat de meeste technologieprojecten die vaak meer dan een miljard kosten mislukken en dat het er op lijkt dat de aannemers erg veel baat hebben van dit mislukken omdat dan alles nog een keer of meer moet.

-> Part 1 : Collin.Managing Complex Projects

The amount of failing complex technology-projects is increasing.

I got in contact with a group of people connected to the Technical University of Delft who were trying to solve this problem.

One of them is Theo Lohman.

He developed a method called Collin (Collective Intelligence).

The model of Collin

Leo Ruijven, wrote a dissertation about Collin (and more) called : A unified framework improving interoperability and symbiosis in the field of Systems Engineering.

Kent Palmer has been busy in the US to solve the same problems in a completely different way.

Kent is building a new engineering theory he calls Schema Theory.

Theo and others have  developed Relatics . Relatics is a tool to support the making of project-documentation.

You can link documents to a common project-datamodel. The idea behind Relatics is that big projects fail because the participants loose oversight.

This can be prohibited  by making standardized documentation.Relatics is a manual tool. You have to make the projectmodel and the  links to the content/documentation by hand.

We (Alchemist BV) have developed a tool that makes a semantic-network  out of the content of a project using text-mining.

This tool can also be used to make a semantic network out of of any software-code.

THis tool is a result of a Big project (called Resolver) I started at ABN AMRO around 1991 to solve our big software integration problems caused by a merger under pressure.

After a long time of search and research all over the world we ended up at the CWI (Center for Mathematics and Informatics) close to our headquarters in Amsterdam where Paul Klint was developing a meta-parser. .

Alchemist is the result of research by Wim Goes to solve the problem that the rules of the parsers (“translators) of software-languages are changing all the time with every new language. or new version of the language.

To become future-proof we needed a general tool.

This tool was developed on top of an advanced text-mining-tools proving that a progam-language is nothing but a specialized human language with the same problems (“dialects”, etc) as human languages have.

Alchemist not only generates a semantic-network but it also detects patterns behind the many pieces of software and contextual textual content a company (or a network of companies) produces.

It shows the implicit progress of the activity of many people who look at the same context with a different view.

Part 2. Paths of Change (PoC)

Paths of Change taken out of the Book the Universal; One by Walter Russell.

I found out that Collin has a lot to do with Paths of Change (Poc) of Will Mcwhinney. The main reason is that PoC contains a widely applicable general framework that has been used for many ages in many cultures.

PoC is a Meta-Theory (or better a Meta-Praxis) that explains many theories (and philosophies).

PoC uses the concept of Worldview, a Sensory definition of a unique perspective at the world you live in. “

look/view” is not the right word because one of the worldviews is called  Sensory.

Poc has a lot in common with the Archetypes of Jung (Sensing, Thinking (Unity, Models, Rules), Feeling (Social, Emotions) and Intuiting (Mythic, Imagination).

The worldviews of PoC are orthogonal which means that the views are independent.

They are a 2×2 combination of Expansion (red) and Contraction (blue) often called the Cosmic Breath.

The most simpe representation of the Cosmic Breath is a two-side arrow (<->).

The four worldviews are independent and are a 2×2 combination of expansion and contraction

PoC is a fractal framework which means that Poc can be applied to  Itself.

Poc is also a clyclic framework which means that the views of the Paths of Change are connected in a cycle (and a meta-cycle (etc.) that moves With (Introvert) and   Against the cClock (Extravert) .

Poc also contains a center. (the cross) that can be seen as a Projection of Consciousness seen as the Observer.

Below a view on a Chinese model called the Five Elements Map.

The four corners of the square of PoC and the center of the Cross add up to Five Perspectives.

The Four + one center Elements come back in many Cultures and in Old and Recent Science.

As you can see the two directions of the movement are called destructive (Against the Clock, Consuming) and generative/ Productive.

The two movements connect and create a Moebius Ring (the number 8 ((infinity) FOR EVER).


Wicked and other Problems are solved by Making a connection between the Worldviews to create a cyclic Path of Change.

Every 2-combination (called a Game) of Worldviews is a step in a circular Path of Change is named with many names.

For instance Unitary<-> Sensory is called Make (Unity->Sens) or Analyze. (Sens->Unity). Sen-Unity is named the Analytical Game Sensory-Social, the Game of the Market. and Mythic-Social is the GAme that Creates Games.

Combinations of Steps are related to well known Methods. 4-Rotations with or against the Clock are High Level Resolution Paths called Renaissance(Rebirth) or REvitalization.

Later in this Blog you will see that there are many Theories that are easely mapped to PoC.


Garl Jung called the framework behind his Archetypes a Quaternion, a 4×4-square that contains complementary (“dual“) concepts (Senses/Facts vs Imagination), (Object/Unity) vs/Subject (Social).

Complementary concepts share the void when they are united. They are often called a Paradox.

The Quaternion has a lot in common with the Chinese  Lo Shu Magic square which is the “generator” of the ancient Chinese Cyclic Models.

The Lo-Shu was given to the mythical Emperor Yu before the great Deluge when he was sitting at the Yellow River.

The Lo Shu Magic Square was an important model for time and space and served as a basis for city planning, tomb design, and temple design. The Magic Square was used to designate spaces of political and religious importance.

The Lo Shu Square on the back of a small turtle surrounded by the signs of the Chinese zodiac

The Turtle is a synbol of Orion a constellation that played an important role in many ancient cultures.

The pyramids of Egypt were oriented at Orion and Sirius (the Dog Star).

The Dogon in Africa who knew a lot about ancient Egypt tell in their creation story about the extraterestials (the Nommos) that came from Sirius B to create life on Earth. They were the first engineers on earth.

Jung got a lot of his ideas out of a very long discussion about the dreams of Wolfgang Pauli, one of the creators of Quantum Mechanics.

A Quaternion is a square. A square can be divided by a line into two Triangels. The mathematical Triangle is highly related to the Spiritual triangel, the trinity .

The Triangel is also a Basic Building Block in Geometry.

The work of Kent Palmer is called Schema Theory.Schema Theory uses Mathematics  as a foundation and shows that the history of mathematics follows the history of Engineering. Both make use of the same ideas/concepts.

To me this is fine because  I am a trained mathematician.

The nice thing with mathematics is that most mathematicians are also philosopher because both need the same concepts to explain what they are looking for or have found.

Kent Palmer uses the concept of the Schema as a central frame to explain what is or was happening in Engineering . A Schema is a 2-dimensional frame.

Part 3: Kent Palmer About Naming SYstems

My Father was born in the center of the Netherlands called “de Veluwe”. His family spoke a different dialect as my mothers family.

Later I met other people with different dialects. I even found out that Science and Banking use their own dialect.

A Dialect is a unique way in which people speak a language that is often highly related to a shared language.

There are many ways to group dialects (Location, Social Class, Profession,.History, culture ..). Dialects can be highly confusing that’s why standardizing terminology is needed when you want to make enduring relationships. 

Bahktin, a Russian Philosopher spent his whole life researching literature.

Bahktin developed the concept of the Chronotope : “the intrinsic connectedness of temporal and spatial relationships that are artistically expressed in literature”.

Bahktin found many cycles (the Wheel of Life) that are explained by Paths of Change.

Bahktin wrote a lot about Systemscapes called a Context. He believed that structuring (Coding) kills a context by destroying its potential:

A context is potentially unfinalized; a code must be finalized. A code is only a technical means of transmitting information; it does not have cognitive, creative significance. Code is deliberately killed context.

ferris wheel under blue sky

In 1976 At ABN (a big bank) I was asked to take care of the Data and the Terminology of the bank (Data-Management). We used a special database called a Dictionary to store all the definitions of the data and their technical implementations in database, software and manual processes. The model of the Dictonary was called a Meta-Model.

After some time we found out that the meta-model was a self-reference (a fractal) and it all came back to my favorite subject I found when I was trained as a Computer Scientist at the University of Leiden by a group Scientists which included Edsger dijksta .

To teach us we  were given highly difficult problems we had to solve in a very short time using a highly limited computer (1969 CRI Leiden). I found out that the best solutions were Always Fractal.

Later the specifications of the software and the coding  were stored in the same dictionary now called a Repository.

Later I got into contact with many scientists that were highly interested in data and the meaning (semantics) of data.

In my fathers dialect  a  Plank was called a schap. In English Schap is called scape . A plank is a horizontal frame that is used to carry objects.

A LandScape is A portion of land or territory which the eye can comprehend in a single view, including all the objects it contains.

A Horizontal Frame can be seen from a Stake. A stake (“paal”) is a pointed foundation hit in the ground.

When you climb  the Stake you can see the Horizon.

When you climb you use a scale.The Horizon is a Horizon-tal Line.calm water with sun and orange skyPerspective (looking thhrough a hole) was invented by Painters in the Renaissance and was transformed into Projective Geometry that was transformed into the Model of Curved Space/Time that was used by Einstein when he developed Special Relativity Theory.

Alfred Durer demonstrates his Perspective Machine.

Vriendschap is called Friendship in English.

A Ship is a Scape. a horizontal frame floating on Water.

A Scape, a view or picture of a scene, has various synonyms: context, situation, environment, ecosystem, medium, milieu,or Gestalt.

In the linked document called Naming Systems Kent Palmer writes bout Meta-Systems, Meta-Systems float above normal Systems.

Meta  means about the thing itself. It’s seeing the thing from a higher perspective.

When you want to get oversight you have to go UP until you see the Horizon. UP is called Abstracting.

An Abstracted System is always simpler than the System itself. This means that Abstracting is leaving “things out”.

When the process of leaving things out is chaotic you will leave the relation between the Meta-System and the System it is about.

If this is the case the total development-process is in a mess.

To save the project or sometimes even the company you have to find all the content produced and reconstruct the genesis of the project to pick up the pieces.

When ABN and AMRO (another big Bank) were fused I was made co-responsible for this process.

To fuse the two banks we needed new technology (called reverse-engineering) to get the meaning out of all the stored content in many sometimes very old libraries called archives.

We even needed tools to extract the meaning out of operational software without source and object in in the state of a load module.

To save the bank we even had to look worldwide for solutions and got into contact with institutions (NASA) that finally pointed back to Scientists in the Netherlands.

This started an ongoing research-relationship until today in which we develop new tools to handle the new content (pictures, movies, ,,)  available and try to reach a higher level of understanding.

An important point to note is that software-engineers especially in highly complex businesses have perhaps solved more problems than the engineers that started the field of system-engineering.  I am sure that Kent Palmer is aware of this point.

Part 4:  Kent Palmer About Meta-Systems

Kent Palmer wrote a document: The Advance of the Systems Engineering Discipline through an understanding of Meta-systems theory.

To write This part I have copied ltext out of the document but have also added pieces of my own thinking/out of my own practice.

Paths of Change (PoC) contains connected Steps that are defined by a World-View. A World is a long period of time. The steps always end at the same step. That is why PoC is called a Cycle.

A world-view is about looking in a special way or at a special direction at a scape.

As we already saw we are looking Up into the sky when we are abstracting. When we have abstracted (made things simpler) we have developed a theory.

When we apply/use the theory we are practising. Practice is about going Down until we are standing with our feed on the ground (earth).

We can also look backwards (the Beginning, Creation, History) or forwards (Future, Horizon).

Systems Engineering can be viewed as a practical discipline and Systems Theory as an academic pursuit.

A dual is a mirror of paired concepts. Theory and practice are duals.Their mirror is the reverse of a  process we call abstracting.

A Mata-System is a dual of a System but it is not necessary that the reverse-process is a mirror.

A System has an environment or ecosystem (” or a Scape) that surrounds it and which it is embedded in. This use of “meta” means beyond (or part of or connected to )  rather than above.

In this case systems can even live (or interact) in their-Scape.

Systems (in terms of theories) can even be tested in their Meta System without going from theory to practice.Perhaps practice does not need theory or practice is ahead of theory.

The only thing we have to detect is the stake we have climbed to see the horizon of the system or what is behind its horizon.

Systems Theory should learn from Systems Engineering. But there are equally many places where the reverse is true.

Systems Theory has no practical side that allows it to generate problems for the academics to solve. But on the other hand Systems Engineering lacks the theoretical foundation that will allow it to ground its practice.

It can appropriate Systems Theory but really it needs not just a Systems Theory but also the inverse of that, a Meta-systems Theory. It will take both of these to ground a robust Systems Engineering practice.

Part 5: Kent Palmer: Emergent Design: Explorations in Systems Phenomenology in Relation to Ontology, Hermeneutics and the Meta-Dialectics of Design

This is a highly complex document with a lot of discussion about subjects most engineers don’t know about. I have taken out of this document what I can use to make a point. I understand that a part of the language is too difficult.Text between “is a citation

Systems Engineering is focused on creating systems as artifacts that are used and operated, which, in turn, change the environment for newer systems that will take their place in the future“.

“These systems are created by a lengthy and involved development process that includes: Requirements Development, Architectural and Sub-system Design, Implementation, Verification, Validation, Integration, and Operation”.

Schemas are templates of pre-understanding of spacetime envelopes that we project onto our experience in order to differentiate objects of different scales in terms of their dimensionality”.

Kent Palmer is desperately trying to find a level of abstraction (a place high in  Sky) to make a distinction between all the ways objects (humans but also animals or perhaps machines) that look or are aware have an understanding of the environment they exist in.

He believes that we live in space/time which is the result of a very long  process of thinking about perspective in painting which is looking through a very small hole at a scape.

In the scape we look at objects he calls envelopes (something filled with something else). In spacetime objects have a location that possibly moves in space and a form that also moves and changes in time. humans make pictures/movies/content of the movement share/ communicate about the content and remember/imagine and make models of the content.

Space/time is a highly dynamic environment.What we make or have made is sometimes stable for some time but the process of making (“engineering”) disappears and is sometimes reconstructed (archeology“) with a lot of imagination involved.

sand desert statue pyramid

A schema looks like a method but Kent Palmer calls it a template of pre-understanding.

The richness of nature comes from the variety of schematic organizations (“a ants nest”) that are being projected by different species, while the artificial creation of our human centered environments tends to blot them out and replace them with our own schematizations exclusively, which leads to a lessening of the variety of schematizations that can be realized in the overall natural environment“.

Are Ants engineers?

Ants are genetacally programmmed to repeat the same behavior when they are chemically (Pheromones) triggered.

It looks like organisms that are very different from the human and that don’t use language are able to ceate artifacts that are highly comparable to what human engineers are making. Until now we don’t know how they are doing this.

I believe their creation is guiding them to make a new creation. They live in their own design which forces them to maintain and create old and new designs.

animal world apiary beehive bees

Kent Palmer makes a difference  between ants and humans by using the concept  of a  Shared  experience. of a lifeworld.

This concept was created by Edmund Hussler around 1936.”The ‘lifeworld is a grand theatre of objects variously arranged in space and time relative to perceiving subjects“.

A “ifeworld means a person’s subjective construction of reality, which he or she forms under the condition of his or her life circumstances“.Slide1

the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.

.All experience is organized by Templates of Understanding.

Once a phenomenon has been assigned a template it is possible to begin to come to terms with it by discovering its essence, the categories it belongs to, its unique characteristics, and its significance. If

we reverse this process as we do when we design something new, then the schemas become the anchor of everything we design. . schemas are hidden in normal practice, because the schemas are understood as tacit knowledge.

Part 6:  About the Age of Reason and the Power of the Imagination.
Kent Palmer writes about the many  strange coincidences that happened when he was looking for patterns that could help him to extend General Systems theory.

The same happened to me. It all happened when I got into an unexpected Jump Of my Kundalini.

This happens when (the 7th)and the down chakra (called Trumpets in the Bible) fuse.

This   started a strange process of synchronicity that brought me a lot of information about the theory behind ancient knowledge.

This ancient knowledge returned to the West (Italy) at the Renaissance when the archives of the center of knowledge of the ancient world in Heliopolis (Egypt)(later  Alexandria) were found in Byzantium

Heliopolis was a Scientific center of the World a long time ago and attracted “scientists” sometimes called Magicians  (see Magi) that advised the Rulers of the World that wanted to prevent the world for a new disaster comparable to the Great Flood.

Observe that we now are living in the Age of the Waterbearer. We are now already flooded by images and texts that TAKE all our TIME.

One of the visitors of Heliopolis Plato warned for this time, the time when we would lose the ability to memorize and make use of the Memory Palace we now call the Zodiac.

The most important knowledge to protect  was  the control of the Power of the Mind by the Imagination.

To block this power a counter-movement was organized out of Venice, the financial center of the world. The managers of this movement started to promote Reason as a powerful force.

They decided to use Newton as as an Example of  a briljant Scientist and started to block the thinking of Leibniz that had a lot to do with Alchemy, the Science of Ancient Egypt.

So ABove So Below: The fractal pattern of the Moebius Ring repeats itself, The Cup of the Heart is a Dual Trumpet called  Chakra in India.

This al started the Age of Reason

, The Enlightment, in which the Imagination was transformed into the confusing Fantasy and the warm Emotions of the Heart became a blockage for Cold scientific thinking.

Part 7:  AboutPredicting Dreams and Consciousness

The Neuroscience of Consciousness – with Anil Seth

many people feel the power of an .Ancient Religious Place like a Cathedral of the Middle Ages. The catholic powers often reused the power of these ancient places.

A good example is  Chartres which was a holy place of the Druids.


The Black Virgin of Chartres Cathedral.

The book the Third Reich of Dreams shows that people know what will happen in the Future. 

After Hitler came to power in 1933, Charlotte Beradt, a Berlin-based journalist, began to awaken night after night bathed in perspiration, teeth clenched in terror.

On one of these nights, after dreaming of being hunted “from pillar to post” by storm troopers, a new thought arrived: what if she wasn’t the only one?

What if the things that appeared in her nightmares were also being visited upon other people?

This startling thought set in motion the seeds of a research project. Beradt quietly began to query people about their dream-life. 

She found out that many people dreamed the same dreams and dreamed the concentration camps of the NAZIS long before they were invented.

When people are brought under hypnosis they can be brought back to the past (into their past lifes) and into the Future. The experiments of Helen Wambach showed that people are able to predict a shared future with a high accuracy. 

The best explanation for the fusion of Quantum Mechanics and Relativity Theory is the so called Wheeler Feynman Aborber Theory. This theory shows that it is possible to influence history in the future.

John Wheeler believes that the Universe is a Self-Observing system. Wheeler suggested that reality is created by observers and that: “no phenomenon is a real phenomenon until it is an observed phenomenon.” .

When I was a young child I found out that I was able to Read people.

When you read people you are able to see what is in their mind. 

When I was much older I met highly experienced Advisors that took a training in reading.

We experimented  with collective reading and proved that we could read an organization.

Will McWhinney organized workshops in New Mexico near Taos. We were introduced to many “new” techniques that were developed.

They were called Organizational Dreaming (OD) and Organizational Sculptures (OS).

In OD people agreed to solve a problem by sharing their dreams.

In OS one person used other people to build a balanced structure (“a sculpture“) that represented his problems/ questions.

After a signal of the Sculptor everybody makes a next step en tells the “scluptor” what came up in his or her mind.

This gave remarkable results.

Much later OC came back in the Netherlands as Opstellingen (Constellations).

aerial photography of rock formation  [/New Mexico

The concept Paranormal indicates that science does not believe what abnormal people are capable of.

Is the design of a system known before it was made?

Is it possible to ask the Domus of a City if it wants engineers to develop a new part or let designers destroy an old part?

IPart 8: Is it possible to make a Whole with only Holes? Are holes also Wholes (or Holons)?.

A Holarchy

A holon is an evolving self-organizing structure.

Self-organization or Auto-catalysis or Self-Reproduction (Auto-poiesis) by sustaining the identity is one of the determinating attributes of of life.

Our complete body and mind is reproduced by millions of cooperating parts that contain millions of cooperating parts every moment we live.

The concept Holon was invented by Arthur Koester and taken over by the American Philosopher Ken Wilber.

Wilber has created his own version of Paths of Change in which he defined four types of holes/holons. One of them is the Social Hole a hiding place.

Another is the Independent Self Reliant (Autarkic) Hole (Unity) which is an Identity of its own.

Sensory Holes look like the Iris of the Eye that project the outside world onto the inside world.

The Mythic Hole is a Picture of a Hole: O.

The Aboriginal Dreamtime is about the Beginning of Time.

Creation is believed to be the work of Ancestors who travelled across a formless land, creating sacred sites and significant places of interest in their travels. In this way, “songlines” travelling trails of the Spirit Beings were established all over Australia that are comparable to the ley-lines in the West.

Around 2000 I was asked by Stephen Strong to write an introduction for his book about Aboriginal culture.

Stephen found the parts of an old Egyptian Pyramid including Hieroglyphs that describes an expedition send to Australia.

I believe there was a lot of contact between the Ancient Cultures which shows itself in many shared concepts.

Ayers Rock Australia
aboriginal dreamtime art
A picture about the Dreamtime.

What is nothing?

Nothing in terms of A-A = 0 comes from the Arabian word zfir meaning empty.

Parmenides.made a difference between space (“potential emptyness”) and the void,

In Physics the void is called a singularity.

In Indian Philosophy the void was called a Bindu (a point).

According to Lurianic Kabbalah, the first act of creation, was the Tzimtzum “self “withdrawal” of God to create an “empty space”, to create in.

. When we imagine Emptiness it becomes something.

Forms are Empty, Emptiness is Form: Heart Sutra).

In Dutch (vshowing (tonen) is called weergeven (Giving “weer”). The oppsite of imagining (Sensing) is called waar-nemen *Taking “weer”. When we sense we take something. When we look we give something (our attention).

This observation can also be found in Goethe’s Color Theory and Wittgenstein\s Remarks on Color.

Psychology : Michel Eugene Chevreul 1839.  From an article by Jude Stewart  The Wonderful C
Goethe’s Color Theory. The colors map on PoC.

How to combine combinations.

A formula that contains variables contains holes to fill.

A Tunnel is a (worm)-Hole to Connect


If Emptness is empty and enpty is O and =>O = 0 (zero) than a lot of emptyness is still 0.

If a system contains only holes the sum of the parts is the same as the system.

When the holes are conncted the sum of the system is the same as the sum of the connections.

A system that is the sum of its connections is a network.

A network that contains holes that connect is a flow-system.

Does emptyness contain matter?.

Emptyness (the vacuum) is a fluctuating production of mattter.

The vacuum looks a lot like the mind producing thoughts when the observer is observing which is called meditation in ancient Indian science.

The Empty Set is a set with zero members. If we are able to remove members out of a set we will get sets with negative numbers of members. These are sets that are missing something (“longing” sets”).

The mathematician John Conway defined a process (a machine) that produces all the numbers there are called a Conway Game and even numbers we did no know about before he defined his process called Surreal Numbers.

Conway’s game of life the members leave the set of numbers,

A Highly Composite Number (HCN) is a positive integer with more divisors than any smaller positive integer. A HCN is a social number.

HCN were invented by Ramanujan a mathematical genius found in India who got his inspirations from Lakshmi the Goddess of Namagiri.


The HCN are the numbers that define Harmonics . HArmonics shows that the Universe is a (Musical) Wave that produces Overtones (The Music of the Spheres.

To prevent a recurring of the Great Depression the US Government created the Institute for the Cycles lead by Edward Dewey in 1942.

Until today the Istitute researches and predicts every well known Cycle and has found the Cycle-Times of many Economic and related Cycles.

They found that the cycle-times are related to Harmonics in Music.

In ancient Indian Science the Tattvas are an aspect of Reality highly comparable to the Classical Elements and the Worldviews.

The Tattvas are the five modifications of the Great Breath a harmonic wave called the Svara..

Tatvas Blue is the Moon, in the cener the Cosmic Egg.

Part 9: ABout the Future of Engineering.

Part 10: About Cycles

When you want to predict the future you can make use of cycles.

Every cycle has a unique Cycle-Time and contains (or is part of) other cycles.

There are cycles related to the price of oil but there are also cycles that are related to a country or a Cultural Identity (“western europe”).

There are very short cycles (“Clock-Cyle of your PC) or cycles we are unable to measure.

The longest cycle of Humanity is the Cycle of the Precession of the Equinox.

This cycle was known a very long time ago and could be deduced by observing the recurring of the Pole Star.

Shaman believe that the Hole in the Sky is an entrance to another World (our Parallel Universe). They called this hole Jacobs ladder.

Jacobs ladder was implemented in a Zigurat (a Step-Tower containing 7 steps)) called the Tower of Babel.

The Seven Heavens
Dante and the Tower of Bable.

The Magi’s of Heliopolis knew about the precession-cycle and made sure that the state of Egypt was aligned to the right Star.

This star was also connected to the (secret) Horus)Name of the Pharao.

The system of measurement of space was at that time related to the measurement of time. Every piece of the pyramid represented a step in time.

Daily Time measurement was related to the Sun Cycle. The unit of measurement (foot) was all over the world the same and related to the duration of the Precession Cycle.

The Standard of Measurement of Distance was changed after the French Revolution when the unit became the metre.

The standard of Time became decimal (based on 10 hours in a day) and was measured by a mechanical device, a clock .

The major steps in the Precession Cycle were the movements of the constellations of the Zodiac.

They predicted major changes and the major changes were also implemented in society by rhe Priests.

At this moment we are moving into the Age of Aquarius related to the dominance of “flow systems” (electricity, Internet, Logistics).

flow system

A major detailed analysis can be done with the Economic Kondratiev Cycle.

This cycle with a cycle time of 52 years is divided in “Seasons” where the UP is called Summer and the Down Winter. Kondratiev Winter started at the year 2000.

When I researched the Kondratiev Cycle I discovered that there is a fifth season often called Indian Summer. or Womens Summer, Gypsy Summer, Poor mans summer or Summer of the Geese.

The Goose is a symbol of harmony.The Goose game is an old game that simulates Life.

It is the season of the Center with the “color” white where Winter (Blue) and Summer (Red) are in equilibrium.

The 2nd picture below shows the Bahktin Cycle of (Western) culture with a cycle-time 5x the Kondratiev Cycle Time (= 5×52 = 260).

Cycles always move through the same five steps. The steps carry different names but all have the same focus, tattva (Thatness), worldview, perspective or season.

In the picture below you see how cycles modulate on other cycles. What you also see is different names for the same perspectives of POC and how a Pentacle outside creates a Pentacle inside when the connectors are connected.

Cycles modulate on other cycles and modulate on other cycles etc. The Peaks (UP)and Downs of the Cycle are classified by the Worldviews of Paths of Change (See Colors)..
The Cycle of Erope based on Bahktins design based on his analysis of many “important” parts of literature. The Color of the parts of the Cycle are the Colors of Paths of Change.
PoC projected on Aarde (Earth) using Dutch words. India Geest <-> Spirit, China <-> Geheel Whole. Islam, Samen<->Together, US Red Intensit

in the Picture upside you see how Islam is triggering the US by being extremely social to the people who are part of the same tribe and much more important why China is the (new or old) center of the World.

The new center China was predicted a long time ago in the Dreams of Wolfgang Pauli (the creator of Quantum Physics QF) who were analyzed by Gustav Jung.

Pauli explained JUng that the concepts of QF where given to him by Robert Fludd an old English Alchemist who created the Theater the Globe, which was a model of the Harmonic Universe for the plays of William Shakespeare who probably was Francis Bacon who was the initiator of the Enlightment.

Robert Fludds Model of The Globe The Theater for William Shakespear (Francis Bacon) based on the Harmonic Universe of Kepler.
Atlas carries the Harmonic Universe.of Kepler.

The central set of “harmonies” was the musica universalis or “music of the spheres,” which had been studied by Pythagoras, Ptolemy and many others before Kepler; in fact, soon after publishing Harmonices Mundi, Kepler was embroiled in dispute with Robert Fludd, who had recently published his own harmonic theory.

Part 10.1: About Technology Cycles.

In this part two pictures out of a Powerpoint Presentation are added that are also part of my PDF-document about The history of the Cycles. They proved to me how powerful the theory of the cycles is.

When you know about the cycles the only thing you have to do is fill in the blanks which means mapping the classification to a terminolology/dialect people of your audience understand.

The theory becomes much more interesting when you understand that it is also possible to generate software out of the cycles.

Part 10.2 About-very-long-cycles/

A Picture of The Kondratiev Cycle Modulated on the Bahktin Culture Cycle. Interesting to see is that the Sixties were a conjunction of two phases with the same focus Creativity. In 2040 there is a “white” conjunction.on there levels!
The Technology Cycle moves from Creative technology (text, pictures, ..) to collaborative technology to a global infrastructure (white) named Global Brain.

Part 10.3. 2000 My first Reflection We are controlled by our Own Creation.

Around 2000 I was asked to write a part of a book that was created to celebrate the anniverary of SMO (Stichting Maatschappij en Onderneming), a Think Tank of the Dutch employers.

My part became a reflection of my education (mathematics) and my job (IT-manager at a big bank).

At the end I concluded that Global IT was moving into a new autonomous state.

We are not programming new systems but the systems are programming us.

Just as Frankenstein, the Old Jewish story of the golem, we are fighting our own creation of an artificial human (the Robot).

Part 10.4 About Type Theory and CLEAN:.Software is a Mathematical Function.

In 1985 I met the creators of a new Programmming Language called Clean .

Clean is called a Functional Programming (FP) language and uses a mathematical concept called a type.

FP treats all computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions.

Type theory tries to solve Russels Paradox a philosophical problem that is created when you use something that contains itself. This causes infinity regress.

Type Theory uses Lambda Calculus.

Russels Paradox also happens when you define that systems contain systems, a problem Kent Palmer tries to solve by defining a Meta-System or a Scape.

I decided to introduce CLEAN at ABN AMRO but the introduction failed for the simple reason that most of the IT-people were not mathematicians but trained in Business Administration (Bedrijfskunde).

This was a problem that the famous Dutch Computer scientist Edsger Dijkstra already forsaw in 1969.

The problem shows itself currently in the very low quality of software.

The software-body-immune-system does not work.

It becomes sick when it is attacked by software-viruses.

Clean is not called clean for nothing. It is highly reliable and immune to external attacks.

That is also the reason why FP is successful currently.

CLEAN Has many competitors now. like Erlang, Lexifi and Haskell. Read success-stories here.

Srep 10.5 : About Not-Destructable (Anti-Fragile) Ecologies

Two years ago I have tried to connect the concept of Anti-Fragility of Nassim Taleb to two theories. `

one about Ecologies named Panarchy and (2) about Social Networks (also an Ecology) described in the Relations Theory of Alan Fiske.

I used Paths of Change (PoC) as an intermediairy connecting theory.

In the end I found a well known pattern the Moebius Ring again.

Please read this blog when you want to read a comprehensive (i hope) story.

In the picture below you see three connected moebius rings (called a Panarchy-cycle) in which a PoC-cycle (Yellow-creative), (Blue, Order, (Red, Action), (green, Emotions, Value) takes place.

In every “jump” the cycle-time speeds up or slows down.

. All systems  exist and function at multiple scales of space, time and social organization, and the interactions across scales are fundamentally important in determining the dynamics of the system.

The panarchy framework connects adaptive cycles in a nested hierarchy.

There are potentially multiple connections between phases of the adaptive cycle at one level and phases at another level.

Two significant connections are labeled ‘revolt‘ and ‘remember‘.

The smaller, faster, nested levels invent, experiment and test, while the larger, slower levels stabilize and conserve accumulated memory of system dynamics.

In this way, the slower and larger levels set the conditions within which faster and smaller ones function.

Every level is organized in a four phase cycle of birth, growth and maturation, death and renewal. That cycle is the engine that periodically generates the variability and novelty upon which experimentation depends.

As a consequence of the periodic, but transient phases of destruction  and reorganization the structure and processes can be reorganized.

This reshuffling allows for the establishment of new system configurations and opportunities for the incorporation of exotic and entirely novel entrants into the system.

 The adaptive cycle explicitly introduces mutations and rearrangements as a periodic process within each hierarchical level in a way that partially isolates the resulting experiments, reducing the risk to the integrity of the whole structure.

The theory of Panarchy is a result of long during intensive research by Holling and Gunderson.

Panarchy is based on researching the practice of a natural ecology but because we, humans, are also part of nature (which we often forget)the theory is also applicable to us.

What you see is that we (humans) often revolt (for instance by starting a big fire) and dont believe that the total ecology (including us) moves to a very dangerous state and becomes highly unstable.

What we also dont see is that many ecologies are resilient and move back (“remember“) to an old state (nature restores itself) we dont like because we want to build a lot of stone houses and roads all connecting the houses creating a big city which acts like a big organism.

What we don’t understand is that we are often saved by the bell by the forces of nature.

What we also dont see is that we want to fight nature because we believe that we (engineers) are able to create our own nature.

The big problem is that most engineers don’t take the time to understand nature and that we could accomplish a lot by copying her (is nature a female?).

If you want to be in tune with nature entrain with nature.

To understand what entrain means move to the next step of this part.

Panarchy. Model works on 3 levels of abstraction. The colors are related to PoC. .
Panachy in 3D. The cycle is a Moebius Ring floating in 3D Space where 3 lines (variables) coordinate called connectedness ( Social in PoC), Resilience, a result of two worldviews Mythic(an Event, Idea) and Unity (patterns) and Weath (Values).
Idea Adaptability
The Product Panarchy Cycle.

The interesting part of the Theory of Fiske is that its model looks like Paths of Change and mathematicians have found a relationship between this model and the mathematical theory of scales (“a staircase”) we use to measure our outside world.

The model of Paths of Change (PoC) is with the usual colors is mapped on a spiral. and related to four community-types.

Fiske detected that we measure (“feel“, with our emotions) our social relations with the same tools we measure our outside world we “see” with our senses.

The Human Relations Model of ALan Fiske with PoC colors.
The Hierarchy of Scales
The Scales of Measurement map to the Relationship-types.

Each of the elementary models resembles one of  the classic scale types from measurement theory. 

Communal Sharing resembles a nominal scale.  A nominal scale is classifying things into categories.

Authority Ranking resembles an ordinal scale in which items are ranked.  

Equality Matching resembles an interval scale insofar as one can measure the degree of inequality in a social relationship using equal intervals so as to judge how to correct the imbalance. 

It is by use of such a scale that people in an Equality Matching interaction can specify how much one person owes another. 

However, an interval scale cannot be used to express a ratio because it has no absolute zero point. 

For example, the zero point on the Celsius scale is not absolute so one cannot say that 20 degrees is twice as warm as 10 degrees while on a Kelvin scale because the zero point is absolute one can express ratios. 

Given that Market Pricing is the application of ratios to social interactions, it resembles a ratio scale such as the Kelvin scale. 

One cannot, for example, meaningfully speak of the maximization of utility without presupposing some sort of ratio scale for measuring utility.  Maximization would correspond to 100 percent.

Part 10.6 About Black Swans and Dragon Kings.

Below you see what happens when a major event (‘A Black Swan“) hits a community (or an Eccology).

When the event is not too big the ecology resists the event and stays the same.

An example could be a Dike to resist a flood.

When the ecology is resilient it returns to its old state.

It is also possible that the parts of the ecology (mostly organisms) make a new combination and perform the same process in a different order.

In the last case a completely new combination appears that gives us (the humans) the impression that the ecommubity has innovated.

THis a Powerpoint that contains the Ant-fragile-model trtranslated in PoC (see colors). What is anti-fragile? It is a jump out of a Moebius-pattern where the Fusion takes place of many divers parts comparable to the creation of the multi-cellar organisms for example the Sponge. The pattern is a Moeibius Ring and starts with Green (Social Community) to Blue (Order) and tries to find balance. Read the Blog about Anti-Fragility and you will see how this picture maps to Panarchy and the Model of Fiske.

Part 10.7 About Synchronization

During my research I detected the work of Didier SOnnete .

Didier found a special type of an Event Taleb calls a Black Swan, a rare and unpredictable outlier event. Didier calls these events Dragon Kings.

Dragon Kings are a result of ynchronization.

Synchronization happens between humans (and animals) when they are focused on the same event.

Humans synchronize when they look at the same event.

When people syschronize they copy their behavior, become the same, and create a hype.

Will McWhinney used the theory of sychronisation he called coupling to write a new book after Paths of Change he called Grammars of Engagement.

Synchronization explains Human Rituals.

When humans take part of rituals they accumulate energy and produce a special sound Randall Collins calls the hum of solidarity.

Interesting point is that this energy stays for seven days (a week) when the ritual starts at the day of Saturn .

Saturn is a center that is surrounded by a ring containing many similar parts.

Have a look below and observe that the Kaaba also called the Cube of Space circulated by many synchronized humans looks like Saturn.

The Kaaba is the Kube of Space dedicated to Saturn..
Rituals generate an energy that lasts for seven days.


Big events like the Big Bang trigger 3 types of systems Spiral (evolition) , Organism /Atopietic) and Dualistic (Order, Chaos).

Part 11: Why Industries are Meta-Systems.

The paper in the link contains the argument that the building construction industry acts as a meta-industry., an ‘industry of industries,’ .

In this part you will see that this meta-industry is really a part of nature that is consuming a lot of nature we call an eology..

The building industry needs a lot of nature, “space” and natural resources to create arficial holes with boundaries (“caves”) to live in.

Houses protect the body but are also a body.

A city is a system that contains connected houses (bodies that are holes connected to holes) that are connected by roads (Transport tubes, lungs). A city looks like an organism. It is a super organism or even better a meta organism.

Is an engineer like the Ant in part 4?

A city is a flow system. Our Lungs are a Flow System.

A River Delta is a Flow System.

Cities grow like organisms. Organisms consume other organisms,

Are engineers who are participating in the building industry participating in the growth of the system or are they in control?.

Remember that I stated the same theory when I wrote about the Software Industry (and hardware is software) in Chapter 10.

Are we in control of Ahriman?

The city of Paris is a flow System.
Flow Systems that move from one  to many always look like a leaf or a tree
Our lungs look like a River Delta.

The energy consumption of organism and the super-organisms including the cities follow the law of kleiber.

Kleiber's law
The law of Kleiber

By 2030, over 60% of the world’s population – nearly five billion people – will be living in an urban area.

between the year 2000 and 2030 new construction (infrastructure as well as building) will double all existing construction.

IPCC predicts that $20T will be spent in energy infrastructure from 2006 to 2030.

This new construction is fueling an unprecedented increase of infrastructure especially in energy generation to support and maintain the new growth.

This additional capacity to generate energy is adding to emissions directly through construction and indirectly through an increase in transportation, and most importantly in affluence with its unbounded consumption patterns.


Furthermore, substantial construction will be needed in order to replace what is destroyed or abandoned due to the consequences of world climate change.

Part 12.0 About Innovation and Creativity.

This is a thesis by Roni Horowitz called Creative Problem Solving in Engineering.

Roni created an inovation of TRIZ called ASIT.

ASIT is about transforming the Box people use when they want to think Out of the Box.

ASIT generates the right tension to push the mind to fuse the contradiction a problem represents.

TRIZ was created by the Russian researcher Genrich Altshuller in 1946. He researched patents and found that every innovation solves a specific Contradiction.

TRIZ makes it possible to reuse an innovative solution in a different problem.

TRIZ Connects Contradictions which is a contradiction by itself.

The Thesis of Roni Horowitz contains a lot of historical material about the science of Creativity and Engineering.

It shows that the best way to innovate is Stepwise Improvement until the process completely fails.

When you fail you are open to the story of people who succeeded after a failure.

Roger Shank calls this approach Case=Based-Reasoning.

I found Roger when I was asked by the Dutch Ministry of Education to search for a new approach.

I came back with a plan to produce educatiobal games and found the people who were able to make these games. .

At that time Roger was the founder of the Institute for the Learning Sciences in Chicago. I introduced him to people in the Netherlands. We got funding to build an educaional game based on life stories connected to Addiction.

The science of creativity started when the ex nihilo problem (creating (something out of nothing) was replaced by a proces of tranformation from something into something.

Creative ideas do not come into being out of nothing, but involve the restructuring of known elements.

creativity first seen as a rule-breaker that could not be part of a rule-making practice called science became a process of divine Inspiration that appeared when the scientist was Dreaming (or in Trance) the result of an unknown-part that was already known called the consciousness being an activity of the observer.

The Evolution Theory of Darwin made scientists recognize that complex, highly esthetic and efficient creations can result from relatively Simple Rule-Governed Mechanisms.

This helped freeing researchers from the need to resort to God as a necessary condition for the Act of Creation.

Creation happens when the two parts of a contradiction (called a Bisociation by Koestler) Fuse and produce Positive energy (enthusiasm, enjoyment, originally used as “possesed by a God, probably the Holy Ghost, Spirit, Inspired) .

Gilles Fauconnier & Mark Turner (The Way We Think) called the principle of “bisociation” Conceptual Blending.

The disjunct parts are conneced by an Analogy (something looks like something else) or a Metaphor(mapping, function).

George Lakoff detected that most of the Culture-Independent metaphors are embodied.

They are felt by the felt-sense an Inner Bodily Awareness discovered by Eugene Gendlin that can be used to detect the change that is needed by the Human.Body to keep its state of Autopoiesis (Self-Reproduction)

Thomas Kuhn defined the concept of the paradigm a long lasting Stable Pattern that is used as a foundation of science.

Paradigms change suddenly (a Shift) mostly because of an Event(a Catastrophe).

This shift can be predicted by the Cycles (see Chapter 10). and the theory of Self-organized-criticallity. which uses the mtaphor of the sandpile.

Ideas/Concepts jump over like a virus from Person to Person. The jump occors when people are copying others.Copying occurs when people synchronize.

A jumping idea is called a Meme (invented by Richard Dawkins (RD) based on the concept of a gene (RD wrote the book the Selfish Gene). The concept of the meme is taken over in Internet Marketing

Innovation is always the result of a new combination of old ideas.

According to Leibniz the most important part of science is the mathematical Art of combination called combinatorics.

Frontpiece of the Art of Combination by Leibniz.

Part 13:00 About the Philosophy of Technology.

The Link with the Title Cybernetics for the 21st Century.lcontains an interview with the Hong Kong Philosopher Yuk Hui who is trying to solve the same puzzle Kent Palmer is trying to solve.

Yuk Huy researches recursivity (“fracrals, see pictures below) and is trying to find a new place for Chinese Philosophy.

Yuk Huy is like Kent Palmer interested in Heidegger the creator of Phenomenology, (see chapter 5).

Heidegger believed that technology changes the Greek way of ‘helping something to come into being’ to‘forcing something into being.

Technology is comparable to child-birth and therefore starts with the conception of an idea (concept) which is a fusion of a fe-male egg and a male seed bing a contradiction.

Technology reveals the world as raw material with the danger that , humans will also interpret themselves as raw materials (“human resources”) and become enslaved to their own tools.

Borgmann shows that technology replaces experiences such as milking of a cow, the search for and burning of wood by a device, a heating machine controlled by a service interface that makes it possible to control an invisible mechanistic infrastructure that has replaced an “organistic” world.

The expirience of building a fireplace filled with wood that is collected in the wood transforms in a thermometer that controls a heater that is connected to a tube that produces gas that is connected to a gasfield that is made by drilling in the ground etc etc.

Killing a human is done by a soldier who believes he/she is playing a computer game but is in reality is operating a drone.

According to Borgmann Our Current Technology is transforming Reality into Virtual Reality.

Part 14:0 About Cybernetics, the science of feedback,

Heidegger called Cybernetics the successor of philosophy.

Cybernetics comes from the Greek cybernḗtēs “steersman, governor, pilot,

Cybernetics, the Art of Steering is about having a Goal (Unity in PoC) and taking Action (Sensory) to achieve that goal. Knowing (Sensing) whether you have reached your goal (Evaluate/Social)requires “feedback

Teedback can be divided in positive (amplifies change) and negative feedback (reduces change)..

Cybernetics was started by a group of scientists that were interested in intelligent control systems like the brain (Ashby), the body (Biology Bertalanfy)_ Machines (Wiener) and. economic systems (Forrester, System Dynamics, World Simulations).

Cybernetics, the Art of Steering, moved from its first order (machines, circular causal processes) to the second order (living systems, observer, self reproducing (autopoietic) ) to the thirth order (social systems). and even a fourth order. in which “thinking(cognitive) -machines” (Artificial Intelligence) are introduced.

Cybernetics has a lot in common with the work of Escher.The art of Escher represents a model of the Universe later developed by Roger Pensose. The same model can also be found Islamic Art.

Every step in cybernetic order increases the complexity (amount of parts (wholes) relations and types of connections) of the system and makes the system less understandable although the system appears (emergence) as a whole.

Molecular Machines.operate in the Body.

In the end Cybernetics is the science of machines although the machines, could be build by humans, collaborate with humans work in our human body or even look like Gods.

A Viable System is a Recursive Cybernetic System that copies the Human Being.

Loopings, Recursive Systems.
The Viable Systems Model

The Viable Systems Model. Modeelling with the Viable System Model.

The Brain as  the Meta-System of a Viable System
The Brain/Body as a Viable System.

Chapter 15.0 About ART. and Meta-ART.

on Cassirer’s Philosophy of Symbolic Forms

Symbolic Forms can be seen in Myths Metaphor and (Abstract (Science & Mathematics) ) Symbols and Concepts and are a part of Art and Science. Ernst Cassirer shares his theories with Joseph Campbell (the Monomyth) and Carl Jung.(Archetypes).

JUngs pupil von Franz wrote about the symbols behind Numbers. Nunez & Lakoff wrote about the Metaphors behind Mathematics.

The Egyptian (and other) Gods represented Concepts. just as the Angels in the Hierarchy of Heavens.

Art is a representation of “reality”. To make the right impression on the right senses (ye, ear, skin, ..) all kinds of techniques (for instance colored points to generate a picture) are used rhat changed in time.

Art was called Techne in Greece. Techne means Craft. Art was called Fine Art being the art developed primarily for aesthetics or beauty,

At the End of Art the artists believed that the only aesthetic Artwork is created by Nature itself or by Coincedence ).

Marcel Duchamp believed that “The Observer Makes the Picture. Duchamps made an end to Fine Art and started other ways to Make something called Meta-Art.

Meta-Art generates possibilities (sometimes made by an algorithm) and makes it possible for the spectator to choose or to guide the process of design to another stage of a needed evolution.

Meta Art was introduced to me by Remco Scha, a friend of Eric Vreedenburgh.

Remco developed an Art Generator that was able to generate all kinds of Styles.

The generator was connected to a configurator that was able to generate possible building-designs.

I used Meta-Art to develop a new Strategy for ABN AMRO.

In this process we used the metaphor of the Medieval City to create a new Architecture based on the idea that every New system is a potential Legacy System.

What we found out is that the Context of the surrounding old systems determines the architecture of the new systems.

The many different architectures in an old city force an architect to create, to copy or to fuse.

The focus on the View of the Observer was the cause of Relativity-theory.

De Leuze The Logic of Sense. About Contradicting Contradictions.

Propositions,  can be related to the Objects to which they Refer, the Subjects who Utter them, or to Other Propositions.

The Theory of the Proposition is Caught in a Circle of Connections. Propositions Make Sense of an Event called a Fact that are a Sense-Act of an Individual translated in a Speech-ACt.  Sense is Produced out of Elements that do not have a Sense.Is Life a Joke?

Interaction Ritual Erving Goffman.

Erving Goffman was the Perfect Observer who found out Why and How People are Framed and How we Deceive Our Selves .

Erving Gffman About the Tole we PLay.

The Speed of the Moving View of the Observer being the Speed of Light became the Limit of Speed just as the Limit of Temperature (0 degree Kelvin) became the limit of movement being the door to the Nothing now called the vacuum.

Perfect Stilness, Just the hissing sound of the popping up Virtual Particles but where do these particle come from? Nothing full op potential still governed by the rules pf Physics that are governed by the rules of Mathematics that are bootstrapped out of botstrapped things that create each-other. The bubbles of the cosmic teapot.

Synestetic Art

At the Royal Academy I was asked to participate in a project aimed at recreating Synestetic (multi-sensory) Art.

Many artists at the Turn of the Century (Edvard Munch, Piet Mondriaan, Paul Klee, René Magritte, Vincent van Gogh), participated in the experiments at that time.

Mondriaan tried to combine Music (JAZZ) and Painting. This painting contains an improvisation in patterns of color and form.
16:0 About Webs.

DNA contains the code for a configurator of orgamisms. The Human DNA has a lot in common with the DNA of Trees.

Research shows that Trees communicate with otherTtrees and humans (using pheromones) using a network called a Rhizome.
Trees are a symbol of a Hierarchic structure moving UP connected to a Network (Web) going Down.
Editing DNA looks like changing a Software-Program without Testing the Program for its Long-Term Effects.
The Wood-Wide-Web: shows how Trees communicate:

In a Thousand Plateaus of Deleuze and Guatari the rhizome is a metaphor for a body being an assemblage of machines producing desire that organize themselves in non-hierarchical communication and transport network in which each connection leads to another connection.

The First Programmable Device was the Jacquard Loom which could be programmed with punched cards to produce Patterns in Cloth (a Wearable Web) being Woven by Machines.

The World-Wide-Web started as a telecomunication-Network of computers is a result of a Technological Solution to prevent a fallout of the world-wide-communicationnetwork by a big catastrophe (Nuclear-Bomb). Every message is able to reach its destination.

The Citation-list connected to a Scientific Document was mapped by Tim Berners Lee to this Network and became a Semantic network that slowly grows into a Gobal Brain.

Fritjof Capra The Web of Life: To create a theory of living Systems one has to fuse the organic the inorganic, the living the nonliving, mind and matter.

Life is a Connected Patterned process. Life is a Flow of Energy From High (Sun) to Low (organism).

Fritsjof Capra The Web of Life
Leaonard Suskind Why the World is a Hologram.

When you Eliminate everything that is impossible the truth remains.

Leaonard Suskind, a theoretical hysicist, explains how a Volume of Space can be Projected on a lower-dimensional Boundary (A Wall).

Two moving Observers are communicating while one of them moves into a Blackhole and moves too fast for Communication to take place but Information is nNEVER destroyed in our Universe.

Where is the communication stored? in the 2 Dimensional Boundary We Live in.

Physics is a Thought Experiment in which Boundaries are Crossed.

Spiders web

Part 17:0: About Mathematics

Mathematics is about Changing a Perspective on Patterns.

Norman Wildberger A Briljant Teacher of Mathematics:

The History of Mathematics.

When I finished High School in 1969 I started with a new Combination (named S4) of a Master in Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics in combination with an intensive laboratory training. At that time I did not know that S4 was created to select scientists for Shell Labs in Amsterdam.

To me Chemistry was a CookBook and Mathematics was an Experience of Beauty caused by an Act of Pure Imagination (Seeing).

I decided to go on with Mathematics (and Informatics) and followed every Course I could and had to follow including Philosophy, Signal Theory (in Delft) Numerical Mathematics, Combinatorics, and Psychology (to become a teacher). I became fascinated by Topology. and Language Theory (Chomsky, Compilers).

One of the interesting Combinations of Philosophy and Mathematics was Brouwer. He created a theory called Intuitionistic logic.

Brouwer based his insights on Buddism just like his follower Henk Barendregt.

Brouwer was part of a group of Artists and Scientists including Mondriaan who lived in a Community in the city of Laren based on the book of Walden by David Thoreau.

De hut ‘Vredewacht’, Schapendrift 82 in Blaricum. In 1915 gebouwd door architect Ru Mauve voor Betsy van Hoogstraten, ooit een geliefde van de schrijver Frederik van Eeden Blaricum, 29-05-09. "Hut" aan de Schapendrift 82. Verhaal stichting Dooyenwaard. Foto Leo van Velzen NrcHb.
The house of BrouwerVredewacht” (Waiting for Peace”) . close to the “Hut” of Mondriaan.

Brouwer did not believe in reasoning. He believed that a mathematics that is based on proof will lead to paradox

Brouwer did also not believe in Infinity and the law of the excluded-middle. This law uses Negation and Negation of something that does not exist does not exist.

Brouwer wanted to combine Life, Art, and Mysticism (the title of his dissertation).

At this moment Brouwer is seen as a highly Infuential mathematician.

Many new developments in Science including the Meta-lanuage theory of George Lakoff share the same insight.

When Brouwer became a Professor in Amsterdam and a wel-known Name he got into conflict with the Magister of Mathematics at that time David Hilbert. Hilbert defined a list of 23 unsolved problems in 1900. There are still two problems left that are probably unresolvable.

This video shows that it is possible to solve a highly complex problem by Detecting the Pattern in the process of Solving the problem when the complexity is increased.

Felix Klein defined a comparable list in the so called Erlangen Program in 1872.

The Erlangen Program of Klein Simplified by introducing a different View.
Douglas Hofstadter, Godel Escher BAch, I am a Strange Loop, talks about Spirital Machines.

Brouwer started the subject of meta-mathematics that ended with the Self-Refencial proof of Godel that shows that Mathematics is unable to look in its own Mirror. The only thing that is left as a Foundation is PARADOX.

We are Caught in our own Consciousness. The only question is who are We or will be the Others. Are they Gods or Machines of our own Making.

About the Mathematics of PARADOX
About Nominalisation.
About Schema’s made by DEMO

Category Theory was invented by S. Eilenberg and S. MacLane in 1945, with the aim of giving a precise, mathematical formulation of the idea of a “Natural Correspondence“.

Eugenia Cheng: Category Theory for Art Students.

Category Theory contains Objects (Noun), and Functors (Verb, Mapping, Function). The nouns live in an Abstract Conceptual World , a Platonic World of `Forms, a Mental and a Physical World. Nouns are fixated (stopped) verbs (a movie) created by nominalising the name of the verb. (A noun is a a Verbing).

A short Seminar about Category Theory related to Topos Theory.

In Category Theory Functions are Mathematical Theories.

Jacob Lurie About Shapes (Topology) and
Transformations of Shapes (Homotopy)
The Universe Speaks in Numbers
About Controlling a Car and Proof Theory.

Part 18.0 : Kent Palmer, Schematization and Non Dual Science

ABout The Perfect forms of Plato .

Protogoras, an early Greek Philosopher, was a teacher of culture (how to Speak and Reason). Protagoras’ss claim is that, “All Things is the Measure of Man meaning that everything is relative to Individual Experience, Judgement, and Interpretation.

According to Plato behind Man there is a World of Forms (abstract Ideas connected to the Mind) that contain the Essence. What we Experience is a Projection of the Forms.

PLato was a promotor of Mathematics and especially Geometry. PLato was also, linked to Pythagoras, an expert in Number Theory.

Aristotle, a pupil of Plato, believed that the only thing that is real, is Matter the Material cause we exprience as Resistance.He also created a Theory (“a Formal Cause) about Causality. By questioning the Cause behind the cause (“a Process“) until Infinity the Primal Agent (Primal Cause), “God” was found.

According to Immanuel Kant the Projection between tReality and The Concepts of the Mind has to be Reasonable (Possible Neccesary Provable (According to the Rules of Logic), Understandable.

According to Heidegger we are only able to understand an outside world with a Mind that is part of a Body that gives us a Reference-Frame. This started the Scientific movement called Embodiment we already saw in the work of the Mathematician Brouwer (Intuitive Logic) the Linguist Lakoff (Metaphors) and the Psychologist Gendlin (Felt Sense).

According to Merleau Ponty we are Entangled with our Twin the Outside World unable to Cut us loose.

According to Samual Todes Our Senses look with Predefined Concepts in Mind. We See what we Want to See. Sometimes we See and don’t understand. When we explore we try to find a favorable Point of View. Sometimes we have to get a better Grip to examine the Object.Sometimes we have to Move (Movement = Emotion, Motivation) to come Closer and see the Details.

When we encounter a particular Object we Classify it with a Familiar Concept (“Looks Like a Chair This is the way of Kant) or we Point at the Object and Utter a Familiar Sound (“Sitting“?).

According to Micheal Taussig Humans are just like Animals experts in copying (Mimesis). Our Aeroplanes look like Birds. We make Pictures and Paintings. We Play with Models of Trains We love to ware the Cloth of Kings and Magisters and want to Look Like a Famous Person. . The Copies are always Inferiror to the Original but also give us the opportunity to Imagine something much Better.

truth” is not a matter of Correspondence, but rather of Coherence.

The School of Athens (Rafael) shows that Plato (Left Pointing UP) and Aristotle (Right, Pointing Down) refer to two Opposing Worlds, the World of the Mind, Forms, Ideas, Concepts) and the World of the Senses (Matter) both connected to a Body.

The French Philosopher Gilles Deleuze is not interested in a Uniform Theory of Everything but in Diffrence in itself. What Lmits are there and What can we Do with all the different Theories Concepts en Experiences. We have to Prevent Repetition of the Same.

The Verification of Science is highly dependent on Technology.

Engineers and Scientists have created many Material Things (Cars, Roads, Trains Weapons, Earoplanes, Electicity, Plastcs) that are polluting or destroying Nature.

The main reason is that Engineers don’t take the Meta-System (Ecology, Context) of their Creation into account.

To find out that is behind/inside Nature we Destroy Nature by Opening the Body (Whole to see the Organs (Parts)), Smashing Particles (CERN, Whole) to find smaller Elementary Particles (Part). Every Time we Dig Deeper or look Higher the same Patterns appear (See Introduction, Fractals).

Part 19: Magic is a Technology.

Part 19.0 : Stephen Skinner: About Egyptian Magic He shows you how to get into a fruitful relationship with high and low Spirits.
About Ecology and the Paranormal. How Spirits of Nature Comunicate with us.
About PAranomal Research for the US Army.

When I was a young boy ghosts appeared in my room. When I was a student many of my friends experimented with a Qui/Ja-board and talked with deceased people who explained many things we could verify in the archives of the City of Leiden. When my Kundaliny was risen I met many “gods” who came in my room. One of them was a beautiful (black) Women (ISIS?). I “helped” the people of OKRA to get in contact with the Spirit of Athens. To me ESP has ben very real and it was a major Drive to Research Physics, Mathematics, Ancient Belief Systems. It also gave the opportunity to meet comparable people all over the World. I also read a lot of books written by Channels like Seth(Jane Roberts) and The Law of One, (the Ra Material) that explain the many Levels off Existence.

Part 20: About RhetoRics and Music.

About Music and Rhetorics.

Rhethorics is the Science of Persuation that was mapped to Music in the Baroque. encouraged by the Catholic Church as a means to cCounter the Simplicity and Austerity of Protestant Architecture, Art and Music.

Rhetorics provides heuristics for understanding, discovering, and developing arguments for Aristotle’s three Persuasive audience appeals: logos, Pathos, and Ethos.

Rhethorics was a major part of the Curriculum of the Medieval University.

liberal arts
The Curriculum of the Medieval University was based on theModel of the Universe of that time.

An important part of Rhetorics was the Art of Memory in which the Memory was connected to training of the Imagination by remembering a Memory Palace. The Art of Memory was a (secret) training in Magic. When this was discovered the trainee was Burned by the Inquisition.

Part 21: ABout Architecture.

Christopher Alexander: About Patterns in the Architecture of Building Applied to (Software) Patterns in Computer Systems. What is the contribution of Software to the Quality of Life.
Image result for quality without a name"

Quality Without a Name.

in his Book The Timeless Way of Building Christopher Alexander’ introduced the “Quality Without a Name.Whether it is in a poem, or a man, or a building full of people, or in a forest, or a city, everything that matters stems from it.  It embodies everything.Yet still this quality cannot be named

Until the rise of the Specialized Architects Architecture was controlled by a Culture controlled concept of Quality and Crafmanschip.

The Builders of the Cathedrals knew how to build (and design) Cathedrals from a Tradition that was handed over from Father to Sun.

The Cathedrals were Memory Palaces that contained all the Wisdom of thousands of years projected on a Geometric Structure with an “index” in the form of a Spiral in the aligned to the setting of the Sun , the Moon and the Galaxy placed on a Cross of Leylines.

Every Point in the spiral pointed to a Story in Stone and Glass.

Spirals in Chathedrals points to windows that contain the appropriate Wisdom Story

In the Nature of Order Alexander writes about Centers. “those particular identified sets, or systems, which Appear within the Larger Whole abecause they have noticeable distinctness, which makes them Separate Out from their Surroundings“. Life is created by small, Incremental changes that Preserve Structure.

In the Luminous Ground Alexander breaks away from the Mechanical Model were buildings or neighborhoods are Assemblages of technically generated, Interchangeable Parts.

He shows that a spiritual, emotional, and personal basis must underlie every Act of Building or Making.

Quality is also the subject of a Book of Robert Pirsig (1974) Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. Pirsig was a teacher of Rheorics.

Robert Pirsig was convinced that Quality and Quantum Mechanics are the same issue. He wrote a second book (Lila)) about it and called this type of Quality “Dynamic Quality. Quality is Constrained by the Intellect (Theory) and Social Patterns (Culture) and Bubles Up out of the Vacuum.

Dynamic Quality of Robert Pirsig.

Will be continued. Have a look Here.

Part 22: Kent Palmer: About a Theory of Everyting.

Kent Palmer is trying to include Schema Theory in a new book of Len Troncale about Systems Sciences. In the document above he introduces Robert Rosens book About Life Itself.

A few citations: “In order to be in a position to say what life is, we must spend a great deal of time in understanding what life is not.

Thus, I will be spending a great deal of time with mechanisms and machines, ultimately to reject them, and replace them with something else.

This is in fact the most radical step I shall take, because for the past three centuries, ideas of mechanism and machine have constituted the very essence of the adjective ‘scientific’; a rejection of them thus seems like a rejection of science itself.”

Physics as we know it today is, almost entirely, the science of mechanism, and mechanisms, as I argue, are very special as material systems

Biology involves a class of systems more general than mechanism. 

In fact the relative positions of physics and biology become interchanged; rather than physics being general and biology special, it becomes more the other way around.” (xvii)

My subject matter herein is… a duality,between ‘hard’ science and ‘soft’ science, between quantitative and qualitative, between ‘exact’ and ‘inexact.’ 

This duality is not to be removed by any kind of tactical accommodation, by any superficial effort of conciliation or ecumenicism….  It is thus not a matter of logical argumentation or persuasion that is involved here; it is a matter more akin to religious conversion.

In the sciences this dichotomy between qualitative and quantitative rests on (generally unrecognized) presuppositions about the nature of material reality and on how we obtain knowledge about it.

These presuppositions themselves have formal, mathematical counterparts, which allow us to reflect this scientific dualism into an exactly parallel one that exists within mathematics itself.”

Rosen posits that life is a material system closed to efficient causation. More precisely (and there is a subtle difference here), he claims that “a material system is an organism if, and only if, it is closed to efficient causation.

In arriving at this conclusion, he draws parallels between Aristotle’s three traditional categories of causation — material (Made out of matter, parts) , efficient (By a Process) , (and formal — and three mathematical counterparts axioms (Parts), production rules (process) , and specific algorithms/ programs (Design) .

File:Aristotle's Four Causes of a Table.svg

It all started with Wolfgang Goethe who wanted to invent the Uhrplant, a model of the Essence of the Plant.

Goethe started the science of Morphogenesis, the science of the Forms. In this post I describe the history from Goethe to Alan Turing.

On Growth and Form by D’arcy Thompson is about the way the genesis of the forms of organisms can be described by structural transformations.

Nicolas Rashevsky, the Teacher of Rosen was inspired by D’arcy Thopnson. He wanted to invent the UhrOrganism. An organism is an organization seen as a set of relationships between functions.

The unity of life is revealed by the fact that one can pass from the representation of one living system to another not by structural transformations, but rather, more generally, by “functional transformations“.

Functions can be replaced by groups of functions—represented as subgraphs in the oriented graph of functions, called a .biotopological mapping.

From this it is a small step to Biological Types connected by Biological Functions. and a uniting Biological Category Theory. resulting in a Universal Biological Turing Machine. We are back to Turing again.

The Modeling Relation 

The Modeling Relation 

Another important book of Robert Rosen is about Anticipatory Systems (AS).

These systems are different from Reactive Systems (RS) are defined by by System Analysis and Dynamic Systems.

A RS changes its State when it has detected a different situation (Context) by its Sensors. A RS needs a Memory to compare the different States.

An AS wants to stay in the Same State by defening a Trajectory that Avoids conflicts.An AS contains a Predictive Model of Itself and its Environment.

An example of an AS is a Clock. A clock does not measure anything. Its Organisation Produces Time and is always On Time.

Part 23: Conclusion.

It is time to conclude although the conclusion was already part of the introduction.

Perhaps the text written in between is a proof although I dont think I neeed a proof to show that current technology is able to destroy earth or is already destroying earth.

This blog contains many stories about the strange ways consciousness is intervening in human activities.

Some people who started to read this blog and saw a picture of an Angel called this blog not-rational/not-scientific/ something a person like me (a mathematician) should not write.

Please re-read the story of Jung and Pauli to see that the un-conscioussness has interfered in the life of a very rational person who seeked help to exlain his dreams.who were highly related to an old medieval Alchemist (Robert Fludd).

Pauli, who’s life was full of strange coincedences was informed by a concrete happening of a Chinese Fludd by a breaking Chinese vase about the Coming Power of the Chinese in our time.

““In April 24, 1948 the foundation of the C.G. Jung institute took place. When Pauli entered the room, a so-called Pauli effect occurred. Without any outer cause a Chinese vase fell onto the floor and the water poured out, resulting in a flood. Symbolically seen, we can say that this psychokinetic event was a Chinese water flood“.

Pauli had begun to deal with the hermetic alchemist Robert Fludd, who wrote his name in Latin as Robertus de Fluctibus. Therefore, we can conclude that these two events belong to a Synchronicity, the psychic (inner) event of it consisting in the tension in Pauli concerning the dispute between Johannes Kepler and Robert Fludd,

Quantum Mechanics is showing the termendous power of the imagination of the mind of Wolfgang Pauli who needed help from a well known Psychiatrist Carl Jung who later needed help of his pupil Anne Marie Louise von Franz to solve the puzzle of Pauli.

The future iof Technology is no only related to the future of Mathematics but also the future of psychology and medicine and both are related to the future of Biophysics.

We will dream the future because the past is caused by the future but is also infuenced by the Future. Our future disasters will haunt us just as the Holocaust haunted the dreams of its victims.

I will not stop but i consider this version as finished.

Plwase come back at this point to learn more about what my dreams tell me.

It is now 25 june 2020 and I am still busy with an important Blog about the Future of the Constitutional State.

Part 24 LINKS

Construction of the Mind.

Why Life exists

ABout Ratio and Magnitude,

About the Battle between Leibniz & Newton

About the Renaissance

About Alchemy

About Heliopolis

About Good Vibrations

About The Indian Science of the Tatvas

About the Roots of Artificial Intelligence

Decoded Secrets of the Mankind’s Prohibited and Forgotten History

About the Precession Cycle

About the Kondratiev Cycle

About Megatiths

History of Writing Systems

Kent Palmer : About the EUropean Dreamtime of Technology

The end: The Book-keeping of this post.

In version 2.4 I have moved all the book-keeping of this post to the end of this post.

.In version 2.3 I have finished Part 12.0, 13.0 en 14.0.

In version 2.2.. I have added Part 12.0 about Innovation and Creativity. Today (20-9-2019) I have opened Part 13.0 About the Philosophy of Technology, Part 14.0 About Cybernetics and Part 15:0 About Meta(-Art.) .

Until part Part 1 this blog contains information that shows you the history of this blog. The blog starts at START BLOG.

I have started version 2.0 by completing a major part which is a comprehensive (with many links ) summary of a blog about anti-fragility. This part I called step 10.2.

In this part you learn about a very important theory about ecologies called Panarchy. I combine this stheory with the work of Alan Fiske about Human Ecologies. The most interesting part is the link of the theory of Alan Fiske with measurement theory.

We measure our relationships with our feelings and our relationships are ordered with the same model Paths of Change (PoC) uses.

PoC is a theory that is thousands of years old.


Out of the Blog about Anti-Fragility also called Resilient, /Robust or even Undestructable I have used a part about entrainment which gives an explanation why processes and humans start to act the same (sychronize) ,

When Humans entrain they cause Hypes or bigger problems like a Depression. Currently a lot of people entrain on becoming rich.

Being rich is an addiction.

Entrainment was detected by an old Dutch Scientist Christiaan Huygens.

Today (14-9-2019), starting with version 2.0 I will spend time to complete Part 11: Why Industries are Meta-Systems.In this part I reuse the blog Why are Cities Organisms which is an application of the Law of Kleiber What I will prove is that Meta-Industries are the cause of the destruction of Earth and that Engineers have to become Ecology-Managers.

Functional {rpgramming is just what Edsger Dijkstra wanted to accomplish, a mathematical pogramlanguage.

About the Foundations of Medicine

I have written this blog about the Foundations of Medicine because I believe that most of practioners of medicine dont know what the foundations are about.

They act as medical engineers trying to repair what they have broken and stumbling upon inventions they did not dream about before.

I also believe that the current foundation of Medicine, BioScience is not curing diseases but is generating a lot of new diseases that never are cured. They become Chronic always needing new medicine,

Medicine is the science and practice of establishing the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of disease whwere a disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function of part or all of an organism,.

Medicine is about the Quality of Life.

When you look at the facts you will see that current  Medical Science is realizing the vision of  the Rockefeller Foundation to take over control of Evolution to create a Super Human.

Many people are totally not aware of this and believe we are part of a spectacular rise of science that will not only Cure all diseases but will also make it possible to choose for an Optimized Body, an Optimized Brain connected to a Super Computer and Immortality.

We will be Gods with the Gods.

The History of Western Medicine starts with the creation of the Hospital by the Church of Rome.  At that time taking care of the sick was part of the Seven Acts of Mercy.

When the Church lost its wealth, the responsibility for the poor sick in  the hospitals was given  to the Merchants of the big Cities who started to Make Money out of Medicine.From that time on Medicine was Big Business.

The hospital at that time looked like a church.

Research in medicine started when it was allowed to Open the Body and examine all the parts.

Chinese medicine became holistic because it was not only Forbidden to open the body but also to touch the body only at the Pulse.

The practical treatment of disease was given to the (Guild of) the Barbers who even made use of acupuncture. Later the Apothecary took over a part of the job because of their knowledge of herbs and medicine preparation.

In the 18th century medicine started to treat Mental Health and created a Split between Brain and Body. Currently we know that mental problems can be caused by bodily problems and that the Imagination is capable to imagine an illness.

Because of Quantum Mechanics we now know that our material reality is a product of our mental imagination. This is called the Placebo-effect.

Western Medicine took a big step when new tools where invented to support diagnosis. Many doctors started to specialize in a  pavillion part of a new type of hospital. Later the many pavillions where joined into a big building that had to move up to use the available space. When Medicine went up it became an abstract theory without a relation to life.

We are now moving to Smart Medicine. In smart Medicine data about the body  is sensed with specialized sensors. The collective data is analyzed  with advanced statistical methods to find general patterns.

The big problem is that you See is what you Get. We measure what we Want to see so the sensors imply a certain disease and a disease is a measurable Distortion of the pattern we suppose is taking place.

Medicine is Creating its own diseases and pharmacy is treating the diseases we measure. This does not mean that the cured patient is balanced and in a good humores,

The new Hospital wil become a Call Centre and the Patient is treated at Home by a Programmed (controlled by protocols) Human.

The personal data is correlated with the collective patterns to find personal patterns and personalized solutions.

Until now these solutions are of a chemical nature (“pills”). In the future the new “pills” will be “Waves“.

To interpret the collective patterns we need a Shared Foundation.

This foundation is now mostly based on ChEmical theories with life as an interaction (“reaction-chain”)  between molecules as parts with the computer-program DNA in the center.

A body is NOT a complex Chemical Factory. the Mind is NOT a Computer (“Operating System“). The Brain (‘Up”) does not controls the Body (“Down”) just like the Management is always Up in de Building that Controls the Company. .

Humans are the result of big Cooperations of a huge amount of parts that consist of big cooperations that cooperate. The parts are coordinated by their shared E/M-fields that create shared fields.

In the future Quantum Mechanics will be the new foundation. The  Standing Wave pattern of the Body, the Biofield, will show the instabilities of the body .

This field will be stabilized (“healed“) with complementary wave patterns. Medicine will be based on =resonance.

Quantum Mechanics also explains Homeopathie.

In the future we will see a move from (bio)Bio-Chemistry to (Bio)Physics.

This  blog contains parts of two documents of the website of Marco Bischof.  Marco is one of the leading scholars in the field of  holistic medicine in the German speaking world. Both documents written by Marco are about Biophysics.

The most important Part (2) of this blog   is about the (Bio)Field.

It is possible to read Part 2 without reading Part 1.

Part 3 is about a possible mathematical foundation of Medicine called Global Scaling. Clobal Scaling is based on waves, fractals and continued fractions that explain harmonics.

Part 1 About the History of Biophysics.

From 1950 to 1970 biophysics developed faster than in the 100 years before. While in 1944, when the first volume of Otto Glasser’s „Medical Physics“was published, in the USA the number of workers in the field counted not more than 200, in 1950, when volume II appeared, about 200 institutes or departments were devoted to biophysics. At the same time the scope of the field also greatly expanded. Glasser’s handbook still remains one of the most complete treatments of the full range of biophysical investigations;

However, in the same period of the 1950’s molecular biology experienced its breakthrough with Watson and Crick’s 1953 model of DNA. The first phase of its development (1930-1950) which included the acceptance of the existence of macromolecules, the use of x-ray diffraction analysis (started by Bernal in 1934) for determining molecular structures and the development of extraction methods that avoided degrading of molecules, was characterized by a relatively broad definition of the subject.

The term „molecular biology“ was first used by Warren Weaver in 1938 to describe a grant programme by the Rockefeller Foundation promoting „experimental“ or „physiochemical“ biology. He claimed this was a new branch of science in which modern tools were „reaching deeper and deeper into the living organism“. The program was supported by such people as W.T.Astbury, who was the first to describe himself as a molecular biologist,

Schroedinger’s little book What is life ? (1944), in which he took up Delbrueck’s idea that the gene could be a molecular structure (Schroedinger called it an „aperiodic crystal“), played an important role in the beginnings of molecular biology. The book inspired many physicists after the war to go into biology.

Delbrueck’s idea originally came from Niels Bohr: it concerned the question if not maybe certain aspects of the life of a cell, such as self-replication, could only be explained by a new kind of natural law still to be discovered,

THis natural law was transformed in the principle of autocatalysis detected by Stuart Kauffman. In autocatalysis structures are recreated to become self-reproducing structures (autopiesis).

in a similar way as classical physics had been replaced by the quantum physical worldview. The inspired search for such new natural laws was one of the main motivations of many of the newly converted molecular biologists Gunter Stent, Maurice Wilkins, and Francis Crick all have confessed to having been greatly influenced by Schroedinger’s book. Most of them participated in the 1st phage meeting at Woods Hole where a proper school of molecular biology was created in 1945.

However, this romantic, even somewhat vitalistic program of the very beginnings of molecular biology was soon turned almost into its opposite, the still ongoing, gigantic enterprise of analyzing systematically a broad range of molecular details. Maybe it was inevitable.

When in 1937 the eminent biologist Barbara McClintock met Max Delbrueck, maybe the single most influential figure of the founders of molecular biology, she considered his approach to be fundamentally flawed. „He has never developed a feeling for the organism“, she said.

The second phase of molecular biology (1950 onwards) clearly is characterized by a narrowing down of the subject to the investigation of biological „specificity“ (molecular „information“), involving the study of proteins and nucleic acids in view to understand genetical structures and mechanisms.

This trend was not without influence on the development of biophysics proper, as is reflected in the Study Program in Biophysical Science, Boulder, Colorado, 20 July-16 August 1958, organized by the Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry Study Section of the U.S.National Institutes of Health. Its objective was to „encourage the further blending of concepts and methods of physical science with those of life science in the investigation of biological problems“, in other words, to further physicalize biology. Its approach was that of molecular biology.

Basically, molecular biology and mainstream biophysics as they have developed since the 1950’s because of their extreme emphasis on molecular and physicochemical aspects of physiology have to be considered as being in the tradition of physiological chemistry rather than physiological physics. They are based rather on the kind of work exemplified by Höber’s „Physical Chemistry of Cells and Tissues“ (1945)[14], and later, Setlow and Pollard’s „Molecular Biophysics“ (1962)[15], and represent a late triumph of the reductionist program of the Berlin school of 1847.

However, this approach has long remained foreign to the practice of physiological science. As Cranefield wrote: „there is ample indication that during the last few decades physiologists in all countries have not considered the elucidation of molecular mechanisms, the dissolving of physiology into biophysics and biochemistry as their immediate goal. (…) As for the theoretical bias of modern physiology, it is still common to define physiology as the physics and chemistry of life and to assume that the mechanistic stand is correct.

Nevertheless, a position sometimes called organicism holds a very wide popularity today: the position that is identified with the frequent use of such concepts as homeostasis, integration, adaptation, organization, and whole organism.

These biological concepts are essentially neutral but to some they carry a flavor of vitalism“. This alternative current of physiological and biological thinking which can refer to Claude Bernard who rejected German reductionism, represented by such names as A.G.Gurwitsch, E.S.Russell, E.Rignano, P.Weiss, J.Needham, D’Arcy Thompson, J.S.Haldane, J.Barcroft, W.H.Cannon, C.H.Waddington, A.Meyer-Abich and L. von Bertalanffy, has only quite recently fallen into disregard.

Correspondingly, there is also in biophysics another tendency which has developed since the 1920’s and has not always been eclipsed by the dominating school to the degree it seems to be today.

In Germany, it has been represented by the work of Walter Beier and his school at the Institute of Biophysics of the University of Jena (German Democratic Republic). Applying the findings of the school of the Austro-Canadian biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy to biophysics, Beier has developed a systemic, comprehensive approach which always aims at the wholeness of the system considered. In this approach a system is not viewed as a conglomerate of parts and it does not investigate isolated phenomena, but rather the wide field of interactions. Biological processes on each systemic level, i.e., molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and organismic, are considered in the context of the higher level in which they are embedded. Besides systems theory, Beier’s approach is based on the irreversible (non-equilibrium) thermodynamics of open systems (while earlier biophysics uses equilibrium thermodynamics), information theory, cybernetics, and uses tools such as factorial analysis. He also follows Rashevsky who introduced relational and similarity considerations and optimization principles into biophysics.

THE SITUATION TODAY As we have seen, today in biophysics such a holistic approach is not widespread. The textbooks rather reflect the fragmentation of contemporary science with its excessive analysis, lack of synthesis and of a viable theory of life.

Biology has lost the wholeness of life, if not life itself, from its view. In spite of the programmatic postulate which has accompanied it since 1847, biophysics still has not developed into a theoretical biology. Beier is one of the few biophysicist aware of the central importance of theoretical biophysics as a complex, interdisciplinary branch of science, and has also shown a practicable way to develop theoretical models. His approach, developed in the 1960’s and 1970’s, can now be used as a starting point for the development of a modern, holistic, and organicist (non-reductionist) biophysics which should place much emphasis on investigating the holistic functions of organisms, such as self-regulation in growth and healing, morphogenesis etc.

Besides the conceptual tools that Beier has brought into play, such a new approach in biophysics must call upon many new developments in science, such as nonlinear electrodynamics, deterministic chaos, cavity quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the vacuum.

Full use of the consequences of quantum physics, such as the Heisenberg indeterminacy, the holistic principle inherent in the quantum picture, and non-locality, has not yet been made.

Dürr also points to the fact that in molecular biology and chemistry the phase relationships of the electrons are not taken into account (only the intensities) and that the phase structure of the wave formed by the superposition of the partial waves of the millions of electrons in the DNA double helix molecule, may contain, in holographically coded form, additional important information.

A most fundamental element of such a new approach in biophysics will probably be a shift from the molecular to the field aspect of living matter, as proposed by Welch and by Popp, among others, which seems to be the only viable way to synthetize the myriads of molecular details science has amassed, into a holistic model of the organism.

One of the most important goals of applied biophysics in the near future must be the development of non-invasive methods to assess the functional state of whole and intact organisms, and that of the organism’s subsystems in the context of the whole organism.

This goal may be realized by measuring the electromagnetic field produced by the living organism; any interpretation that leads to useful results has to be based on a model of the organism making regulation processes accessible at the field level.


Any discussion of the future of biophysics inevitably leads to the fundamental question of the relationship between physics and biology. It seems clear that, besides drawing upon new developments in physics, a new biophysics also must become more biological again.

Any program of reducing biology to physics and chemistry has to consider that the actual physical laws have been obtained from the investigation of non-living phenomena, easier to investigate by the physical approach because they are less complex.

Maybe the reason for the failure of biophysics to develop a theory of life is just this reductionistic approach postulating that life processes should be explained by the already known physicochemical laws of non-living nature.

Not a few scientists of past decades, most notably J.S.Haldane and Adolf Meyer-Abich, as well as contemporary ones (e.g., Dale A.Miller[24], Gunter Albrecht-Buehler) have postulated that the principles governing life are more fundamental than those of non-living matter, and therefore biology should replace physics as the paradigmatic „leitwissenschaft“ (leading science).

Without subscribing to any vitalistic notions,takes a similar stance and shows a way which may lead beyond the ages-old controversy. He postulates that physics has to change and enlarge in order to describe biological phenomena; he rejects a reduction of biology to contemporary physics, but does not exclude one to a future, enlarged physics. According to Beier, to achieve a mathematization of biology, the biophysicist should not simply copy physics. „

Biophysics has to contribute to the establishment of purely biological postulates and principles without reducing these to physics. We can consider this method as an enlargement of physics. Physics in a sense ‘incorporates’ biology, via biophysics. Such a procedure can be taken by the materialist as well as by the vitalist from their respective standpoints to be a justification of their views. This again shows clearly the uselessness of a mechanist-vitalist controversy“. Rashevsky wrote that according to the Goedel theorem there must be physical phenomena which cannot be deducted from the laws of physics, even when they do not contradict those laws, and it cannot be decided if biology does not belong to this class of phenomena. Rashevsky and his school based their work on the presumption that biological phenomena are governed by such non-deductable principles.

To identify and formulate these more fundamental laws of life of which the known physical laws may turn out to be special cases, in the same way as the laws of classical Newtonian physics turned out to be special, restricted cases of the laws of quantum physics, should be the most noble goal of a new biophysics. Biophysics is predestined to take on this task. These laws have to be formulated in a mathematical way, but not necessarily metrically, as Rashevsky has shown.


Due to recent advances in several disciplines, the basic features of a holistic biophysics are now emerging. It is proposed that the postulates for such a field must include that it will be based on the intrinsic holism of quantum theory and the properties of macroscopic quantum effects, that it should include the principles of nonlocality, nonseparability, and interconnectedness, that it will be based on a field picture of reality and the organism, and finally must include consciousness.

This blog attempts to show why field models are appropriate tools for the holistic modeling of the organism, proposes a hierarchy of regulation systems based on fields, gives a review of field models proposed in biology, biophysics, consciousness research and social science, and discusses the possible role of fields in bridging the mind-body gap.

Finally, a discussion of the perspectives that may be opened up for biophysics by some recently proposed extensions of electromagnetic theory leads the author to suggest a role for the physical vacuum in the organism.


“Can Physics deliver another biological revolution ?” asked an editorial in the journal Nature of January 19991. However, the so-called “new physics-biology agenda” which several U.S. universities, foundations and government agencies intend to fund heavily, is actually a very old agenda going back to the 1930’s, namely that of molecular biology, which now in a gigantic effort of total genetic mapping, called by some “the New Manhattan Project of Biology”, strives to bring the molecular biology project of total technological control over life to a final fulfillment.

Is this the kind of “new biophysics” we want to be supported with all that money and effort ? I am certainly not alone in asking this question, and with the growing dissatisfaction about the reductionist, molecular-genetic approach to biology the number of those who develop and support an entirely different kind of biophysics is increasing.

A look into the history of biology and biophysics shows that there always have been alternative traditions to the molecular-reductionistic approach now dominant in these fields.

In biology, during some periods, e.g., in the first half of this century – holistic or organismic approaches have been far from marginal, in some disciplines, such as developmental biology, even constituting the dominant trend. Biophysics itself, although a relatively young field of science, has already experienced several changes in emphasis in the course of its history. The German founders of biophysics at the beginning of the 19th century, people like H.Helmholtz, E.Du Bois-Reymond, E.Brücke, C.Ludwig, E.H.Weber and G.T.Fechner, usually are depicted by historians of science as staunch reductionists and opponents of vitalistic and idealist ideas in biology. However,  in reality they were not in such a sharp opposition to the romantic Naturphilosophie spirit of the time, and nearer to the antireductionistic approach of Claude Bernard, than is generally assumed. Likewise, in the 1930s when molecular biology started its rise that has made it the dominant approach in biology and biophysics, there were a number of other viable biological programs, some of them holistic, that could have been chosen for promotion by the Rockefeller Foundation.

The reason why the officers and scientific advisers of the Foundation chose to promote the molecular vision of life was that they sought to develop, under the influence of Jacques Loeb’s engineering standpoint aimed at controlling life, a mechanistic biology as a central element of a new science of man whose final goal was social engineering.

Originally, the Rockefeller Foundation had intended to promote its goal of social control by eugenics, supporting several research projects concerned with eugenic selection. When eugenics lost its scientific validity amd social acceptance, the molecular biology program of creating a new biology grounded in the physical sciences and able to rigorously explain and eventually control the fundamental mechanisms governing human behaviour, promised a surer, if slower, way toward social control by eugenic selection based on the more readily accepted principles of genetics and protein science. Even within the scientific developments that stood at the origin of molecular biology, before it definitely took the reductionist turn leading to the present situation, at least one also forms an important element in the foundation of a modern holistic approach in biophysics: the quantum philosophy of Bohr, Schroedinger, Jordan and Delbrück.

Biophysics and the Quantum Revolution

The philosophical contribution to the rise of molecular biology originated in Niels Bohr’s speech „On Light and Life“ at the International Congress on Light Therapy at Copenhagen, August 15, 1932 23 where he postulated that a new physics was required for interpreting life; life was not reducible to atomic physics. A few of the key figures in molecular biology, mainly M.Delbrück and E.Schrödinger, were strongly influenced by Bohr’s views 24, which Schrödinger took up in his book „What is Life ?“ 25. The book inspired many young physicists traumatized by the wartime use of physical expertise, to go into biology and had a strong influence on the development of molecular biology 26.

However, the book certainly was more influential by interpreting the genetic viewpoint of H.J.Muller, T.H.Morgan and M.Delbrück in physicist’s terms and by backing it with the prestige of physics than by convincing biophysicists of the Bohr-Schrödinger hope of discovering new physical laws through biophysical investigation of biological phenomena27.

These ideas – which have to be seen in the context of the rather strong holistic tendency of the biology of the time – did not exert any lasting influence on molecular biology. On the other hand, they have been, and still are, a seminal influence for the later emergence of a holistic biophysics.

Today, molecular biology proposes itself as as the manageable project of refashioning life and redirecting the course of evolution that the Rockefeller Foundation and some of its early pioneers like H.J.Muller and W.Weaver had envisioned.

Because of the enormous technological and social power promised by molecular biology, even the increasing awareness of the bad science on which it is based in many respects, such as the many weak points in genetic and evolution theory28, does not prevent it to carry us into such immature and dangerous projects as genetic engineering biotechnology in agriculture and medicine, and the “Human Genome Project”, whose deeper nature is revealed by the military epithet of a “Manhattan Project of the life sciences”.

The noted quantum chemist, Hans Primas, agrees with this fundamental criticism29,30. He writes that molecular biology, as it exists today, is in fact engineering, not science. It is pragmatic, instrumental knowledge which aims at the power over nature, but not at understanding. It does not constitute a scientific theory of life able to give us orientation to live rationally with nature, but only provides technological control over life. Contemporary molecular biology has become a scientific technology which has lost contact with the epistemological sciences. Aspects of life that cannot be treated or understood from the molecular viewpoint, such as morphology, are glossed over. The assessment Robert Rosen made in 1967 31 is actually still valid: „…it must be pointed out that the older problems [he refers to the questions that preoccupied an older generation of biologists] have merely been displaced and not solved by the recent developments at the molecular level. These problems involve the very core of biological organization and development: homeostasis, ontogenesis, phylogenesis“ .

For Prim, the primary shortcoming of molecular biology is that the holistic character of the physical world now recognized in quantum theory is either not acknowledged by the bioengineers or rejected as irrelevant. He emphasizes that molecular biology, though well grounded in empirical knowledge, has no foundation whatsoever in the principles of quantum theory, contrary to a widely held belief to the opposite. It uses the methods and technologies of quantum mechanics, but its way of thinking is still committed to the classical physics of the 19th century and has not taken notice of the fundamental insights of quantum mechanics on the structure of the material world.

According to Primas, on whose statements the following is mainly based the atomistic-molecular view of matter and the reductionist-mechanist philosophy have no more any scientific foundation, according to the actual understanding of quantum theory. The description of reality by isolated, context-independent, elementary systems such as quarks, electrons, atoms, or molecules is only permissible under certain specific experimental conditions, and these entities cannot in any way be considered as „fundamental building stones“ of reality. Besides the molecular one, there are other, fundamentally different descriptions, complementary to the molecular one, which are quantum-theoretically equivalent and equally well founded. Quantum theory is much richer in possiblities than is admitted in the worldview of molecular biology.

In Primas‘ view, the feature of quantum theory that is most significant for biology is its intrinsic fundamental holism. For quantum mechanics, the scientific theory most widely recognized as fundamental and best confirmed by experiment, material reality forms and unbroken whole that has no parts. These holistic properties of reality are mathematically precisely defined by the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlations which are experimentally well defined.

Primas postulates that, by virtue of this, quantum mechanics constitutes the first and up to now only logically consistent, universally valid, mathematically formulated holistic theory In quantum mechanics, it is never possible to describe the whole by the description of parts and their interrelations.

With this view of quantum mechanics Primas follows Bohr and the school of Heisenbergwhile quark physics as founded by M.Gell-Mann continues to cultivate democritean atomism with their clinging to the concept of elementary particles bootstrap theory of G.Chew, D.Bohm’s „Causal Quantum Theory“ or „Holographic. Similar holistic views of quantum theory are the Theory of Reality“ , and others advocated by H.Stap, A.Goswami , Kafatos & Nadeau, Friedman, D.Peat, F.Capra, H.Atmanspacher, and many others.

This holistic view of quantum theory, although the phenomena on which it is based are not yet completely understood theoretically, cannot be rejected anymore because the strange EPR quantum correlations of non-interacting and spatially separated systems have been amply demonstrated in many experiments

Therefore the world-view of classical physics, atomism and mechanistic reductionism definitely cannot anymore be the basis of our worldview, and of biophysics. Quantum mechanics has established the primacy of the unseparable whole.

Another important epistemological consequence of quantum mechanics, complementarity, is also connected to its holism. As Primas writes, there is no single description, such as the molecular-reductionistic one, which can alone represent the whole reality of the subject of a scientific investigation, or is better or „truer“ than any other. Nature is extremely diverse and stratified; each description comprehends only a minute partial aspect of its unfathomable multiplicity.

Any scientific description of a natural phenomenon is only possible if we renounce the description of its complementary aspects.

Quantum theory can only be applied if we abstract from certain aspects and thereby break the holistic symmetry. However, the kind of abstraction we use is not prescribed by the first principles of the theory, such that quantum mechanics allows, and even requires, many different, but equivalent, complementary descriptions of nature. As an important postulate for future science, Primas therefore emphasizes that we will have to learn to work simultaneously with several complementary descriptions of nature .

In this perspective, the molecular view is legitimate and important and should not be abandoned; molecular biologists can be rightly proud of their successes. It should be cultivated, but not at the expense of other viewpoints. It is its extreme one-eyedness that must be criticised. However, as Primas points out, „biology is more than molecular biology.

He postulates that science must now redirect ist attention to the wholeness of nature, and therefore will have to ask radically new questions. It has to develop a concept of reality which does not exclude any part of it. Those properties which belong to organisms only as wholes must remain within the scope of science. Therefore, it will be necessary to consider the phenomena as well from „bottom-up“, as in mechanistic understanding, as from „top-down“, as in vitalistic and holistic understanding. According to Primas, the notion that the latter is not legitimate or secondary is a prejudice that must be overcome.

From the viewpoint of the quantum-theoretical worldview, both are completely equivalent, but lead to fundamentally different research agendas and insights. Even the criteria according to which the scientist decides what is scientifically defendable and interesting, are completely different from these two viewpoints. Also, according to quantum theory functional and teleological explanations are completely legitimate and equivalent to causal ones; even the primacy of causality has no foundation in the first principles of physics. Primas points out that it is not possible to distinguish between causal and final processes by purely mechanical means and that such a distiction only makes sense for irreversible processes. As to the existence of the hypothetical vitalistic forces, modern physics is well able to integrate new forces into its system.

Thus, matter has become „dematerialized“ by modern quantum theory, and this property of „thinglessness“ in the quantum worldview is closely connected to the property of „interconnectedness“.

The emphasis is no longer on isolated objects, but on relations, exchanges, interdepences, on processes, fields, and wholes.

Quantum theory is a nonlocal theory. It is important to see that we cannot retain the classical world of objects and only add the interconnectedness as a supplementary property of these objects.         They are two of the complimentary descriptions or aspects of reality which Primas has alluded to and cannot be used simultaneously; thus they rather should be considered as different diomensions of reality. The holistic interpretation of quantum theory in fact may also be taken as implying a multidimensional structure of reality.

In this view, there are, besides the world of objects, one or several more fundamental levels of reality where interconnectedness rather than separatedness dominates. Fields certainly belong into this category; however, apart from electromagnetic and other physical fields which are still among the phenomena considered as belonging to the four fundamental forces of the observable world, we must assume the existence of additional field-like levels of reality not directly observable at present, which may be beyond space-time and represent the realm of potentiality, or of the „noumena“, the realm behind the phenomena according to Newton, in contrast to the actuality of the observable.

The Schroedinger wave function of quantum theory actually describes this hidden domain of potentiality, of the non-observable, unmanifested, pre-physical world of non-local correlations and superluminal, instantaneous connections, rather than the world of observable phenomena 48. Only with the act of measurement this infinity of potentialities, described in the Schroedinger equation as a superposition of all possible quantum states, is „collapsed“ into one single actuality. Connected to the concept of potentiality is the concept of „entanglement“ which describes the characteristic of interconnectedness. In the absence of any interaction (such as a measurement), two systems are in an entangled state in which neither system by itself can be said to be in a „pure state“, i.e., can be fully specified without reference to the other.

This hidden domain can be considered as a fundamental dimension of reality, a domain of dynamical connectivity, from which the patterns of the physical world arise. According to some authors, this realm of pre-physicality is not only the basis of the physical world and of matter, but also seems to be connected to, consciousness, which some see as the fundamental field underlying i. In physics, it is treated by the various models of the physical vacuum. Its possible relevance to biophysics as a basis for a true quantum biology 62,63 seems obvious to us, as we will explain later. Therefore we postulate the development of a „vacuum biophysics“ (see last chapter) .

The „hidden domain“ of connectivity has characteristics completely different from those of the classical, macroscopic world of separated objects. For a long time, the quantum description that reveals the properties of phenomena belonging to this domain, or arising from it, was taken to apply only to the microscopic world of atoms and molecules, while the world of macroscopic phenomena of our experience was considered to be purely classical and not to manifest quantum properties. However, today we know that this is not true, and that there are many macroscopic quantum manifestations, although our knowledge about them is still limited64-68. Biological systems obviously possess the characteristics of macroscopic quantum systems.

The Redefinition of Biophysics

From what we have just heard, we can conclude that traditional biophysics, based up to now on classical physics and equilibrium thermodynamics, needs a redefinition in terms of the revolution brought by the last few decades of quantum-mechanical experiments and interpretations. As there is still no agreement on the definition of the field, we are free to attempt such a redefinition. In the following I will try to determine what the postulates for such a new biophysics could be, as it actually is already in development since about ten or fifteen years.

First of all, it indeed will entail a revolution based on physical concepts – however, not of the kind alluded to in the Nature editorial. While the physical view will be fundamental, it will not be that of classical physics, and the goal will not be the reduction of biology to physics but an understanding of the physics of the living, and physics must not replace, but support profound biological understanding. Thus, the new biophysics should be more than just an empirically based bioengineering technology; it will need epistemological and philosophical foundations. Its goal should be to develop an adequate theory of life, and it should balance the mastery of life with the understanding of life.

As a complement to the onesidedness of the molecular approach, the new biophysics will focus on holistic aspects of organisms, and will attempt to provide a vision able to synthesize the wealth of molecular details accumulated by molecular biologists. Its basis must be the insight into the fundamental interconnectedness within the organism as well as between organisms, and that of the organism with the environment.

Therefore it must be inter- or transdisciplinary and truly integrate biological, biochemical and medical expertise into its physical models, but also connect to knowledge from fields such as geophysics, biometeorology, heliobiology etc.

It will be based on quantum theory, and not classical mechanics – therefore it may also be called „quantum biology“ –, and also, instead of equilibrium thermodynamics, it must refer to non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Organisms clearly are open systems far from equilibrium. Other central concepts of the new biophysics, related to the latter, will be coherence and macroscopic quantum states.

I postulate that field thinking and field models will have to be one of the central elements of the new biophysics, as a complement to the molecular view, as a means to sythesize the wealth of its details, and to adequately model thinglessness, interconnectedness and non-locality – therefore bioelectromagnetics will play a central role in the new biophysics. However, recent experiments have shown that the existence of hitherto unknown, non-electromagnetic fields in and between organisms cannot be excluded. Of course, the field aspect of the organism has to be seen in close connection, and constant interaction, with the solid aspect. Attention should also be paid to the field aspect of biochemical processes, for example in collective processes, reactivity and molecular recognition.

I suggest that the existence of a pre-physical, unobservable domain of potentiality in quantum theory, which forms the basis of the fundamental interconnectedness and wholeness of reality and from which arise the patterns of the material world, may provide a new model for understanding the holistic features of organisms, such as morphogenesis and regeneration, and thus provide a foundation for holistic biophysics – therefore I propose that the usefulness of the theories of the physical vacuum for understanding the phenomena of life is investigated – one important aspect of their usefulness may be as a link between the domain of biology and consciousness.

I postulate that the new biophysics needs to extend its interdisciplinarity even beyond natural science. Consciousness cannot be excluded anymore from biophysics, although the difficulties of such an extension should not be underestimated. There is now enough evidence showing that consciousness is a causal factor in biology and not just an inconsequential epiphenomenon. Starting from the analysis of the phenomenology and the experimental evidence for mind-body interaction, field models and vacuum theories may provide the necessary tools for bridging the mind-body gap. However, it is also necessary to acknowledge the limits of the scientific approach, and value the goal of understanding highly enough to include non-observables into our models, if this supports understanding.

Historical Antecedents of Holistic Biophysics

Not only theoretical considerations as those of Primas, but also the history of biology and of biophysics show clearly that the reductionistic concept of molecular biology is not the only possible concept for biological science; there even have been several periods in which holistic approaches have been dominating biology, or at least parts of it69. Even in biophysics proper, there have always been holistic schools of thought, although they usually are not mentioned in contemporary reviews of the field, or not thought of belonging to biophysics.

An early instance of holistic thought in biology is the school of rational or transcendental morphologists of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, such as G.de Cuvier, E.Geoffrey St-Hilaire, and R.Owen, who deduced, from their detailed studies of organismic morphology, the existence of principles or laws of form operating in the biological realm. Similarly, the holistic biology and medicine of the Romantic period, including J.W.Goethe, A. v. Humboldt, C.G.Carus, K.E. von Baer and J. Müller, regarded the ideal form of a species as a transcendental guiding principle in morphogenesis. A strong tradition of antireductionistic physiology starting with F.Magendie was mainly created by Claude Bernard. Bernard’s concept of “internal environment” (“milieu interne”) developed in 1857, stood at the beginning of the research in physiological regulation, to which E.Starling, L.J.Henderson, J.Barcroft, and W.B. Cannon (“homeostasis) have been contributing; other holistic physiologists were J.S.Haldane, H. Selye, R. Dubos and A. Carrel.

In the period of 1900-1950, the main thrust of developmental biology, especially in the work of H.Driesch, H.Spemann, P.A.Weiss, A.Gurwitsch, R.Harrison, C.M.Child, J.v.Uexküll, J.Needham, E.S.Russell, J.H.Woodger, A.Meyer-Abich, and A.Müller, has been holistic and centered around the concept if biological fields 69,73-74.

Very much fallen into oblivion has today the important work done during this century in the German tradition of holistic physiology, pathology and medicine, represented by names like G.v.Bergmann, H.Schade, F.Kraus, F.Buttersack, A.Bier, Th.Brugsch, B.Aschner, L.R.Grote, F.Hoff, R.Rössle, G.Ricker, H.Eppinger, W.Petersen, H.Pischinger, O.Bergsmann. Holistic schools of medical thought have also been active in Britain, the USA, and France, mainly in the interwar period75.

Important contributions to holistic science came from Gestalt theory and other holistic theories in psychology, neurobiology, and psychiatry, as exemplified by W.James, Chr.v. Ehrenfels, M.Wertheimer, W.Köhler, K.Goldstein, K.Lewin, C.v.Monakow, C.S.Sherrington, K.Lashley, G.Murphy, V.v. Weizsäcker, A.Maslow, K.Pribram 74-78.

The work of the Austrian-Canadian biologist L.v.Bertalanffy is particularly significant for the emerging holistic biophysics; Bertalanffy’s “organismic” conception of life, which also was the starting point of his “General System Theory”, actually constitutes a first attempt to create a holistic picture of the organism based on physical laws and detailed biological knowledge, and ist still a valuable guide for our contemporary efforts 79-84. The German school of Beier 85-86 has continued this tradition in biophysics.

An early tradition of holistic biophysics developed from Claude Bernard’s school in France, represented by A.d’Arsonval, W.Kopaczewski, F. Vlès, and G.Lakhovsky.

Russia has its own tradition of holistic biology, biophysics and bioelectromagnetics with the work of V.I.Vernadsky, A.L.Chizhevsky, A.G.Gurwitsch, E.Bauer, and A.S.Presman, among others.

An important contribution to holistic thinking comes from the tradition of mathematical biophysics with its concepts of optimality, and relational and similarity principles, represented by D’Arcy W.Thompson, N.Rashevsky, R.Rosen, and R.Thom.

Holistic concepts in philosophy of relevance to biology and biophysics have been developed by J.Smuts, A.N.Whitehead, O.Spann, A.Meyer-Abich, H.Conrad-Martius, H.Plessner, H.Friedmann, among others.

Last but not least, the contributions of psychosomatic medicine, such as those by V.v.Weizsäcker, F.Alexander, Flanders Dunbar, G.Groddeck, and G.R.Heyer, must be mentioned.

In the time of 1900 to 1950, holistic approaches in biology, usually connected to field concepts (see next chapter), far from being marginal, have formed one of the dominant schools of thought, at least in developmental biolog. For various reasons, the plausibility of this approach has strongly decreased from the 1950‘s. The main reason was the rise of genetics as an alternative program to explain development.

Much of this work is anything but obsolete, but it is now necessary to actualize the fundamental observations and concepts developed by these pioneers of holistic science with the up-to-date knowledge in the respective fields.

Field Concepts as a Necessary Base of Holistic Biophysics

Modern physical field theories, such as those developed by Faraday and Maxwell, have their origin in metaphysical concepts arising from the participatory consciousness of archaic man. Field and particle theories arise from complementary modes of human self- and world-experience rooted in bodily awareness, with the field perception of reality probably being much older than particle theories, which could only arise when the participatory world-view slowly gave way to individual consciousness and the perception of an objective world, by way of an increasing differentiation between inside and outside, I and the world, the subjetive and the objective, and matter and consciousness. This objectivation of the world has reached its climax in the worldview of the classical physics of the late 19th century, with the assumption that all there is to reality is solid particles assembled in various degrees of complexity.

The electromagnetic field theories of Faraday and Maxwell proposed in the second half of the last century have inspired biologists already from 1900 to the development of the first field theories, but it was only with Einstein’s General Relativity, quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, that physics overcame the mechanical world picture and conceived reality as a field phenomenon.

Biology still bases its picture of the organism on the building-stone view of classical physics which physics itself has already given up since a couple of decades. One of the first and most fundamental steps in the development of a holistic biology must therefore be not only to complement the classical view with the field aspect, but even to build its model of the organism on the field picture.

As I have shown elsewhere, the concept of the field has alraedy occupied a central place in the school of “organismic” or “holistic” biologists in the first half of this century69.

Leading biologists such as H.Spemann, R.Harrison, P.A.Weiss, J.Needham, and C.H.Waddington, A.G.Gurwitsch used the hypothesis of a biological, or morphogenetic, field, introduced by Weiss and Gurwitsch in the early 1920’s, as a tool for understanding the phenomena of development, regeneration and morphogenesis and to make predictions for experimental testing. Although their field concepts referred to the model of physical, especially electromagnetic fields, the organicists generally considered the biological field as a purely heuristic concept and left the exact nature of the fields open. The time (and electromagnetic science) was not yet ripe for the notion of real electrical, electromagnetic or otherwise physical, fields of long-range force.


At this time, there was not enough experimental evidence for the existence of bioelectromagnetic fields nor for the biological effects of EM fields. Thus, the various electromagnetic (EM) field concepts proposed since the first decades of the 20th for biology, as those by Keller, Burr, Burr & Northrop, Crile, Lund, and Lakhovsky89, were premature. The breakthrough and beginning of modern EM field theories in biology came only in 1970, with A.M.Presman’s report of the pioneering work of Soviet bioelectromagnetics researchers, which also contained a first outline of a holistic EM field theory of the organism and his relationships to the environment90. Since then, there is ample evidence for bioeffects of EM fields and endogenous EM fields. It is now established that organisms react sensitively to the impact of electromagnetic fields, including very weak ones; effects of various types of endogenous physical fierlds on cellular organization and morphogenesis are very likely. We also know that several kinds of electromagnetic fields, including microwaves and optical frequencies (biophotons), are emitted from living beings. There is also evidence that weak endogenous electrical currents are involved in regeneration and growth of new tissue; the role of ionic currents in morphogenesis and development has also been demonstrated. Communication by electromagnetic fields is established for fishes and insects, which suggests this may be a more general phenomenon.

A number of further developments have contributed to the full development of modern biological field theories. They include the work of A.Szent-Györgyi on the excitation-deexcitation dynamics in biochemistry and the role of charge transfer in the organism91-93; the work on open, non-equilibrium systems and the coordinated collective behaviour of particles culminating in Prigogine’s theory of “dissipative systems”; H.Fröhlich’s work on coherence of the EM fields coupled to these particles and connecting them 94-97; the Dicke theory of the coherent emission of coupled multiatomic emitters; the theory of quantum coherence developed by R.J.Glauber 99-101; and several recent developments in quantum optics, such as the work on non-classical light and Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.


These achievements became important elements in the “biophoton theory” developed by Popp and his group. Like most modern field-theoretical proposals, it tries to reconcile particle and field approaches. Based on the evidence for the coherent emission of ultraweak luminescence by organisms, it conceptualizes organisms as biological lasers of optically coupled emitters and absorbers operating at the laser threshold. The solid part of the organism is coupled with a highly coherent, holographical biophoton field which is proposed to be the basis of communication on all levels of organization; the components of the organism are seen to be connected in such a way by phase relations of the field, that they are instantly informed about each other at all times. The biophoton field is also postulated to be the basis of memory and the regulation of biochemical and morphogenetic processes.

A related approach, bioplasma theory, was developed from early suggestions by Szent-Györgyi, who pointed out that biomolecules in the organism are predominantly present in the excited state, and that the energetics of living systems are based on excitation-deexcitation dynamics which are also the basis of chemical bonding. Biological plasma is described as a „cold“ plasma of highly structured collective excitations produced by the dielectric polarization of biological semiconductors, which functions as a single unit. The collective excitations of the molecules propagate in the form of excitons.The complex aggregates and configurations formed by the plasma particles serve as an energy network in the organism. External and intrinsic radiation is stored in the bioplasma in the form of trapped cavity oscillations which form the biological field; it has a complex broadband holographic wave structure of great stability. The biological effects of external radiation are ascribed to resonance properties of the whole system, and not to any of its parts. Like biophoton theory, the bioplasma concept implies non-equilibrium and electronic population-inversion, and therefore laser-like processes, as postulated by Inyushin in the early 1970‘s.

Pribram’s „holographic theory of perception and memor, first proposed in 1971, has been an important contribution to modern biological field theory. It proposes that information from the sensory input is enfolded by Fourier-like transformations and stored in the brain in the form of holographic interference patterns, i.e., coherent EM fields. For reading it out in remembering, it is unfolded again by inverse Fourier transformation. In 1975 Pribram synthesized his model with the more general „holographic theory of reality“ proposed by Bohm in 197. It suggests that the organization of reality itself may be holographic, the world of objects we perceive (the „explicate order“) being a second-order manifestation of the more fundamental „implicate order“ or „holomovement“ forming the basis of the world’s fundamental unbroken wholeness.

The „holographic concept of reality” proposed by Miller et al is a useful attempt to sketch the outlines of a possible synthesis of field models emphasizing the particle aspect, like bioplasma theory, and those who focus on the connecting and/or underlying fields, like biophoton theory and the holographic theories. At the same time, it tries to elucidate the significance of biolectric phenomena and physico-chemical parameters like the acid-base and electrolytic balances and redox potentials within the bioelectromagnetic fields.

Today, the field view of the organism and its interactions is finding increasing acceptance in biology, biophysics and medicine 119.

Biophysics and Consciousness: On the Possible Role of Fields in Bridging the Mind-Body Gap

The German founders of biophysics in the early 19th century recognized consciousness as the „ultimate problem of biology“, but science at that time was not prepared to include consciousness into biophysics, although the necessity was not denied19. Today, the situation is different. Since around the turn of the century, Freud and his followers have made the problem of consciousness a central topic of a broad research effort whose results widely influenced Western society, but were hardly taken seriously by the natural sciences.

The last few years have changed this: consciousness has ceased to be a „non-subject“ and is now definitely on the scientific agenda127-128. An increassing number of authors are emphasizing the necessity of introducing consciousness into the scientific worldview, and some believe it should even become its very foundation 41,44-46,49,57,131-135. As to the consequences of a „biology without consciousness“, Efron has pointed out the disastrous epistemological confusion the exclusion of consciousness from biology has caused.

Although the highly animated discussion in consciousness research is characterized by widely divergent standpoints, the decades-long dispute about the inclusion of the observer and the possible role of consciousness in quantum mechanicshas certainly been a significant influence. As can be seen from the new discipline of „Quantum Neurodynamics“ , Pribram’s and Bohm’s holographic theories, together with Eccles‘ suggestion that fields analogous to the probability fields of quantum theory could be responsible for the coupling between consciousness processes and neural events141, have also been of considerable influence. Thus, an important segment of the most recent efforts in consciousness research is based on the hypothesis that consciousness may have a field-like nature, and/ or that fields may play a mediating role between consciousness and the biological organism. This hypothesis has already a considerable history and is more widely held than commonly is known.

It was probably W.James who first introduced the concept of a field of consciousness into modern psychology in 1890. C.G.Jung’s “Collective unconscious”, first proposed in 1917, is conceived as a deeper, fundamental field-like unitary psychophysical reality (“unus mundus”) occasionally producing “synchronicity” effects. Gestalt Theory, initated by Chr.v.Ehrenfels and W.Köhler, postulates an isomorphism between psychological and psychophysiological processes, mediated by fields analogous to Maxwell’s electromagnetic fields and not bound to the nervous substrate, whose geometrical structure mirrors that of the perceived stimuli. In the 1930’s K.Lewin proposed in his field theory of social psychology that social interactions are best understood by a field model. In the 1940’s G.Murphy developed a field concept of the organism, of personality, and of communication and suggested the existence of an interpersonal field which he thought to be part of a wider universal field. Murphy also explained Psi effects in groups as a loosening of the usual interpersonal barriers and opening up to the interpersonal field. Paul Schilder demonstrated the existence of a “body-image”, a 3-dimensional picture of the “perceived body”, different from the body of anatomy and physiology, a kind of a constantly reorganized field that is constructed from the visual, tactile, kinesthetic, postural etc. experiences of an individual’s lifetime. In 1964, Aron Gurwitsch proposed a field theory of experiential organization in the tradition of Gestalt theory, Lewin and Husserl’s phenomenology. The Russian mathematician and philosopher, V.V.Nalimov, has recently proposed a theory of the “semantic vacuum”, according to which there is a deeper, unobservable process from which ordinary, reflexive consciousness emerges which he calls the semantic vacuum, in deliberate analogy to the concept of the physical vacuum.

A school of thought that has found wide interest and has led to a new branch of neuropsychology, has its origin in the work of Pribram and Eccles. In the early 70’s K.H.Pribram has proposed that coherent holographic fields mediate between consciousness and neurological processes; J.Eccles has postulated in 1977 that consciousness has an existence independent of the brain, and that the self interacts with the body and the material world using the brain as an instrument. H.Margenau in 1984 suggested mind may be a unique type of non-material field, analogous to quantum probability fields; this suggestion was taken up in 1986 by J.Eccles who proposed that this field may modify the probability of emission of neurotransmitters at the dendritic synapse. This finally led to the formation of the new field of Quantum Neurodynamics, based on the hypothesis that brain processes are to be understood on the basis of quantum field theory and are based on quantum fields, or potentials. Long-time memory is conceived as a structured complex of vacuum states; remembering as the emission of coherent biophoton signals from the vacuum state. The coupling of neurophysiology with the “quantum sea” of the vacuum is assumed to be the basis of brain processes.

Quantum neurodynamics illustrates the many recent efforts to find approaches bridging consciousness as an entity which is not directly measurable, and the solid material aspect of the organism, with the hypothesis of a mediating field domain. Similar efforts have been made in the last few decades in many areas, not least in connection with the scientific investigation of Eastern medical systems, such as acupuncture, of contactless healing and various other phenomena.

Observations and Experimental Studies of Interpersonal Fields of Unknown Nature

The existence of electromagnetic fields emitted by living organisms, including humans, is now well established, even if there is not much established knowledge about their biological functions. On the other hand, man has a long history of subjective experience of field-like interpersonal connections which usually are relegated to the realm of imagination by the scientifically minded. More recently, however, a number of scientific experiments have to some extent given evidence for the physical reality of these field observations.

As to the observations, an important example are the studies of nonverbal behaviour that have shown a synchrony of the body motion of speakers and listeners with the speech pattern, which probably serves to establish empathic resonance. A related phenomenon is the well established phenomenon of “emotional contagion”. Psychiatrists and psychotherapists have been familiar since decades with the “praecox feeling”, the field-like aura displayed by their patients announcing impending psychosis or schizophrenic episodes, and have been well aware of the contagious nature of these states. The phenomenon of “transference” between therapist and patient is equally well known and has led a number of authors to the hypothesis of an “interpersonal field”. In “mutual hypnosis” two persons create a common psychic field which in the deeper stages can turn into a shared hallucinatory or dreamlike reality. Families may, according to some psychotherapists, possess a common unconscious and shared emotional field.

A number of recent experimental studies give evidence that such interpersonal field effects may have some physical basis. Studies of empathically bonded pairs by J.Grinberg-Zylberbaum have shown interhemispheric and interpersonal EEG coherence and the appearance of transferred (evoked) potentials in the unstimulated partner after separation by a Faraday cage. The “field-REG experiments” done by the Princeton Engineering Anomalies (PEAR) Laboratory demonstrate anomalous influence of group events with a “high degree of subjective resonance between participants”on the random output of portable random events generators (REG) that suggest the presence of a field within such groups. Experiments on distant mental influence on living systems (DMILS) show that persons are able to exert direct mental influences upon various distant biological systems shielded from all conventional informational and energetic influences.

While these experiments suggest the possible non-electromagnetic nature of the studied fields, the measurements of the “Copper-Wall Project” performed by E.Green demonstrate that in healing sessions, exceptional subjects, such as healers and sensitives, are able to generate anomalous voltage surges in electrical body potential which are transmitted to and measured by electromaters attached to the four highly polished copper walls surrounding them in some distance.

Biological Fields in the Light of Some Proposed Extensions of Electromagnetic Theory

In some of these experiments showing the existence of interpersonal field phenomena (Grinberg-Zylberbaum, DMILS) electromagnetic fields have been excluded; therefore we must use the hypothesis that some kind of probably unknown, non-electromagnetic field(s) may be involved. Recently, a number of authors have suggested that electromagnetic potentials (vector and scalar potentials) may play a role in living system, and a series of preliminary experiments (which still have to be reproduced independently) seems to show biological effects of vector potentials different from those of ordinary electromagnetic fields 147-153. It has been proposed that there may be a whole class of non-electromagnetic fields underlying electromagnetic phenomena, which have been called „subtle energies“ by some authors, following a suggestion by Einstein.

In fact, while the potentials have long been considered mere mathematical conveniences without physical reality, the reevaluation of their significance made possible by the groundbreaking paper by Aharonov & Bohm , is now opening up a new field of electromagnetic research which we suspect may turn out to be highly significant for bioelectromagnetics and biophysics in general. A number of recent attempts to formulate extensions of electromagnetic theory point to the existence of an additional, hitherto unsuspected dimension of electromagnetism, which seems to be able to interact with the very structural fabric of space and time 155,156. Aharonov & Bohm  have shown that in certain cases the potentials act as real physical fields and must even be consdered more fundamental than the electric and magnetic forces; in the experiment they proposed the potentials exert an physical effect on charged particles in a field-free volume but not in the way force-fields do – they only influence the phase, and thus are fields of information.

However, the reason for the now well proven Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect has only become evident in the wake of its analysis and generalization by Wu & Yang. Barrett  has given evidence that in the AB experiment the electromagnetic field, normally of U(1) symmetry, is „conditioned“ into SU(2) form (in other cases even higher symmetries can be obtained) by the geometrical constraints of the experiment, which adds a degree of freedom to the field allowing an interaction with the space-time metric (neutrino network) and its topological structure, and endows it with a gravitation-like essence and form. Barrett also has shown that the AB effect is only one of a whole class of effects where this is the case.

According to Tiller potentials have the important function of mediating between electromagnetic fields and the macroscopic quantum states of solid matter on the one hand, and the physical vacuum on the other hand, because of their property of controlling the phase of electromagnetic fields. He suggests that the „subtle energy“ fields of the vacuum domain, belonging to a higher dimension beyond space-time, organize the structure of space-time, which in turn, by the intermediate of the potentials, generates the corresponding electromagnetic fields. These finally give rise to the observed processes in space and time.

This hypothesis is supported by the work of Barrett on the conditioning of the electromagnetic field. In this process, the phase-controlling property of potentials is central. This is highly significant for biophysics, not only because of the coherence of biolectromagnetic fields; its importance can also be illustrated by the fact that the living organism with its many rhythmical processes basically is a complex system of oscillating fields coupled nonlinearly by their phase-relations.

Apart from potentials, a number of further non-electromagnetic fields have been forwarded in the various proposals for extensions of the Maxwell theory, as possible elements of an intermediate „subtle realm“ between particles and force fields and the vacuum, or as elements or aspects of the vacuum itself, for instance, „torsion fields“and the B(3) „ghost field“ of longitudinal magnetic polarization.

The Concept of Vacuum Biophysics

We are convinced that it is one of the central tasks of biology and biophysics, as it is of physics itself, to investigate the process of becoming and of manifestation, the arising of actuality from potentiality. It is clear that this is not yet completely realized in quantum physics, although the recent discussions about the interpretation of quantum theory and the alternatives to the Copenhagen interpretation have shown that it is groping in this direction. The same tendency can be found in the recent attempts at developing unfied theories of all physical interactions.

In the various unification programs the concept of the physical vacuum occupies a central place. „The vacuum is fast emerging as the central structure of modern physics“ (Saunders & Brown. We postulate that it also merits such a central place in biophysics 62,63,147. It has in fact already been used in a number of recent models, e.g. by Conrad, Grandpierre, Laughlin, Laszlo, Jibu & Yasue, Shacklett, and Tiller. We would not be surprised if it would turn out to be the very foundation a holistic quantum biophysics needs. The holistic quantum logic of biological processes and structures may not be sufficiently understood without the explicit inclusion of the vacuum concept into biophysics. Biophysics should be able to explain how, in the generation and development of organisms, pre-physical potentialities are transformed into physical realities. For practical reasons, it should also be interested in improving our knowledge on the more subtle, early levels of biological manifestation, where we may have access, for instance, to the formation of preconditions for illness. The assumption of a pre-physical dimension of potentiality is a prerequisite for the full understanding of life. To quote the Heisenberg pupil Hans-Peter Dürr: „Living systems prove that actuality (factuality) is not all there is, but potentiality is also important. Like all macroscopic quantum systems, they are emergences of potentialities into factuality“ 178.

We postulate that the concept of the vacuum is the appropriate framework to model the fundamental quantum-mechanical domain of potentiality. The vacuum is the „ground of being“ from which the information for the structured development and regeneration of inorganic as well as living forms arises. All the features of the unbroken wholeness of reality implicit in quantum theory – non-separability, non-locality, fundamental connectedness – which are so fundamental for biological understanding, are an expression of the properties of the vacuum. The vacuum is the origin of microscopic and macroscopic coherence, an essential feature of living organisms. And, finally, the understanding of the vacuum may provide the crucial insights on the role of consciousness in physical reality, and in the various stages in which the creativity of the ground of existence unfolds on its way from pure potentiality and information to physical manifestation.

The concept of of the quantum vacuum may provide an important tool in developing both, a holistic terminology, and a holistic methodology for the integration of biology and physics necessary for the emergence of a holistic biophysics, or quantum biophysics. Especially significant may be its usefulness as a suitable framework for the treatment of organisms as macroscopic quantum systems (cf. the significance of vacuum degeneracy).

However, it must be clarified that we are not only talking about the electromagnetic vacuum of zero-point fluctuations, but of a more inclusive and fundamental unified vacuum of all four interactions.


In biophoton research first considerations on the possible role of the vacuum have been made in the 1980‘s in connection with the stability and optical properties of DNA and the optimal signal/noise ratio in the information transfer by biophotons. The central role that the vacuum plays in the Dicke theory and in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics is well known. In 1985, Popp has suggested that biophoton emission as measured may arise from a non-measurable, virtual, delocalized, highly coherent field within the tissue, denoted by him as the realm of „potential information“ in the organism; he conjectured it may be a kind of vacuum state 179-180.

More recently, Zeiger has developed a „superfluid vacuum model“ for understanding the biophoton emission of seeds and its connection to their viability. According to this model, seed vitality and biophoton emission are two parallel expressions of the same underlying reality: the superfluid Bose-condensate of photons. He proposes that the radiation field coupled to biological systems has to be understood on the basis of a twofold ground state. It consists, on the one hand, of a non-perturbative, collective-coherent state responsible for stability, internal communication and photon storage, which endowes the organism with a quiet background field connecting all its components by long-range phase relations with each other and with the environment. The second ground state, a perturbative, fluctuating-coherent state consisting of the excitations of the collective-coherent state, is responsible for flexibility, adaptation and external communication, and from it the observed biophotons are emitted. The two states are separated by an energy gap which controls the behaviour of the system and is a basic measure for the overall state of the organism. It is a parameter that promises to become an important new tool in biophysics proving additional information on the living system. Zeiger’s model may be a significant step in the biophysical modelling of the process of the emergence of „becoming“ from the potentiality of the „ground of being“.

Thus, if we speak of the electromagnetic field, or biophoton field, of cells, tissues or of the whole organism, as opposed to the biophoton emission measured, we may actually be dealing not with an electromagnetic field in the usual sense, but with a virtual field, or vacuum state. This has actually been proposed by Bearden181-183 and is partially supported by the work of Barrett and others, already mentioned, on one or more deeper level(s) of electromagnetism.

If we define vacuum physics as that branch of physics concerned with the fundamental pre-physical level of potentiality from which matter and fields arise and which contains the information for their dynamic structuring processes, I suggest that the corresponding field of biophysics concerned with the investigation of the biological role of the physical vacuum and of the mediating role of potentials and other nonelectromagnetic fields between the vacuum on the one hand and force fields and solid matter on the other hand, should be called „vacuum biophysics“. It may become an important theoretical element and research subject of the new biophysics.

Under the above assumptions a hierarchy of levels of biological function, or regulation systems, based on fields, may be envisaged as a working hypothesis, where we have, between the solid body on the one hand, and consciousness on the other hand, the intermediate levels of holitic regulation systems and physiological-biochemical regulation, bioenergetic (EM) fields, and finally bioinformation fields.


Can physics deliver another biological revolution ? There is good evidence it indeed can and will, but it is not the further perfection of the reductionist program of molecular-biological control of life devised in the 1930’s that will produce the much needed revolution, but rather the renewal of the alternative tradition of holistic understanding in biophysics whose features are now beginning to emerge more clearly. It will draw on the still valid findings of the various holistic approaches in physics and the biomedical sciences of the first half of the last century which it will actualize by linking them to the many recent advances in physics and molecular biology, and it will incorporate the interaction of consciousness with biological matter as a key element in understanding the phenomena of life. The new holistic biophysics will be based on a field model of the organism and its interactions with other living systems and the environment; besides electromagnetic fields it will also consider the possible role of novel, non-electromagnetic fields and of the physical vacuum in biological processes.

About Mathematical Biology (Robert Rosen)


Scaling means logarithmic scale-invariance. Scaling is a basic quality of fractal structures and processes. The Global Scaling Theory explains why structures and processes of nature are fractal and the cause of logarithmic scale-invariance.

Scaling in Physics

 In 1967 / 68 Richard P. Feyman and James D. Bjorken discovered the phenomenon of logarithmic scale-invariance (scaling) in high energy physics, concrete in hadron collisions.

 Simon E. Shnoll found scaling in the distributions of macroskopic fluctuations of nuclear decay rates. Since 1967 his team discovers fractal scaling in the fluctuation distributions of different physical and chemical processes, as well as in the distributions of macroskopic fluctuations of thermic noise processes.

 In 1982 – 84, Hartmut Müller discovered scaling further in the distributions of elementary particles, nuclei and atoms dependent on their masses, and in the distributions of asteroids, moons, planets and stars dependent on their orbital properties, sizes and masses

 Scaling in Seismicity

Within the fifties Beno Gutenberg and Charles Richter have shown, that exists a logarithmic invariant (scaling) relationship between the energy (magnitude) and the total number of earthquakes in any given region and time period.

Scaling in Biology

In 1981, Leonid L. Chislenko published his work on logarithmic scale-invariance in the distribution of biological species, dependent on body size and weight of the organisms. By introducing a logarithmic scale for biologically significant parameters, such as mean body weight and size, Chislenko was able to prove that sections of increased specie representation repeat themselves in equal intervals (ca. 0.5 units of the log based 10 scale). See lso the Law of Kleiber

In 1984, Knut Schmidt-Nielsen was able to prove logarithmic scale-invariance in the construction of the organisms and in metabolic processes.

In 1981, Alexey Zhirmunsky and Viktor Kuzmin discovered process-independent logarithmic scale invariance in the development stages in embryo-, morpho- and ontogenesis and in geological history.

Scaling in Neurophysiology

We live in a logarithmic world. All of our senses perceive the logarithm of a signal, not the linear intensity of the signal itself. That is why we measure sound volume in decibels, and consequently in logarithmic units.

Sounds whose frequencies differentiate themselves by double, quadruple or eight-times, we perceive as a, a’ or a’’, the same sound. This property of our sense of hearing makes it possible for us to differentiate harmony from disharmony. The harmonic sound sequence 1/2 (Octave), 2/3 (Fifth), 3/4 (Fourth), 4/5 (Major Third), and so forth is logarithmic, hyperbolic scale-invariant.

Our sense of touch is also calibrated logarithmically. Assuming that one holds in the left hand 100 grams and in the right hand 200 grams; if one then adds 10 grams to the left hand, then 20 grams must be added to the right hand in order to sense the same weight increase. This fact is known in Sensing Physiology as the Weber-Fechner Law (Ernst Heinrich Weber, 1795 – 1878, Gustav Theodor Fechner, 1801 – 1887): The strength of a sensory impression is proportional to the logarithm of strength of the stimulus.

The Weber-Fechner law also touches on our senses of smell and sight. The retina records only the logarithm, not the number of impinging photons. That is why we can see not only in sunlight but also at night. Whereas, the number of impinging photons varies by billionths, the logarithm varies only by twentieths. (ln 1000,000,000 ≈ 20.72)

Our vision is logarithmically calibrated not only in regards our perception of the intensity of light, but also relative to the lights wave length which we perceive as colors.

Our ability to judge lineal distances is based on the possibility of comparison of sizes and the determination of relative measurement scales. The linear perspective assumes a constant size proportion that is defined by size enlargement or reduction factor. This factor is multiplied several times with itself in the perspective. From this an exponential function is defined which argument is a logarithm.

The function of our sense organs is concerned with acoustic or electromagnetic wave processes. The logarithmic scale-invariant perception of the world is a consequence of the logarithmic scale- invariant, construction of the world.

Scaling in Mathematics 

All natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 … can be constructed from prime numbers. Prime numbers are natural numbers that are only divisible by the number 1 and themselves without leaving a remainder; accordingly, the numbers 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31 … are quasi elementary parts of the real number continuum. The distribution of the prime numbers among the natural numbers is irregular to such an extent that formula for this distribution cannot be defined. Of course, prime numbers become found more seldom the further one moves along the number line. Already in 1795, Carl Friedrich Gauß noticed this. He discovered that the set p1(n) of prime numbers up to the number n could be calculated approximate according to the formula p1(n) = n / ln

  1. The larger the value of n, the more precisely is this law fulfilled; and means that the distribution of the set of prime numbers among the natural numbers is scale-invariant

Non-prime numbers can clearly be represented as products of prime numbers. One could also say that non-prime numbers are prime-number clusters. This means that non-prime numbers are composed from several prime numbers. In this interpretation, one can derive the prime-factor density distribution on the number line.

The logarithmic scale-invariance of the distribution of the prime numbers is a fundamental property of the continuum of numbers. Moreover, this is the only non-trivial statement that holds true for all prime numbers.

Logarithmic scale-invariance of the prime-factor density distribution means that one can speak about a standing density-wave in the number continuum. The prime factors, 2 and 3 produce the base-oscillation, and early prime factors produce the spectrum of overtones.

From the Model to the Theory

Oscillations are the most energetically efficient kind of movement. For this reason, all matter, not only each atom, but also the planetary system and our galaxy, oscillate and light is an unfolding oscillation and, naturally, the cells and organs of our bodies also oscillate

Based on their energy efficiency, oscillatory processes determine the organization of matter at all levels – from atoms to galaxies

In his most meaningful work, “World Harmonic”, Johannes Kepler established the bases for harmonic research. Building on the ancient musical ‘World Harmony’ of the Pythagoreans, Kepler developed a cosmology of harmonics.

Global Scaling research continues this tradition.

The Melody of Creation

Scaling arises very simply – as a consequence of natural oscillation processes. Natural oscillations are oscillations of matter that already exist at very low energy levels. Therefore they lose few energy, and likewise fulfill the conservation law of energy.

The energy of an oscillation is dependent on its amplitude as well as on its frequency (events per time unit)

Consequently, the following is valid for natural oscillations: The higher the frequency, the less the amplitude. For natural oscillations, the product of frequency and wave length as well as the product of frequency and amplitude are conserved. They limit the speed of propagation of oscillations in mediums, or the speed of deflection.

A standing wave in a homogeneous space arises only if in the direction of the wave penetration the space is finite and if the half wave length is equal to an integer part of the medium size.

As a consequence we can find for any low enough resonant oscillation mode frequency f0 a higher mode frequency f1 with an integer relationship n = f1 / f0. The frequencies of such resonant oscillation modes generate exponential series

Therefore, the complete resonant oscillation frequency spectrum can be represented as a set of logarithmic fractal spectra (1) with natural n = 1, 2, 3, … In this representation the generation of the complete resonant oscillation frequency spectrum can be understood as an arithmetical task, what can be reduced to the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, that every natural number greater than 1 can be written as a unique product of prime numbers.

In our example, the oscillation period of the 1. mode is three times longer that the period of the 2. mode, nine times longer than the period of the 3. mode and 27 times longer that the period of the 4. mode. From this follows the logarithmic, fractal, construction of the (repeating itself in all scales) oscillation representation. In this connection, one speaks of scale-invariance (Scaling). In nature Scaling is distributed widely – from the elementary particles to the galaxies. It is in this connection that one speaks of Global Scaling.

Natural oscillations of matter produce logarithmic, fractal spectrums of the frequencies, wave- lengths, amplitudes and a logarithmic fractal network of oscillating nodes in space.

In physical mediums, base-tones, upper- or undertones are produced simultaneously, and in this there arise consonances and dissonances. Not only our hearing can distinguish consonance from dissonance; this capability extends to all matter, and has to do with the energy expenditure necessary to produce an overtone.

A musical ‘Fifth’ arises most easily (the least expense of energy per oscillation period), because merely a frequency doubling and trebling is necessary in order to produce an overtone in interval of 3/2 of the base frequency. Somewhat more energy is necessary to produce a musical ‘Fourth’, 4/3, while this additionally requires a quadrupling of the base frequency; and even more energy is necessary for the production of the larger musical ‘third’, 6/5, of the same amplitude, and so forth.

The musical intervals accordingly play an energetic, key-role in the spectrum of the natural- oscillation-modes. In fact, this spectrum is constructed like the spectrum of a melody.

Natural oscillations of matter are probably the most important structure-forming factor in the Universe. For this reason one finds fractal proportions everywhere in nature. The logarithmic, fractal distribution of matter in the universe is a consequence of natural oscillation processes in cosmic, space and time measurement scales. In this connection, one speaks of the “Melody of Creation”.

Leonhard Euler: About Continued Fractions and FRactal Geometry

In the works “About Continued Fractions” (1737) and “About the Oscillations of a String” (1748), Leonhard Euler formulated problems whose solutions would keep the field of mathematics busy for 200 years.9

Euler investigated natural oscillations of an elastic, mass-less string of pearls. In connection with this task, d’Alembert developed his method of integration for a system of linear differential equations. Daniel Bernoulli asserted his known statement that the solution of the problem of the free-oscillating string can be represented as trigonometric sequence, something which started a discussion between Euler, d’Alembert and Bernoulli lasting a decade. Later, Lagrange showed more correctly how one arrives at the solution of the problem of oscillations of a string-of-pearls and the solution of the problem of a homogenous string. The problem-solution was first completely solved by Fourier in 1822

Almost insurmountable problems arose in the meantime with pearls of various mass and irregular distribution. This task led to functions with gaps (or voids). After a letter from Charles Hermite, May 20, 1893, who additionally added, “Reject in nervous horror the lamentable annoyance of the functions without derivative”; T. Stieltjes investigated functions with discontinuities and found an integration method for these functions which led to continued fractions.

Meanwhile, Euler already recognized that complex, oscillating systems can contain such solutions (integral) that themselves are not overall differentiateable, and left behind to the future mathematical world an analytical “monster” – that is, the non-analytic functions (this term was chosen by Euler himself).

Non-analytic functions provided ample and profuse study up to the 20th century, after the identity crises in mathematics, appeared to be conquered.

The crises began, and lasted until about 1925, when Emil Heinrich Bois Reymond, in 1875, reported for the first time about a Weierstrass constructed continuous, but non-differentiable function. The main players were Cantor, Peano, Lebesgue and Hausdorff; and as a result, a new branch of mathematics was born – Fractal Geometry.

About Fractals

Fractal comes from the Latin ‘fractus’ and means “broken-up-in-pieces” and “irregular.” Fractals are consequently distinct, fragmentary, tricky mathematical objects. Mathematics in the 19th Century considered these objects as exceptions and from there, tried to derive fractal-objects from regular, continuous and smooth structures.

The theory of fractal groups made possible in-depth investigations in “non-analytic”, manifold, granular or fragmentary forms. It immediately it becomes apparent that fractal structures are by no means so infrequently encountered in the world. More fractal objects are discovered in nature than ever suspected. Moreover, it suddenly seemed as if the entire natural universe were fractal.

Especially, works of Mandelbrot finally advanced the geometry to the position where fractal objects could be mathematically correctly described: fragmented crystal-lattices, Brownian motion of gas molecules, complex, giant polymer-molecules, irregular star-clusters, cirrus-clouds, the Saturn rings, the distribution of moon-craters, turbulences in fluids, bizarre coast-lines, snake-like river- streams, faults in mountain-chains, development branches of the most varied kinds of plants, surface areas of islands and lakes, mineral-formations, geological sediments, the distribution in space of raw-material-occurrences, and, and, and……

A deciding factor in the accurate treatment of fractal objects was the introduction of real and also irrational dimensions, in contrast with the whole-number dimensions of Euclidean Geometry.

Let’s consider an example: In Euclidean Geometry, a disappearing, small grain-of-sand has dimension 0. A line – dimension 1. But which dimension does sequence of grains-of-sand arranged one after the other?

The Euclidean point of view only knows boundary conditions: Either one proceeds on a wide path – until one cannot recognize anymore grains-of-sand and then assigns to this object the dimension 1, or one recognizes the grains-of-sand as objects of dimension 0. and while it is usually known that 0=0=…+0 = 0, the grains-of-sand, are likewise assigned dimension 0. That through this the essential is lost is obvious.

The first step of an in-depth analysis of this situation was undertaken by Cantor in his letter of June 20th, 1877 to Dedekind, the next was followed by Peano in 1890.

The mathematicians recognized that an accurate understanding of fractal structures could not be reached when one defines ‘dimensions’ as a number of coordinates. Therefore, in 1919 Hausdorff defined a new conception of dimension. The fractal (broken) dimension D completed the topological (whole-number) dimension through logarithmic values.

The fractal dimension of a grain-of-sand sequence of N grains-of-sand of the relative (In comparison to the total length of the sequence) size 1/k, where D = log(N) / log(k). Assuming a sequence of 100 grains-of-sand is 100 mm in length and the size of a grain-of- sand 1 mm. Then D = log (100) / log (100) = 1. However, if the sequence only consists of 50 grains-of-sand, then D = log (50) / log (100) = 0.849485. The fractal dimension D is, accordingly, a measure for the fragmentary nature of an object. The larger the gaps, the further D is from integer number values.

The application of the Hausdorff-Dimension in geometry now makes it possible to deal with not only completely irregular real mathematical objects, but at the same time provides the formula for the creation of home-made fractal creations. The creation of various Mandelbrot- und Julia-groups using the computer gave rise to a popular mathematical sport. The Mandelbrot-group is still today the object of non-resolved theoretical investigations. However, it is important that these through mathematics that their connections become visible, and are being investigated in the most varied of specialist fields.

Nevertheless, the fractal ‘Grain-of-sand’ sequence strongly reminds of Euler’s ‘String-of-Pearls.’ Both of these objects are fractal.

In 1950, the Leningrad mathematicians, F. R. Gantmacher and M.Krein regarded the line-of-deflection of an oscillating string of pearls as a broken line. This initial step even enabled them a fractal view of the problem, without which they were unaware (Mandelbrots Classic “Fractal Objects”, appeared in 1975 and was his first works of which 50 were in the field of Linguistics). They first brought the Fractal visibly into the situation, and to completely solve (and also for the most general case) the 200 year old Euler Problem of the oscillating “Sting-of-Pearls” for variable masses and irregular

In their work, “Oscillation-matrices, Oscillation-nuclei, and Small Oscillations of Mechanical Systems” (Leningrad, 1950, Berlin, 1960), Gantmacher and Krein show that Stieltjes-Continued- Fractions are solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equations for natural oscillating systems. These continued fractions produce fractal spectrums.

In the same year, the comprehensive work of Oskar Perron appeared “The Theory of Continued- Fractions.” The theme was also worked on by N. I. Achieser in his work, “The Classical Moment Problem and Some Associated Questions About the Analysis (Moscow 1961). Terskich generalized the (with regard to the contents) Continued-fraction method on the analyses of Fundamental-oscillating, branching chain-systems (Terskich, V. P., The Continued-fraction Method, Leningrad, 1955). Khintchine resolved the meaning of Continued-fractions in arithmetic and algebra (Khintchine, A. J., Continued fractions. University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1964).

Additional works by Thiele, Markov, Khintchine, Murphy, O’Donohoe, Chovansky, Wall, Bodnar, Kučminskaja, and Skorobogat’ko, etc. helped lead to the final break-through for the continued- fraction method, and in 1981 enabled the development of efficient algorithms for the addition and multiplication of continued-fractions.

Each real number – and also each measurable value – can be clearly represented as a ‘normed’ continued fraction (all partial denominators are 1). Finite, normed continued fractions converge to rational numbers. Infinite continued fractions converge to irrational numbers.

The simplest continued fraction generates the ‘Golden Number’ proportion. All of its elements are Supposedly this is why the ‘Golden Mean’ is so wide-spread in nature. The sequence {1, 1/2, 2/3, 3/5, 5/8, 8/13, 13/21, 21/34, …} produce the sequence of Fibonacci-numbers.

A quite special structure is exhibited by the continued fraction of the Euler-number e= 71828 … This continued fraction contains the sequence of all natural numbers and the sequence of all musical intervals.

The convergent Continued-fraction for e is composed of the reciprocals of the musical intervals (Prime 1/1, Octave 1/2, Fifth 2/3, Fourth 3/4, Major Third 4/5, Minor Third 5/6, ….).

The number 1 – and each other integer number – also can be represented as a continued fraction.

In its continued-fraction representation, every number is an oscillation-attractor. Khinchine could prove that convergent continued-fractions yield the best approximations of the irrational numbers because they themselves converge the most quickly on the eigenvalue of the continued-fraction.