Introduction

When we Look with our Eyes and not with our Mind we can See that Space looks very different from what we Think it is. In Our Space Parallel Lines meet at Infinity.

Around 1400 during the Renaissance Painters started to look at Space with their own Eyes and discovered the Rules of Perspective Drawing.

Between 1600-1800 Perspective Theory changed from a Theory of Art to a Theory of Mathematics called Projective Geometry.

It took 400 Years before a few Mathematicians realized that Projective Geometry was the Foundation of Mathematics and it took another 100 years before Projective Geometry started to influence Physics.

In 1908 Hermann Minkowski discovered that Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity could be analysed using Projective Geometry. Minkowski created a 4D Space-Time Metric Geometry in which he added one Time Dimension.

Many experiments now show that 4D-Space-Time  is not sufficient to incorporate what Time Really is.

The essence of Our Universe is Movement, Expanding Space,  and Movement = Space/Time (Space Divided By Time).

Both Time and Space are 3-Dimensional and represent a Different,  Reciprocal, Complementary (Dual), View on Movement.

We can move independently in Time OR Space and in Time AND Space (The Chronotope).

The Future is Expanding Space with Infinite Potential.

Time moves behind Space and Scales Space.

A Mathematical Theory of Perspective Drawing could only be developed when the Renaissance freed painters to depict Nature in a way closer to what they Observed.

In the Middle Ages Social Status was very important. Important People or Buildings were always emphasized.

In the Renaissance the Artists started to look with their own Eyes and Created Pictures where the Viewer looked through the Eyes of the Painter.

The Florentine architect Filippo Brunelleschi (1337-1446) studied Greek Geometry, developed a theory of perspective and undertook painting just to apply his geometry.

The first treatise, Della pittura (1435) by Leone Battista Alberti (1404-72) furnished most of the rules.

Alberti regarded mathematics as the common ground of Art and the Sciences. “To make clear my exposition in writing this brief commentary on painting,” Alberti began his treatise Della pittura, “I will take first from the mathematicians those things which my subject is concerned”.

Alberti stressed that “all steps of learning should be sought from nature“. The ultimate aim of an artist is to imitate nature.

Alberti did not mean that artists should imitate nature objectively, as it is, but the artist should be especially attentive to beauty, “for in painting beauty is as pleasing as it is necessary“.

The work of art is according to Alberti so constructed that it is impossible to take anything away from it or add anything to it, without impairing the beauty of the whole.

Beauty was for Alberti “the harmony of all parts in relation to one another,” and subsequently “this concord is realized in a particular number, proportion, and arrangement demanded by harmony“.

Alberti’s thoughts on harmony were not new – they could be traced back to Pythagoras – but he set them in a fresh context, which well fit in with the contemporary Aesthetic Discourse.

One of the earliest Artists to produce a book on how to draw in perspective was Albrecht Dürer. As well as discussing geometric methods, he also illustrated his book with a set of woodcuts showing practical tools for accurate perspective drawing. Other Artists like Leonardo Da Vinci developed comparable tools.

Projective Geometry formalizes one of the Central Principles of Perspective Drawing and of Human Perception: Parallel Lines Meet at Infinity.

In Euclidean geometry, constructions are made with Ruler (Line) and Compass (Circle). Projective Geometry only require a Ruler.

In Projective Geometry one Never Measures Any Thing, instead, one Relates one Set of Points to another by a Line.

Alberti was the first to ask what two pictures have in common if two drawing screens are interposed between the viewer and the object, and the object is projected onto both resulting in two different pictures of the same scene.

The basic idea behind Linear Perspective is simple: in every painting an artist creates a “floor” or area of the painting where the figures and/or objects will be placed. The floor ends at a horizon line, and the horizon line has a Vanishing Point or Point of Convergence on it.

The artist then draws parallel lines radiating from the vanishing point outward. Images closest to the vanishing point should appear smaller and closer together, and images farthest from the vanishing point should appear larger and farther apart, giving the impression of depth and space in the painting.

Pappus of Alexandria ( 290 – 350), one of the last great Greek mathematicians of Antiquity, proved that that given one set of points A, B, C on a line, and another set of points a, b, c on another line, then the intersection points X, Y, Z of line pairs Ab and aB, Ac and aC, Bc and bC are also on a Line. This line originates at the Vanishing Point.

Later Desargues (1591-1661) proved Pappus Theorem for Triangels. He proved that the three vertices of one triangle a, b, and c, and those of the other A, B, and C meet in a third point, and that these three points all lie on a common line called the Axis of Perspectivity.

Later Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) proved Pappus Theorem for Conics (Circles, Parabola, Hyperbola) in his  “Essay on Conics” (1640) when he was 16 years of Age.

About the Four Points of the Cross-Ratio

Finally 400 years later in 1803 Lazare Carnot found the answer to the Question of Leone Battista Alberti.

In his book “Géométrie de Position” he proved that the so called “Cross-Ratio” is always preserved in a Projection with One Point of View.

The Cross-Ratio is the Ratio of the Ratio of the Four Points A,B,C,D lying on a Line that intersects the Four Lines defined by a,b,c,d that orginate at the Vanishing Point O.  Carnot  proved that (AB)(CD)/(AC)(BD) = (A′B′)(C′D′)/(A′C′)(B′D′).

The Cross Ratio is not only the Cross-Ratio of the Four Points A,B,C,D. It is also the Cross-Ratio of the Four Lines  and the Three Angles that originate out of the Vanishing Point. In this case (AB)(CD)/(AC)(BD)=Sin(AB) x Sin(CD)/Sin (AC) x Sin (BD).

This principle is called Duality. In 2D-Projective Geometry Connected Points and Lines, called an Incidence, are interchangeable.

There is a corresponding Duality in three-dimensional Projective Geometry between Points and Planes. Here, the line is its own Duality, because it is determined by either two points or two planes.

Two examples: 2D: Two distinct Points determine a unique Line and two distinct Lines determine a unique Point. 3-D:  Three distinct Points not all on the same Line determine a unique Plane and three distinct Planes not all containing the same Line determine (meet in) a unique Point.

The 24 Permutations of A,B,C and D produce 6 possible values of the Cross-Ratio, depending on the order in which the points are given. If k = 1, the other Cross-Ratio’s are 0 and infinity. This happens when point A = point D. In this case the Geometric Entity is an Equilateral Triangle.

If k = -1, the other Cross-Ratio’s are -1/2 and 2. This is called a Harmonic Cross-Ratio. This happens when the Internal Ratio of AC determinated by B is Equal to the External Ratio of AC determinated by D. When k=-1/2 and 2 the Geometric Entity is a Square.

If the Four Points of the Cross-Ratio are on a Line or a Circle, then the Cross Ratio is a Real Number, otherwise the Cross-Ratio is a Complex Number.

About the Four Layers of Geometry and the Four Points of the Cross-Ratio

In 1872 Felix Klein, published a new Mathematical Research Program called the Erlangen Program under the title Vergleichende Betrachtungen über neuere geometrische Forschungen.

In this program Projective Geometry was emphasized as the Unifying Frame for all other Geometries.

Although lines in the Projective Plane meet in one point of Infinity Klein argued that there could be two points of Infinity if the Projective Plane was a Surface Closed in Itself.

When we look at the Origin of Projective Geometry, the Artist painting A Sphere, Earth, on a Flat Surface, it is not difficult to realize that this Closed Surface is a Sphere.

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Geometry is now divided into Four  Layers. Each Layer adds a set of Assumptions that creates certain Invariants for that Layer.

An invariant is a property of a configuration of Geometric Entities that is not altered by any transformation belonging to the specific layer.

A transformation is an operation applied to a Geometric Entity. The most common transformations are Translation, Rotation and their Combinations (Reflection).

What we will see is that the Four Points of the Cross-Ratio are highly related to the Four Layers. In Every Higher Layer One Point of the Cross-Ratio is moved to the Internal Landscape, the Mind, of the Observer. This principle is called “As Within so Without“.

The First and most fundamental Layer is the Layer of Projective Geometry. This is the Layer of Human Perception and is invariant under the Cross-Ratio also called a Moebius Transformation.

The Second Layer is called Affine Geometry. In this layer Parallel Lines are preserved and the Assumption of a Plane at Infinity, the Horizon,  is created.  This Plane generates Parallel and Orthogonal Relationships between Geometric Entities by placing One of the Four Points of the Cross-Ratio in the Plane at Infinity.

Affine Geometry is Euclidean Geometry with congruence (something is the same when Shape and Size are the Same) and a metric (a definition of a Distance) left out. An affine transformation preserves straight lines and ratios of distances between points lying on a straight line.

This the layer of  the Emotions, “the harmony of all parts in affinity to one another” of  Leone Batista Alberti.  In Affine Geometry the Frame of Reference of the Painter, the Floor,  is created. On this Floor,  the Horizon, the Plane at Infinity is drawn.  From the Point of View of the Observer, it is not possible  to Judge Distance or the-Sameness because a given Visual Object may be Large and Far away or Small and Close.

The Third Layer, Metric Geometry, adds the concept of Distance (Metric, Scale) to the Affine Layer. A Distance is a relation between Two Points of the Cross-Ratio. This is the Layer of the Painter, Creator, Observer, who creates his own Distance to the Distances he is Painting in the External Frame he is looking at.

Since Projective Space is the Space of Actual Perception, the true function of Metric Space is the Coordination of Various Perspectives. This is illustrated in Perspective Drawing, in which there are always Two Perspectives being Coordinated—the Vanishing Point and a Point just behind the Eyes of the Observer.  Each of these is an instance of the One Point at Infinity.

The last, Fourth,  Layer is the layer of Euclidian Geometry. In Euclidean Geometry Distance is Fixed (not Relative) and Scaled to a Unity (Meters). This leaves us with just One Point of the Cross-Ratio, the Unity, the One.

Between  1926 and  his death in 1983 Alfred Tarski worked on the Axiomatization of Euclidean Geometry. In Tarski’s system there is only one type of Object: the One, The Point.

There are just two Geometrical notions between Points: the Ternary Relation of “in-Betweenness” and the Quaternary Relation of “Equidistance” or Congruence.  Betweenness captures the Affine aspect of Euclidean Geometry; Equidistance/Congruence, its Metric aspect.

This is the Layer of the Human Expectation who has not Distanced Itself and is Looking Outside Through a Small Hole at the Future. The Expectation considers the Future as an Extension of the Past (Memory).

In Euclidian Geometry we have to Move Outside to the Objects to Measure their Distance and the Sameness with a Pre-Defined Unity.

If we don’t move to the Object we will measure an Illusion.

About Space measured by Time and Space measured by Space

The Ancient Sumerians  knew that the Length of one side of a Hexagon is the same length as is the Radius of the Circle that circumscribes this Hexagon (See Pascals Theorem).

They also knew that the Stars of the Constellations of the Zodiac shift Counterclockwise, at the rate of 72 years/degree, because of the Precession of the Earth’s axis. One Wobble takes 25.920 years.

The length of one side of the Earth Hexagon is therefore the Distance traveled by the Constellations of the Zodiac along the horizon during 25.920/6=4,320 years.

They then subdivided this distance by 7,200  which produced the Royal Mile that was subdivided into 1,760 Royal Cubits.

Before 3.117 BC the complete Earth was covered with a uniform Geodesic System that was based on the Rotation and Precession of the Constellations of the Zodiac. This System was implemented in the Megaliths.

At that Time Space was measured by Time.

The Physical System of the Megaliths was destroyed by the Great Flood of 3.117 BC but the Metric System survived thousands of years until the French Revolution.

On the 8th of May, 1790, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand at the end of the French Revolution, proposed before the National Assembly in Paris a Change to a Decimal Measurement System.

The Academy of Science recommended that the new definition for a Meter be equal to 1/10,000,000 of the distance between the North Pole and the Equator, and this was accepted by the National Assembly in 1791.

From that Time on Space was measured by Space.

Why the Future contains Infinite Possibilities

A Painter or a Human always looks Forwards in Space. If there are Parallel Lines visible they all Converge to a Vanishing Point at The  Horizon. The Horizon is a Parallel Line at Infinity.

We all know that the Parallel Line of the Horizon is caused by the fact that the Earth is a Moving Sphere. This Moving Sphere moves around other Spheres that move around other Spheres.

The Rotation of the Spheres in Space is used as a Clock. Every time when the Cycle of the Spheres repeats itself we add one unit to a standard Time-Measure. One Sun Cycle is named a Year. One Cycle of the Precession takes 25,920 Years.

We Measure our Time by the Cyclic Movement of Objects in Space. The Cyclic Movements caused by the Rotations of Objects around Objects (around Objects) is really a Rotating Rotating Rotation, a Spiraling Spiral.

We don’t live in the Sphere but we live and Move on the Surface of a  Moving Sphere. That is why our Geometry is an Elliptic Geometry (or Projective Geometry).

Euclides and Pythagoras were aware of Projective Geometry (See also Pappus) but the Scientists of the Enlightenmentstarted to interpret their Theory with a Different Eye. They saw Numbers in a completely different way the Greek did.

The Scientist disconnected Number from Magnitude (Form) and created an Abstract Static Number Theory and an Abstract  Static Theory of Physics. The Movement of our Universe, the Ether, came to a stilstand.

The Theory of Perspective Drawing, based on our Real Perception of Reality, is the same theory that generated Projective Geometry. We are now back to Normal again.

In the blog about Geometric Algebra I wrote about a very Independent Thinker called Dewey B. Larson.

He reinvented Physics and Projective Geometry in his own way, Calculated all the well known Physical Constants and based his Theory on a simple well know Assumption that Space and Time are Reciprocal (A Ratio of Ratio’s , the Cross-Ratio) because Velocity= dS(pace)/dT(ime).

Moving Movement is the Essence of our Reality.

What Larson calls “Motion” is the Ether Wind (or the Higgs Field) the Velocity which was measured in the North-South (Z) direction at 208 km/s in 1933 by Dayton C. Miller.

Einstein believed the results of the Michelson-Morley Experiments in 1887 that “proved” that the Moving Ether was non-existent. Now we know that the experiments were wrong.  Einstein also did not believe that Space was Expanding. At this moment the Expanding Universe is confirmed by many observations.

When Space Expands,  Time Compresses and fills up the Space to Keep Balance. Time Scales Space.

Space moves to Infinity. Time Moves to the Inverse of Infinity, Zero. Space is measured by the Linear Visible Scalar Number-System. Time is Measured with the Rotational Invisible Imaginary Number System.

Expanding Space is Linear Motion. Time is the Spiraling Motion of the Vortex.

Space is Yang and Time is Yin. Yin is feminine, Curved, Rotational, smooth or cold. Yang is masculine, Straight, Linear, rough or hot.

Space and Time are Complementary Duals that Move Around the Void.

If we look at the Human Perspective we now are able to understand what Time and Space Really are.

When we Look Forward we Experience Space. Time is always Behind our Back.

Human Senses and Conventional, Scientific Equipment can only Look Forward and therefore Measure Space (Distance) and the Change of Space (Velocity, Acceleration).

This is a Limitation of our Physical Sensory System, which evolved to measure Space, Scaled by Time, to produce what we Perceive as Causality–a Linear Ordering of Events.

Without the Cause-and-Effect System, the Sensory World of Space would just become Chaos.

Time, History, is Always Behind Us and Space, The Future, The Adjacent Possible, with Infinite Possibilities, is Always in Front of Us.

Let’s Move.

Generalized Projective Geometry

Paul Dirac: About Physics and Projective Geometry

About Expanding Space and Not-Euclidian Geometry

Pictures of the Projective Plane

About the Reciprocal Theory of Dewey B. Larson

About Projective Geometry and our Senses

About Projective Geometry and Geometric Algebra

About the Four Points of View

Why the Future is Open Space

About Alchemy and the Klein Bottle

We have lost the relationship between Number and Form or Number and Magnitude as the Ancient Greeks called their Forms.

A few years ago a Revolution in Mathematics and Physics has started. This revolution is caused by Geometric Algebra.

In Geometric Algebra the Ancient Theories of Euclid and Pythagoras are reevaluated.

Numbers are Scalar (Quantum) Movements of Geometric Patterns and not Static Symbols of Abstractions that have nothing to do with our Reality.

Movements and not Forces are the Essence of Physics.

The basic rule Movement = Space/Time (v=s/t) shows that  Time and Space are two Reciprocal 3D-Spaces. Our Senses Experience Space and not Time.

The Simple Rule N/N=1/1=1 balances the Duals of Space and Time. One Unit Step in Space is always Compensated by One Unit Step in Time.

Geometric Algebra has a strange relationship with Pascals Triangle. This Triangle, also called the Binomial Expansion, contains all the Possible Combinations of two Independent Variables. Our Universe is a Combination of Combinations exploring Every Possibility.

The last and perhaps most important Discovery in Mathematics called Bott Periodicity shows itself in Pascals Triangle.

Bott Periodicity proves that we live in a Cyclic Fractal Universe, the Wheel of Fortune, that is Rotating around the Void, the Empty Set. The Empty Set contains Every Thing that is Impossible in our Universe.

This blog is not a Scientific Article. I have tried to connect the Old Sciences and the New Sciences in my own Way.

It contains many links to Scientific Articles and even Courses in Geometric Algebra.

So if you want to Dig Deeper Nothing will Stop You.

About the One and the Dirac Delta Function

Every Thing was created out of  No Thing, the Empty Set, ɸ, the Void, the Tao. The Empty Set contains 0 objects.

The Empty Set is not Empty. It contains Infinite (∞) Possibilities that are Impossible.

Every impossibility has a probability of 0 but the sum of all possibilities (1/∞=0) is always 1. In the beginning ∞/∞ =1  or ∞x0=1.

This relationship is represented by the Dirac Delta Function. It is used to simulate a Point Source of Energy (a Spike, an Explosion) in Physics.

The Delta is reprented by the Symbol Δ, a Triangle. The Delta is called Dalet in the Phoenican and Hebrew Alphabet. Daleth is the number 4 and means Door.

The original symbol of the Delta/Daleth contains two lines with a 90 Degree Angle. Two orthogonal lines create a Square or Plane.

The Dirac Delta Function is defined as a Square  with an Area of 1,  a Width of 1/n and a Height of n where n->∞.

The Dirac Delta Function is a Line with an Area of 1.

The Dirac Delta Function δ (x) has interesting properties: δ (x) = δ (-x), δ (x) = δ (1/x). It has two Symmetries related to the Negative Numbers and the Rational Numbers.

When we move from 2D to 1D, the Number Line, the Delta Function becomes the Set of the Numbers N/N =1.

The Monad (1) of the Tetraktys of Pythagoras, the Top of the Triangle, was created by Dividing the One (1) by Itself without Diminishing itself. The Monad (1/1=1)  is part of  the 1D Delta Function.

Creation is an Expansion of the 1/1 into the N/N, adding 1/1 all the time,  until ∞/∞ is reached. At that moment every Impossibility has been realized.

To move Back to the Void and restore the Eternal Balance of  the One,  Dividing (Compression) has to be compensated by Multiplication (Expansion).

At the End of Time N/M and M/N have to find Balance in the N/N,  move Back to  1/1, Unite in the 0 and become The Void (ɸ) again.

About the Strange Behavior of Numbers

The big problem of the Numbers is that they sometimes behave very differently from what we Expect them to do.

This Strange Behavior happens when we try to Reverse what we are doing.

It looks like the Expansion of the Universe of Numbers is Easy but the Contraction creates many Obstacles.

It all starts with the Natural Numbers (1,2,3,).

When we Reverse an Addition (Subtract) and move over the Line of the Void Negative Numbers appear. Together with the Natural Numbers they are called the Integers.

The same happens when we Reverse a Division and the Fractions (the Rational Numbers) (1/3, 7/9) suddenly pop up.

An Integer N is a Rational Number divided by 1 (N/1).

The Integers are the Multiples of 1, the Fractions are its Parts.

Numbers behave even stranger when we want to Reverse a Repeating Repeating Addition (Irrational Numbers) and want to calculate a Rational Power (2**1/2).

The Complex Numbers (or Imaginary Numbers), based on the Square Root of -1 called i, are a combination of the Negative Numbers and the Irrational Numbers.

Irrational Numbers ( the Pythagorean Theorem), Fractions (a Piece of the Cake) and Negative Numbers (a Debt) are part of our Reality but the Strange Number i represents something we cannot Imagine.

About the Duality and the Expansion of Space

In the beginning the only One who was in existence was the 1.

When the One divide itself again the number -1, the Complement of 1, came into existence.

1 and -1 are voided in the No Thing, the Empty Set, 0:  -1 + 1 = 0.

The Two, the Duality, both started to Expand in Two Opposite Directions (<– and +->) both meeting in the  ∞/∞. This expansion is what we call Space.

Space is a Combination of the Strings S(1,1,1,1,1,…) and -S = (-1,-,1,-,1,-1,…) where S+S=(0,0,0,0,0,0,…).

The Expansion pattern of Space is a Recursive Function S: S(N)=S(N-1)+1 in which + means concatenate (or add) the String “,1”.

An Addition X + Y is a concatenation of S(X) and S(Y). A Substraction X-Y is a concatenation of S(X) and -S(Y). In the last case all the corresponding combinations of 1 and -1 are voided. (1,1,1,1)-(1,1,1)=(0,0,0,1)=(1).

Multiplication XxY is Adding String S(Y) every time a “1” of S(X ) is encountered: 111 x 11 = 11  11  11. Dividing X/Y is Subtracting S(X) every time a “1” of S(Y) is encountered:.111  111  1/111=11 1/111. In the last example a Fraction 1/111 appears.

This Number System is called the Unary Number System.

About the Trinity and the Compression of Space called Time

The Strange Behavior of Numbers is caused by the Limitations of our Memory System. We are unable to remember long strings that contain the same Number.

To make things easy for us we Divide Space into small Parts so we were able to Re-Member (Re-Combine the Parts).

When we want to Re-member, Move Back in Time, we have to Compress Expanding Space.

Compressed Space is Time.

Time and Space have a Reciprocal Relationship called Movement (Velocity = Space/Time).

There are  many ways ( (1,1,1), (1,1,1),..) or ((1,1),(1,1))) to Compress a String in Repeating Sub-Patterns.

In the blog About the Trinity I showed that the most Efficient Way to group the One’s is to make use of a Fractal Pattern (a Self Reference) and Groups of Three Ones.

The Trinity applied to the Trinity ( A Fractal) is a Rotating Binary Tree. Binary Trees represent the Choices we make in Life.

The rotating Expanding Binary Trees generate the Platonic Solids (see linked video!) when the (number)-parts of the Binary Tree Connect.

When we connect Three Ones (1,1,1) by Three Lines (1-1,1-1,1-1) a 2 Dimensional Triangle Δ is Created.

If we take the Δ as a new Unity we are able to rewrite the patterns of 1’s and -1’s into a much Shorter Pattern of Δ’s and 1’s: (1,1,1),(1,1,1),(1,1,1), 1,1 becomes Δ,Δ,Δ,1,1.

We can repeat this approach when there is still a Trinity left: Δ,Δ,Δ,1,1 becomes ΔxΔ,1,1.

This Number System is called the Ternary Number System.

According to EuclidA Ratio is a sort of relation in respect of size between two magnitudes of the same kind“.

A Magnitude is a Size: a property by which it can be compared as Larger or Smaller than other objects of the Same Kind. A Line has a Length, a Plane has an Area (Length x Width), a Solid a Volume (Length xWitdth x Height).

For the Greeks, the Numbers (Arithmoi) were the Positive Integers. The objects of Geometry: Points, Lines, Planes , were referred to as “Magnitudes” (Forms). They were not numbers, and had no numbers attached.

Ratio, was a Relationship between Forms and a Proportion was a relationship between the Part and the Whole (the Monad) of a Form.

Newton turned the Greek conception of Number completely on its head: “By Number we understand, not so much a Multitude of Unities, as the abstracted Ratio of any Quantity, to another Quantity of the same Kind, which we take for Unity”.

We now think of a Ratio as a Number obtained from other numbers by Division. A Proportion, for us, is a statement of equality between two “Ratio‐Numbers”.

This was not the thought pattern of the ancient Greeks. When Euclid states that the ratio of A to B is the same as the ratio of C to D, the letters A, B, C and D do not refer to numbers at all, but to segments or polygonal regions or some such magnitudes.

The Ratio of two geometric structures  was determinated  by fitting the Unit Parts of the first geometric Stucture into the Other.

An Example:  The Tetraktys is a Triangle (A Monad) and contains 9 Triangles (a Monad). The 1x1x1-Triangle Δ, a Part of the Tetraktys,  is Proportional to the Whole of the Tetraktys (T) and has a Ratio T/Δ = 3= Δ -> T = Δ (3)  x Δ (3) = 9.

The Mathematics of Euclid is not a Mathematics of Numbers, but a Mathematics of Forms.

The symbols, relationships and manipulations have Physical or Geometric Objects as their referents.

You cannot work on this Mathematics without Knowing (and Seeing) the Objects that you are Working with.

About Hermann Grassman, David Hestenes and the Moving Line called Vector

Hermann Grasmann lived between 1809 and and 1877 in Stettin (Germany). Grassmann was a genius and invented Geometric Algebra a 100 years before it was invented.

In his time the most important mathematicians did not understand what he was talking about although many of them copied parts of his ideas and created their own restricted version. None of them saw the whole Grassmann was seeing.

When he was convinced nobody would believe him he became a linguist. He wrote books on German grammar, collected folk songs, and learned Sanskrit. His dictionary and his translation of the Rigveda were recognized among philologists.

Grassmann took over the heritage of Euclid and added, Motion, something Euclid was aware of but could not handle properly.

Grassmann became aware of the fact your hand is moving when you draw a 2D Geometric Structure. He called the Moving Lines, that connect the Points, Displacements (“Strecke”).

In our current terminology we would call the Displacements “Vectors”.

Vector algebra is simpler, but specific to Euclidean 3-space, while Geometric Algebra works in all dimensions. In this case Vectors become Bi/Tri or Multi-Vectors (Blades).

The Trick of Grassmann was that he could transform every transformation on any geometrical structure into a very simple Algebra. Multi-Dimensional Geometric Structures could be Added, Multiplied and Divided.

The Greek Theory of Ratio and Proportion is now incorporated in the properties of Scalar and Vector multiplication.

About a 100 years later David Hestenes improved the Theory of Grassmann by incorporating the Imaginary Numbers. In this way he united many until now highly disconnected fields of Mathematics that were created by the many mathematicians who copied parts of Grassmanns Heritage.

About Complex Numbers, Octions, Quaternions, Clifford Algebra and Rotations in Infinite Space

Grassmann did not pay much attention to the Complex Numbers until he heard of a young mathematician called William Kingdon Clifford (1845-1879).

Complex numbers are ,just like the Rationals (a/b), 2D-Numbers. A Complex number Z = a  + ib where  i**2=-1. Complex Numbers can be represented in Polar Coordinates: Z = R (cos(x) + i sin(x)) where R = SQRT(a**2 + b**2).  R is the Radius, the Distance to the Center (0,0).

When you have defined a 2D-complex Number it is easy to define a 4-D-Complex Number called a Quaternion:  Z = a + ib + jc + kd or a 8-D Complex Number called an Octonion.

William Rowan Hamilton, the inventor of the Quaternions, had big problems to find an interpretation of all the combinations i, j and k until he realized that i**2 =j**2 = k**2 = ijk=-1.

What Hamilton did not realize at that time was that he just like Grassmann had invented Vector Algebra and Geometric Algebra.

This all changed when William Kingdon Clifford united everything in his new Algebra.  Clifford’s algebra is composed of elements which are Combinations of Grassman’s Multivectors.

The Clifford Algebra that represents 3D Euclidean Geometry has 8 = 2**3 components instead of 3: 1 number (Point), 3 vectors (Length), 3 bivectors (Area) and 1 trivector (Volume).

It turns out if you use combinations of these elements to describe your geometric objects you can do the same things you did before (you still have 3 vector components).

In addition, you can have additional data in those other components that let you find distances and intersections (and a lot of other useful information) using simple and (computationally) cheap numerical operations.

The most important Insight of William Kingdom Clifford was that the Complex Numbers are not Numbers all.

They are Rotations in higher Dimensional Spaces.

About Pascal’s Triangle and Mount Meru

The String 1,3,3,1 of Clifford’s 3D Geometry is related to the 4th Level of Pascal’s Triangle. Level N of Pascal’s Triangle represents N-1-Dimensional Geometries.

The Sum of every level N of the Triangle is 2**N. This Number expresses the Number of Directions of the Geometric Structure of a Space with Dimension N.

A Point has 0 Direction, while a Line has 2 Directions, relative to its Center point, a Plane has 4 Directions, relative to its Center Point, and a Cube has 8 directions, relative to its Center point.

Pascal’s Triangle is also called the Binomial Expansion. This Expansion shows all the Combinations of two letters A and B in the function (A+B)**N. Level 1 of the Triangle is (A+B)**0 = 1  and level 2 is A x A + 2 A x B + B x B -> 1,2,1.

The Binomial Expansion converges to the Bell-Shaped Normal Distribution when N-> ∞.

The Diagonals of Pascal’s Triangle contain the Geometric Number Systems (Triangular Numbers, Pyramid Numbers, Pentatonal Numbers, ..) and the Golden Spiral of the Fibonacci Numbers.

Pascal’s Triangle is a Repository of all the Possible Magnitudes and their Components.

The Normal Distribution shows that the first level of the Triangle (the Tetraktys) is much more probable than the last levels.

The first four Levels of the Triangle of Pascal contain the Tetraktys of Pythagoras.

The Tetraktys  is an Ancient Vedic Mathematical Structure called the  Sri Yantra, Meru Prastara or Mount Meru.

About Numbers, Operations and the Klein Bottle

The Complex Numbers are not “Numbers” (Scalars) at all.

They are “Operations” (Movements) that can be applied to Magnitudes (Geometries) and Magnitudes are Combinations of the Simple Building Blocks of the Tetraktys, Points and Lines.

The Tao of Ancient China was not for nothing represented by a Flow of Water. According to the Ancient Chinese Mathematicians Every Thing Moves.  In the Beginning there was only Movement.

In the Beginning only the One was Moved but when the Duality was created the Two moved around each other never getting into contact to Avoid the Void.

When we look at the Numbers we now can see that they are the result of the Movements of  the first Diagonal of Pascals Triangle,  the 1’s (Points) or better the Powers of  the One: 1 **N (where N is a Dimension).

Even in the most simple Number System, the Unary Number System, Concatenation is an Operation, An Algorithm.

The Mathematician John Conway recently invented a new Number System called the Surreal Numbers that contains Every Number you can Imagine.

The Surreal Numbers are created out of the Void (ɸ)  by a simple Algorithm (Conway calls an Algorithm a Game) that describes Movements (Choices of Direction: Up, Down, Left, Right, ..)  that help you to Navigate in the N-Dimensional Number Space.

The Ancient Chinese Mathematicians played the same Game with the Numbers.

Algorithms were already known for a very long time by the Ancient Vedic Mathematicians. They called them Yantra’s.

Geometry is concerned with the Static Forms of Lines and Points but there are many other more “Curved” forms that are the result of  Rotating Expansion and Compression. These forms are researched by the modern version of Geometry called Topology.

The most interesting 4D Topological Structure is the Klein Bottle.  The Klein Bottle is  a combination of two Moebius Rings. It represents a Structure that is Closed in Itself.

It can be constructed by gluing both pairs of opposite edges of a Rectangle together giving one pair a Half-Twist. The Klein Bottle is highly related to the Ancient Art of Alchemy.

The movement of the Duality around the Void can be represented by a Moebius Ring the Symbol of Infinity ∞.

Later in this Blog we will see why the Number 8 is a Rotation of ∞ and the symbol of Number 8 is a combination of the symbol of the number 3 and its mirror.

First we will have a look at the Reciprocal Relation between Space and Time.

About Dewey B. Larson, Velocity and Time

Dewey B. Larson (1898 – 1990) was an American Engineer who developed the Reciprocal System of Physical Theory (RST).

Larson believed that the failure to recognize that Motion is the most basic physical constituent of the universe has handicapped the progress of the traditional study of physics, which focuses on Forces.

The definition of Motion stems from the Equation of Velocity, v = ds/dt.

Instead of depending upon the change of the location of an object to define an arbitrary “quantum” of space per “quantum” of time, such as miles per hour, or meters per second, the RST assumes that the observed universal passage, or progression, of time is one aspect of a universal motion that necessarily must be accompanied by a universal “passage,” or progression, of space.

The Units of Time fill up the Units of Space. Space and Time are Duals.

Space is not-Time and Time is not-Space. Time is Non-Local, Cyclic and represented by the Rotating Imaginary Numbers. Space is Local, Linear and Represented by the Scalar Numbers. Space is the Vacuum and the Nothing and Time is the non-vacuum, the Every Thing, the Solids represented by the Cube of Space.

The Cube of Space is the structure behind the Tetraktys but also behind the Book of Genesis.

Our Reality contains two Reciprocal 3D-structures related to Space and Time. Space and Time are related by the Simple Formula N/N=1/1=1, the Formula of Diracs Delta Function.

We are able to perceive the Real 3D-Structure of Space. The 3D-Structure of Time is Imaginary. It is situated in the Imaginary Number Space of i.

Larson, a Self Thought Genius like Grassmann, developed Geometric Algebra without knowing anything about Geometric Algebra but he also invented String Theory long before String Theory was invented.  The Mathematics of Larson is also the Mathematics of the Tetraktys of Pythagoras without even knowing anything about it.

Larson was able to Calculate all the important Physical Numbers without any problem and was also able to Calculate Chemical Structures and Reactions.

The fourth line of Pascals Triangle and the Tetraktys contains 8 Directions in the Four Geometric Dimensions: 0, 1, 2, and 3.

Mathematicians are intrigued with this number 8, because they find it popping up unexpectedly in advanced mathematics.

In fact, expanding the Binomial Expansion to 8 dimensions just creates an inverse copy of these first Four Dimensions, and then the pattern just repeats itself with a half-twist and back from there, ad infinitum.

This is called Bott Periodicity discovered by the mathematician Raoul Bott (1923-2005).

The mathematician John Baez wrote an article in which he relates this 8-fold Periodicity to the Scalars (1), the Complex Numbers (2), the Quaternions (2×2), and the Octonions (2x2x2 = 2**3).

The Universe of Numbers and Magnitudes  is Cyclic and Fractal.

Our own Reality, symbolized by the Tetraktys,  repeats itself in Higher Dimensions until Infinity.

The Tetrad, represents Completion, because it contains all its Previous Numbers, the 1, 2, 3, and itself, 4, in One Number, 10 = (The One) +  9 (= 3 (Trinity)x 3 (Trinity) = Tetraktys).

As you can see in the Picture above the Fractal Pattern of 8 contains two kinds of Trinities/Triangles, an Upside and a Downside (Rotated by 180 Degrees) Triangle. When you Rotate by 180 Degrees the 1 becomes -1 and 1 + -1 =0 is the Void.

The Multi Dimensional Rotations of the Octonions always Come Back to Square 1/1=1, the One and keep Rotating around the Center, the Nothing,   Until Infinity.

About Triangular Numbers and Pascal’s Triangle

About the Relationship Between Geometry and Music

About the Game of the Surreal Numbers

About Larson and the Unification of Mathematics

The Collected Works of Dewey B Larson

About Ratio and Proportion by Euclid

A book of Augustus deMorgan about “The Connection between Number and Magnitude”

The text of the Fifth Book of Euclid

An Educational You Tube Channel called Insights in Mathematics

About the History of Geometric Algebra

Free Software to use Geometric Algebra

A Video that shows how the Platonic Solids are created out of the Trinity Numbers

All you want to know about Geometric Patterns

The Good (Creation) and the not-Good, the Bad (Destruction),  are two Waves that are moving in Opposite Directions. Together they create interference patterns called Standing Waves.

Standing Waves are Waves that preserve their Form and can be perceived as Material Particles.

If the Good is a Wave Moving with the Clock, the Bad is a Wave Moving Against the Clock.

I believe the Good is moving with the Clock because the words “Right” and “Wrong” were associated with the Right Hand and the Left Hand and the concept “moving” (wringen in Dutch).

In Magic the Left-Hand Path is associated with Black Magic and in many cultures, the Left is associated with Evil.

In China the Rotation with the Clock is called the Generating Cycle and the Rotation Against the Clock the Destructing Cycle.

The Standing Waves of Matter contain the Bad and the Good in a certain proportion. Therefore every part of Nature (including the Humans) contains a piece of the Bad and a piece of the Good. That’s why it is rather difficult to make a distinction between both of them.

There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so”  (Hamlet Act 2, scene 2, 239–251)

The idea that our Universe is a Wave goes back a very long time. In Ancient Indian Philosophy, the Wave of the Universe was called the Svara, the Wave of Life.

It is the manifestation of the impression on matter of the Power Which Knows Itself (Atman). The Atman arises out of the Emptyness (Brahman). The Emptiness is a Mystery. It is impossible to Reason about it.

The Svara consists of Five Types of Waves called Tattvas. They represent distinctive Forms and Vibratory Motions and are the five modifications of the Great Breath, Prana, of the Atman. Prana is called Chi in China.

The First Wave that came out of the Atman is called the Âkâsha (Spirit, Egg, Black). After this came the Vâyu (Air, the Circle, Blue), the Tejas (Fire, the Triangle, Red), the Apas (Water, the Crescent of the Moon, Silver) and the Prithivi (Earth, the Square, Yellow).

The Svara has two different States,  the Bright Sun-Breath  and the Dark Moon-Breath. In the first state the Svara expands, away from the Void. In the second state it contracts and moves back to the beginning.
At a certain moment we will experience the spectacular Twist of the Svara. This is the moment when Time will move back and the Apas (Aquarius, Water) will dominate the Fire (Bull) of the Tejas.
The Âkâsha and the other Four States of the Svara are the States of what Western Scientists call the Aether, the Carrier of the Standing Waves of the Universe.

Until the experiments of Michelson and Morley in 1887, every Physicist believed in the existence of the Aether. Everybody was very surprised when the experiments showed that the Aether was moving with a constant speed, the Speed of Light, in both directions of measurement.

Nobody questioned the experiments so a completely new theory had to be created to explain the strange behavior of Light. This new theory was the Relativity Theory of Albert Einstein.

The situation became even stranger when Niels Bohr (and others) invented Quantum Mechanics and showed that Light could be interpreted as a particle, a Photon, and a Wave.

At that time almost nobody understood the Concept of the Standing Wave. A Standing Wave is a Wave that preserves its Form and therefore shows itself as a Particle.

It is now proved that Michelson and Morley made a fatal mistake. The Unification of the Theories of Einstein and Bohr is going on but two foundations of the Theory of Einstein, the non-existence of the Aether and the Constant speed of Light, are gone.

The concept of the Aether, the Svara,  is back and new theories of the Universe based on Standing Waves are produced and verified. These theories are much simpler than the old theories.

What is the Same?

The Ethical Law of Resonance states that “The Same attracts the Same and Repels the Not-the Same“.  The Good attracts the Good and the Bad attracts the Bad but the Good also repels the Bad and the Bad repels the Good.  If we are able to define the Same we are able to define the Good and the Bad.

When you want to find out if some Thing is the same as another Thing you have to define the concept of “the-sameness“.

Everything is different from any other thing when you collect enough different data about both of them. When you ignore every detail everything is the same (A = A). When two objects are literally “the same” we call this relationship an equality (A=B).

The same objects can appear differently when we Look at them differently. In this case a “the sameness” (now called a congruency) appears when we are able to create the same object when we move (translate), rotate or reflect the other object.

To find an independent reference framework for an Observer who is “not moving” and a constant Speed of Light Einstein had to abstract from Translation, Rotation, Reflection and Movement (Speed and Acceleration). Einstein’s friend Minkowski solved his problem by creating a new type of “curved” space now called Minkowski Space.

The Ancient Scientists of India not only abstracted the Aether from the Eyes like Einstein did. They abstracted the Aether from the other Four Senses too.

Every Tattva represents another Sense Organ and a related Wave pattern. The interesting point is that the Waves of the Tattva of the Eyes, the Light Waves, the Tejas, behave, exactly the way the current scientists describe.

The current Scientists ignore the fact that Humans observe their Environment with their Five Senses. The ancient Scientists not only detected five types of Waves. They also found a way to combine the Five Wave-Types into one Wave Model.

In general, Objects are “the same” when we are able to find a Structure-Preserving, isomorphic, transformation (F) from Object A to Object B. F(A)=B and G(B)= A and FG=Identity. With the help of an Isomorphic Transformation, you are able to map a structure A to another structure B  and move back to the same structure A.

Every Isomorphic transformation can be seen as a “specialized Organ“, that  “looks” at Reality in its own way.

The mathematical field of Topology is concerned with the “the sameness” of objects that are Expanded and Compressed. Topology represents the Organ of the Emotions. With this organ, we are able to research the effects of the Great Breath of the Prana.

With the help of isomorphic  “topological” transformations, it is possible to make the huge Diversity of Forms in our Universe the Same. It is even possible to compress every structure in our Universe into one structure, the structure of the Void.

In this case, there are a few topological possibilities depending on the dimensions of space. In two dimensions we can choose out of the Point and the Circle, a Closed Line. In higher dimensions, strange twisted structures appear such as the Moebius Ring and the Klein Bottle.

If the Universe is compressed into a Rotating Circle,  The One who is in the Centre always Returns on Itself.  The Universe is expanding and compressing until Eternity. At a certain time even after a huge expansion the Power of Creation is able to “Knows Itself”. This concept is called the Cyclic Universe.

If the Universe is compressed into a point, called a singularity, we live in a “Big Bang-universe“, the standard cosmological model, which will expand into Eternity.

It will be clear that the structure in the beginning determines the way the Waves of the Universe expand.

If the Universe is Closed in Itself the Outbound Waves of the Beginning will meet the Inbound Waves of the Utmost Boundary and will create Interference Patterns that look like Standing Waves.

When the Universe was small the Interference Patterns came up almost immediately. When the Universe expanded it took more time to Close the Loop.

If the Universe is a Closed System, the Waves of the Past and the Waves of the Future will meet in the Now.  At every moment in Time, we are able to look into a possible Future and a possible Past.

At every moment in Time we can Change the Past and the Future if we are able to start a Powerful Negative (Destructive, Bad) or Positive  (Creative, Good) Wave of our Own.

According to the Ancient Scientists the Forces of the Tattvas at a certain Level of Enfolding represented Consciouss Beings (Angels, Devils) who could be Called to help to influence the Standing Waves of Matter.

In the strange terminology of Quantum Mechanics, this state is called a Quantum Superposition and the union of the waves is called Quantum Entanglement. Quantum Entanglement moves with a speed much higher than the Speed of Light.

Sometimes the fragmented Tones of the Universe unite into one Symphony when the Strings of the many Violins of the Individual Standing Waves are in Tune.

We are able to change the Past and the Future when we are in Tune with the Waves of the Universe.

The symbol of the number Zero (“0”) looks like an Egg, the Âkâsha. The Âkâsha represents Space.

The name “zero” comes from the Arabic صفر, şafira, “it was empty” and the Sanskrit śūnya “void” or “empty”. The 0, Space, was Empty, Ø, before it was created.

According to many creation myths the beginning of this world,  Non-Being, Ø, the Empty Set, expanded into an Egg, 0.

The Egg started to Rotate (Air, Vayu, Movement) and was splitted into the Duality (-1,1), the Crescent of the Moon (Apas), the In-Between-Moon or Half Moon (1/2).

The negative part of the Duality started to move in the Opposite Direction. At that moment the Good (Creation) and the Bad (Destruction) were created.

The Apas are the force of Contraction (Control), the Opposite of the Tejas, Fire (Desire), the Force of Expansion. The Apas want to bring the System back to the Void.

In the Beginning, the Good (Fire) was much stronger than the Bad (Water). Therefore the Universe started to Expand.

The Trinity, the Triangel (Tejas, Fire), contains three numbers (-1, 0, +1). When the first Trinity was created the Force of Fire and Desire, the Tejas, started to Expand the Trinity into more Trinities. The production of Trinities in Trinities is a Fractal Pattern (“So Above, So Below“).

The first two Triangels, the Triangel of the Trinity of the Mind of the Atman and the Trinity of the Material World, are combined into a Square (Prithivi, Earth). The Prithivi is seen as the Force of Resistance, the Opposite of Âkâsha, Space.

The Prithivi, the Square of the Four Forces, the Human,  resists the movement back to the Void. The main reason is that the connection between the Spiritual World and the Material World is very strong.

The Spirit of the Human, situated in the Heart Chakra,  needs Matter to create all the possible combinations of the Becoming Trinities to Experience the Fullness of Being.

The number Five can be found in the Middle of the oldest Magical Square on Earth, the Lo Shu Square. The Lo Shu Square was given to Emperor Yu the Great after the Great Flood (3117 BC) by a Turtle, the symbol of the Star System Orion.

About the Magic Square of Lo Shu

The Lo Shu Magic Square contains the numbers 1-9 (3×3). In every direction they add up to a total of 15 (3×5).

The Magic Square Constraints the Expansion of the Force of Fire and makes it possible that the Cycle moves back to the zero, the Void, the Mystery.

When we subtract all the numbers in the Magic Square with the number 5,  the Zero of the Egg of the Âkâsha appears in the Middle.

The transformed Magic Square shows an interesting symmetry.

On the six “crosses” the same negative and positive Tattvas are found. The Four Tattvas are Balanced in the o, Space, the Âkâsha.

On the straight lines, two symmetric patterns emerge ((-1,4,-3) and (1,2,-3)) again both positive and negative. In these patterns the 4 balances the 1 and the 3 and the 2 balance the 3 and the 1.

When we follow the Numbers of the Square from -4 to +4, the Sheng Cycle appears.

The Sheng Cycle not only contains the Cycle of the Five Tattvas. It also contains Five Triangels in which One Tattvas Balances Two other Tattvas.

The number Five is the same as the Number Zero when we accept that there are Two Structures (or Two Universes). One structure rotates in the Positive Domain, The Sun, and one in the Negative Domain, The Moon.

The Square represents the Four Force of Nature who are the Four Combinations of the Two Forces of the Duality, Compression and Expansion, Yin and Yang, the Apas and the Tejas, Fire and Water, Control and Desire.

The Sheng Cycle is the major Cycle in Chinese Philosophy. It was used to explain and control the many levels of existence (State, Family, Environment, Body,..).

The Sheng Cycle moves in two directions, With the Clock (Generating, +1) and Against the Clock (Destructing, -1).

When we combine the two Cycles a 9(3×3)-fold Twisted Moebius Ring is created with the Earth in the Middle. This Cycle is represented by the Symbol of Infinity (). This Cycle is comparable to the Tree of Life, the Jewish Sephiroth, and the Ancient Egyptian Pesedjet (the Nine).

In the Bright (positive) Part of the Moebius Ring, we are in the Sun-State, Life. In the Dark (negative) Part we experience the Moon-State , Death, the Underworld (Our Twin Universe), the place where the Souls exist when they Die.

Now it becomes very clear what the Ancient Indian Scientist meant with the Dark Moon-State of the Svara. When the Wave of Life moves back to the Center, the Void, Death will become Life  (“the Death will be raised“), Time will Reverse, the Universe will Compress and the Good will become the Bad.

In 1931 the US Department of Commerce assigned Edward Dewey the task of discovering the cause and underlying dynamics of the Great Depression. The US Government created a special institute the Foundation for the Study of Economic Cycles. The Institute contains a huge database of the times-series of almost every Cycle there is.

The most interesting observation of Edward Dewey is that Cycles restore themselves all the time and are influenced by other Cycles. The Cycles Resonate.

Ray Tomes, a statistical mathematician, started to do research on the time series of the Institute. He confirmed the Insights of Dewey but with the much more powerful tools of his time, he was able to dig a lot deeper into data.

Tomes detected a relationship between the Cycles and Music, the Âkâsha. Tomes also developed a  method to find the basic structure behind the Waves of the many Cycles.

Tomes found one Basic Standing Wave that generates other waves by producing Overtones. Tomes rediscovered the Svara and could also explain why the “numbers” behind the Svara are the way they are.

The explanation can be found in the so-called Highly Composite Numbers (HCN). The HCN is “social” numbers with many divisors. They represent the major “harmonic” connectors in the Universe. The HCN are the opposite of the “lonely” Prime Numbers who only contain themselves.

The structure behind the HCN is self-referential and is based on the numbers 2, 3, and 5.

About the Cyclic Universe of Paul Steinhardt

Paul Steinhardt has created a new theory about the Universe based on the Four Forces of the Square and the Void in the Center. In his theory the Universe is Cyclic. It is expanding and contracting.

The expansion of the Universe ends when the Two Major Structures (-1,1) in the Universe, called Membranes or Branes, are in Balance with the Center, the Void (0).

The two Branes are higher dimensional flat surfaces that are in parallel. The Left and the Right Brains split into many similar Cell-like Structures. We live in one of the Cells of the Cyclic Universe.

When the Universe expands the constraints of the Flat Surface (the Lo Shu Square) create a huge tension and the flat surfaces start to Ripple. The Ripples are waves that are closed in themselves (loops).

When you use your imagination you can see that the Cyclic Universe of Paul Steinhardt has a lot in common with the ancient theories of India and China with only one difference.

In the Ancient theories, the creator of the Universe was “Aware of Itself” in the new theories Awareness is a Feed-Back-Loop, a Cycle.

About Ancient Spirituality and Modern Science

This blog started with the Ancient Spiritual Indian Concept of the Svara, the Wave of Life. It ends with the Modern Material Cyclical Universe of Paul Steinhardt.

In between, I have tried to show that the old theories of The Self-Aware Universe and the new theories of the Endless Feed-Back Loops in Our Universe have a lot in common.

The Ancient Spiritual Scientists developed a Theory of Everything based on the principle of the Fractal Universe (“So Above, So Below“).

If the Universe is a Fractal Structure,  the only thing the Modern Sciences have to do is to find the Right Level of Observation (Cells, Body, Family/Group, Culture, State, Earth, ..) of the Fractal Expansion of our Universe and the Same Laws will appear again and again.

If the Good and the Bad are Standing Waves that move With the Clock and Against the Clock it will be much easier to determine what is right and what is Wrong (Left).

With the Clock moves With the Flow. It generates new structures until the Limits of the Universe are reached.

Against the Clock moves Against the Flow. It destructs new structures until the Limits of the Universe are reached.

The Bad wants to Control Everything. It Fears the Good and the Future.

The Bad does not (want to )understand that The Good and the Bad are moving to the same Destination, The Nothing.

The Good gives us Joy, Pleasure, and Excitement.

The Bad moves Back in Time. It wants to restore what was already there. Its final aim is the Zero, Empty Space.

The Good moves Forwards in Time. It creates new Perspectives about a Bright New Future. Its final aim is Every Thing, the Many, Infinite Space filled with an Infinite Amount of Forms.

The Bad and the Good move Back and Forth around an Unknowable Center, the Nothing, that makes Every Thing possible.

Some day the One and the Infinite will merge, into the Impossible. When this happens the Nothing will return for a very short  (1/∞) moment.

About the History of the Laws of Nature (The Website of Milo Wolff. It contains everything you want to know about the history of the concept of the Standing Wave).

Why Matter is a Standing Wave

About the Svara (This Website contains a (big) Complete Book written in 1894 about the Ancient Theory of the Svara.  A Must Read, when you want to understand Ancient Physics).

About the Harmonic Theory of Ray Tomes

# About the Logic of Creation

The Way the Universe was Created has generated an ongoing discussion for more than 6000 years. In this Blog I give you a way to solve this problem with the use of Logic.

When we use Logic you will see that the concept of Creation out of Nothing leads to a Strange Contradiction.

This Contradiction looks a lot like the Zero-Point-Field of Quantum Mechanics.

The theory of Quantum Mechanics is a Statistical Theory. Statistical Theories are an approximation of a Theory.

Behind this approximation lies a hidden structure called the Tree of Life. The Tree of Life is an expansion of the first Creation, the split of the Void.

Perhaps the most important conclusion of this blog is that what most people call the Spiritual World is really the Material World which can be explained by Mathematics and Physics.

The only part of our Universe that is truly Spiritual and is without any Duality lies outside our Universe. This Part, The Void,  prevents Our Universe for Total Annihilation.

To describe the process of Creation out of Nothing we have to define the Void (Ø) and the Whole (○). The Void is the Empty Set. The Empty Set is a Set with Zero Members. An example is the Set of months with more than 31 days. In this case the Empty Set is the result of an impossible selection.

The Tao is like a well:
used but never used up.
It is like the eternal void:
filled with infinite possibilities.

It is hidden but always present.
I don’t know who gave birth to it.
It is older than God.

The empty set is not the same thing as nothing. It is a set with nothing inside it. In Logic there is no concept that describes “nothing”. We have to assume that there was something in the Beginning and that something is the Empty Set.

The Empty Set contains everything that is impossible.

In the Beginning an impossible selection was not possible because there was nothing to select from. This means that in the Beginning the Empty Set was the only Set in the Universe.

In the beginning the only thing that was possible was the impossible.

The Void is the Opposite of the Whole. To define the Void and the Whole we have to make use of a Distinction.

A Distinction is something that divides a Set into Two parts, X and its Opposite not-X (Yin/Yang).

A Set  that is divided into Two Parts Suddenly contains Four parts A, not-A, the Division and the Set itself (the Whole): Yin, Yang, Yin AND Yang (Division), Yin OR Yang (Whole).

The Tao produced One; One produced Two; Two produced Three; Three produced All things (Lao Tsu, Tao Te Ching, 42).

X and not-X have only the Void in common. When we bring the two sets together they become Nothing just like the combination of Matter and Anti-Matter results in the Annihilation of Both Parts and the production of a Photon (“Light”) and Kinetic Energy (Movement). To avoid annihilation Matter and Anti-Matter have to Stay Apart.

When you Fuse the two parts X and not-X the Whole appears again. In the Beginning there was Nothing to Fuse and the commonality of the Empty Set with its Opposite, the Not-Empty Set, the Whole, was the Empty Set. In the Beginning the Whole was the Empty Set because there was only the Empty Set.

All is possible when emptiness is possible.
Nothing is possible when emptiness is impossible.

Nagarjuna, Chapter 24 verse 14 of the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā

In Logic the commonality of two sets is represented by the term “and”. The fusion of two sets is represented by the term “or”. The not is represented by the symbol “~”. Using these Symbols we can write down the “laws of Logic” as follows:

Ø = ~○

X and ~X = Ø

X or ~X = ○

At the beginning of the beginning, even nothing did not exist (Chuang-tse)

At the Beginning the Universe was the Void and the Void was the Whole.

This implies the following:

Ø and ~ Ø = Ø

Ø or ~ Ø = ○

Ø = ~ Ø

Form is no other than emptiness; emptiness no other than form (Diamond Sutra)

The First Distinction in the Universe is the Choice between Distinction (~ Ø) or Non-Distinction (Ø). The Choice between the two is the Whole (Ø or ~ Ø = ○). Non-distinction is the state of Union of Every Thing in the Universe. The Union of Every Thing is No Thing at all.

There is in reality neither truth nor error, neither yes nor no, nor any distinction whatsoever, since all — including contraries — is One (Chuang-tse)

The One. . .is there before every oneness amid multiplicity, before every part and whole, before the definite and indefinite, before the limited and the unlimited. It is there defining all things that have being, defining being itself. . .It is there beyond the one itself, defining this one. (Dionysius)

The One transcends all antithesis, rises above all relation, is pure from all duality (Proclus)

Everything is of the nature of no thing (Parmenides)

The Tao that can be told is not the eternal Tao. The name that can be named is not the eternal name. The nameless is the beginning of heaven and earth. The named is the mother of ten thousand things. These two spring from the same source but differ in name; this appears as darkness. Darkness within darkness. The gate to all mystery (Lao Tzu)

In the Beginning when the Laws of Logic, the Logos, came into existence two Empty Sets were produced, the Empty Set and its Opposite, the Not-Empty Set. In the Beginning the Void was not the Void.

In the Beginning the Void has Negated Itself. This Negation started the Proces of Creation out of Nothing.

By Negation itself the Void created a deep Passionate longing to move back to the Sea of the Nothing.

The One is a Negation of Negations (Meister Eckhart)

The not-Void has a choice (Ø or ~ Ø). One choice is to merge with the Void (Ø and ~ Ø) and return back into Emptiness. The other choice is to avoid Annihilation. In this case the not-Void, ~ Ø, has to stay apart from the Void, Ø. Therefore the Not-Void, ~Ø, has to Move Away from the Void, Ø.

When this happened The Not-Void transformed from the State of Being into the state of Becoming and started to Rotate and Expand in a Spiraling motion. The Moving Void, the Second Distinction, Expanding Space, was created. When the Second Distinction was created the Void came to Rest but to keep the Balance of the Void, Not-Expanding, Compressing Space, Ø and ~ Ø, came into Existence too.

Expansion (The Strong Force) has to be compensated by Compression (Gravity) to bring the Universe back to the Void. The amount of Time this will take is dependent on the Power, the Potential, of the not-Void when it was disconnected from the Void. When the Potential of the disconnection is small, the Void and the Non-Void will merge soon and start a new process of disconnection to solve their Eternal Contradiction.

Expanding Space (Ø or ~ Ø ) and ~ Expanding Space(Ø or ~ Ø) = Ø

Gravity and The Strong Force  = Ø

Gravity or The Strong Force = ~ Ø

The whole process of logical reasoning from the Void to Space/Time is based on a Contradiction that occurs when we define what happens when Logic (Consciousness, the Two, the Self and the Observer of the Self) came into existence (“In the beginning was the Logos“) and the Void was the Whole.

When we look at the current theory of creation called the Big Bang Theory we find the same contradiction formulated in a different way.

In the theory of the Big Bang the Void that is the Whole is called a Gravitational Singularity (GS). A GS is a situation where the current laws of Physics break down because one of the variables moves to Infinity. When such a contradiction happens scientists know there is something wrong with their theory.

In the Big Bang Theory, the Universe is compressed (moved back in Time) into an extremely small space, a point, a singularity, and is therefore infinitely hot.

The Void that was the Whole, Empty Space, is extremely cold (0 degrees Kelvin). This condition is called the Zero-Point-Field. It is the State of the Universe that was there before the Big Bang.

According to Quantum Mechanics, the Zero-Point-Field, the Vacuum State, is not truly empty. It contains fleeting electromagnetic waves and particles that pop into and out of existence. It is not strange to define this popping up of No-Thing by the statement: ~ Ø = Ø (Sometimes there is nothing and sometimes there is not nothing).

The only thing we have to look for is the reason why the State of Rest of the Zero Point Field was disturbed. The answer of this question is simple: “It just happens“. A statistical fluctuation can be very small or very big.

In the Beginning the Quantum Fluctuations of the Zero Point Field, the Phoenix,  generated a huge Fluctuation represented by a “Cosmic Orgasm (Shiva and Shakti made Love)” and a real particle, a Photon (“In the Beginning was the Light“), came into existence. This Single Photon, One Wave of Light, bouncing against the expanding walls of the Universe, was enough to Create the Whole Universe.

Quantum Fluctuation is a Statistical Theory. Statistal Theories don’t explain the Universe. They are an approximation of a deeper structure we still don’t know. The ancient scientists used a metaphor out of Nature to explain this deeper structure. This metaphor was called the Tree of Life.

When we use Logic, the first step in Creation generates a Trinity. This Trinity consists of Gravitation (Expansion), the Strong Force (Compression) and the Void, the Empty Set. The concept of the Trinity with different names comes back in every Ancient Religion.

The Tao produced One; One produced Two; Two produced Three; Three produced All things (Lao Tsu, Tao Te Ching, 42).

The first Trinity is the Top of a structure called the Tree of Life. This structure can be found in almost every Ancient Culture.

The Tree of Life consists of Nine Concepts with the Void (10=0)  at the top. The Nine Concepts of the Tree of Life are created by Multiplying the Trinity by the Trinity (3×3 =9 + the Void = 10 = 0).

The duality (-1,1) is represented by two Trinities (-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3) with the Void in the Middle. In this case the Pattern of Seven appears.

The real enfolding  is created when we apply the Trinity to the Trinity. In this case the sequence becomes 1, 1, 4 (1+ 3×1), 13 (1+3×4), 43 (4+3×13), the Bronze Mean.

Every number in this sequence represents an important Stage in the enfolding of our Universe and has its own Mystical Meaning (The Void, The Duality, the Four Forces, The Zodiac (with the Sun in the Center), The Sri Yantra (The Kingdom)).

The fractal patterns moves deeper and deeper into the Material World, father away from the Beginning, the Void. At this moment our Universe contains fourty-two levels.

At some point (43) the pattern of enfolding will finally reach the Kingdom and the pattern will reverse and moves back to the Void. From that moment  we will move backwards in Time.

When you apply the Trinity to the Trinity you use a principle that is called Self-Reference. In modern mathematics this principle is called a Fractal and the theory associated with Fractals is called Chaos Theory. Fractals play a very important role in the new String Theories of the Universe.

It is possible to generate the many levels of the Universe out of one Fractal Pattern, the Trinity. In modern Physics one of the candidates for the Fractal Pattern of the Universe is the Sierpinski Triangel. This fractal pattern generates the well known Mystical Geometries and is based on Trinities.

Physics and Mystics show that Our Universe and every part of it (including the Human Being) are part of the first Trinity that came out of the non-Void, the negation of the Empty Set that came into Being.

If the Void and the Trinity are concepts that represents the concept of God, we are all part of the enfolding structure, God, the Not-Void.

One part of God, the “Real Void“, the Mystery (Brahman), is not part of our Universe. It stays outside to prevent total annihilation of Every Thing.

We cannot understand The Mystery because we cannot Reason, don’t have a Distinction, about the Beginning of the Beginning. It lies Outside our System of Understanding called Logic. The only thing that is left for us is to Experience and Keep Silent.

Gravity is the root of lightness; stillness, the ruler of movement (Lao Tsu, Tao Te Ching, 26).

The Void is also the power that Attracts every part of our Universe. The farther away we expand from the Void the stronger the Strong Force becomes. At a certain point in Time this force will force us to Move Back. When this happens the Compression of the Universe, back to the Void, cannot be stopped. When we move Back, Time will be Reversed.

In the End the Spiral of Enfolding will be Closed in Itself and the not-Void will merge with the Void. At that moment the State of Stillness of the Zero Point Field will be restored waiting for a new Fluctuation to occur. The Universe is Breathing. It is recreated time after time until the Void and the Non-Void finally fuse into the Nothing, the Mystery.

“If we then become children, would we thus enter the kingdom?” Jesus said unto them, “When ye make the two one, and when you make the inside like unto the outside and the outside like unto the inside, and that which is above like unto that which is below, and when ye make the male and the female one and the same, so that the male no longer be male nor the female female; then will ye enter into the kingdom.”

(Gospel of Thomas, Logion 22).

When we look at the Logic of Creation we can see that the only part of Our Universe that is Truly Spiritual is the Void. The Not-Void and all its expansions are part of the Material World (Maya) that can be explained by Mathematics and Physics.

The Void, the Infinite Potential with Infinite Possibilities, lies Outside our System of Reasoning and is Nameless, Formless and not Dividable. It is truly One.

We are Nothing but a Rare Fluctuation of the One, who is the Void.

About the Mathematics of Distinctions of Spencer Brown

About the Seven (3-1-3) and the Nine (3×3)

About the Holy Trinity in Mathematics

How to create Mathematics out of the Void

Why Quantum Fluctuation could have created the Universe

How the Universe was created out of one Photon

# How to Restore The Balance in A Material World

The Major concept behind our Self-Referencial Universe is Balance. In the beginning the Universe was balanced by the Empty Set (Ø). When the Numbers appeared the Zero (0) became the balancing point. Out of the Empty Set , the Tao, the first Trinity appeared (-1,0,1).

The Tao begot one.
One begot two.
Two begot three.
And three begot the ten thousand things.

The ten thousand things carry yin and embrace yang.
They achieve harmony by combining these forces
.

(Dao De Jing by Lao Tzu chapter 42)

When the Whole Numbers were created their complementary counterpart, the Names, also came into existence. Numbers are used to Count (1,2,3). They are the representatives of Time. The numbers were created when the Logos, Uttered the Names of the Numbers (“In the beginning was the Logos, and the Logos was with God, and the Logos was God” (John 1:1)). The Names (“alef”, “bet”, “gimel”, ..) are the representatives of Space.

The “Tao” is too great to be described by the name “Tao”.
If it could be named so simply, it would not be the eternal Tao.

Heaven and Earth began from the nameless (Tao),
but the multitudes of things around us were created by names.

We desire to understand the world by giving names to the things we see,
but these things are only the effects of something subtle.

When we see beyond the desire to use names,
we can sense the nameless cause of these effects.

The cause and the effects are aspects of the same, one thing.
They are both mysterious and profound.
At their most mysterious and profound point lies the “Gate of the Great Truth”.

(Dao De Jing by Lao Tzu Chapter 1)

Names and Numbers, Space and Time, are interconnected. Each of them secures the continuity of the other. Space by supplying connection to the fleeting instants of Time, Time by providing elements, Holes, within the Blanks of Space to Speak the Names. Everything is in the end, in its simplest terms, a piece of Space-Time and breaks up therefore into Parts, of which it is the Whole.

To Protect a Whole we have to surround this Whole with a Boundary. Within the Boundary the Parts can be combined in many ways. The basic parts, the Identities of the Whole Numbers, are the Primes. New numbers can be created by applying Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division.

The Qualitative, Numbers, and the Quantitative, Names are complementary concepts that are an Expression of the first split of the Void in Time and Space, Time/Space.

After naming and creating Time/Space the Animals were created by the Logos and named by Adam (“And out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field, and every bird in the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof. And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the birds in the air, and to every beast of the field;” (Genesis 2:19-20)).

Objects that are Named can be put into a Space with an Artificial Boundary, a Set (“Birds in the Air“, “Beasts in the Field“,”Cattle“). In this case a Law has to be formulated that directs the Parts of the Whole into the Inside and the Outside of the Boundary of the Part.

Clearly the laws of distinction of Adam in the Naming process were Select Mammals, Select Up (Sky, Birds), Select Down (Earth; Beasts and Livestock) and Select Mammals that eat Flesh and don’t eat Flesh, (Beasts & Livestock).

When we have Named Objects we can count the amount of Comparable Parts in a Protected Space (There are Twelve Sheep’s and Two Oxes in the Livestock) and Compare the amounts to create an Order (There are More Sheep’s than Oxes in the Livestock). If we have defined an Order we are able to define a Rules to Balance Space (The Amount of Sheep has to be the same as the Amount of Oxes in the Livestock).

When we are talking of animals we are very far away from the first step in creation, the Creation of the Spiritual World. Animals are a part of the Material World, generated by the Atom (Atum, Pangu, Anu and many other names).

The Balance of Our Reality is not only based on the Void (Ø) it is also based on the middle of the Whole Numbers, the Zero (0). To balance the Atum we have to use the Negative and the Positive Numbers.

When we Apply the Negative Numbers Time is moving Back and Space is Compressed. When Time is Moving Back we are re-Membering. We are using our Memory, Space, to recall the Past. When the Space of Names is compressed we are Abstracting. We are fusing the Parts to recreate the original Whole again.

When we move back in time all the named Animals and even Adam himself moves back into the Earth out if which they were created (“With the hard work of your hands you will get your bread till you go back to the earth from which you were taken: for dust you are and to the dust you will go back.” (Genesis 3:19)).

If we want to balance the Material World with the Numbers we have to bring everything that is created back to its original state. In the end of this process the original parts can be voided again. Space Expands out of the Singularity and compresses into the Singularity. The structures in the Material World are temporary structures. They come and go.

In the Material World Time spirals back and forward in the Cycle of Creation and Destruction. Almost invisible to most of the people the Void is still there. Just like a Black Hole it stays in the Center of the Spiral of Time/Space. The Spiral of Time/Space finally converges into a point and all the material objects simply vanish.

Scientists of the Social Sciences want to be different from the scientists in the Physical Sciences. They think the Human is different from the Atum. In their view the Social Sciences are about the Qualitative and the Physical Sciences are about the Quantitative.

Sadly enough the Social Scientists don’t see that the Quantitative and the Qualitative are highly interconnected. The Names of the Qualitative are an Expression of the Numbers of the Quantitative.

Behind the world of the Senses only the Numbers exists. The Numbers create Beautiful Patterns based on very Simple Rules.

What Happened?

Before Adam was created Time/Space and the Logos, the First Trinity came into existence. After that the Logos divided Space in Up (Sky) and Down (Earth) and Time in Day and Night. Earth was divided in Wet and Dry land and The Sun, the Moon and the Stars were created to produce the necessary Light to start a new creation process. The Earth of the Dry Land produced grasses, herbs and fruit trees. The Water of the Wet Land (Sea) produced the Fishes and the Whales and the Sky was filled with the Birds.

What we see is that the Logos applied the principle of Voiding. Every part that was created had its counterpart and every part was splitted using the same principle. The Logos (λέγω, Lego, I Speak) was using Logic when he uttered the Earth and the first Man, Adam into existence.

The Act of Naming was not so difficult because Adam could use the principles behind the Act of Creation of the Logos to Name the Animals. The only thing he had to is to Look for a Discriminating Principle everybody could agree on. In this case Every-body was the body of Adam himself. Adam was the only person who was naming. Adam named a Sheep “pushing out to graze“, the Lion “in the sense of violence“and the Hawk “from its flashing speed“.

What Went Wrong?

And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech. And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there. And they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, and burn them thoroughly. And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for mortar. And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth. And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children built. And the Lord said, Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language; and this they begin to do; and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do. Go to, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech. So the Lord scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth: and they left off to build the city. Therefore is the name of it called Babel; because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth: and from thence did the Lord scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth” (Genesis 11:1-9).

At a certain point in time the Created discovered how the Creator, the Logos was creating reality. Adam was only naming the sub-creations the Logos presented to him. Nobody knew the names, the magical invocations, of the big structures. These names were hidden. If someone knew the names of some of the magical invocations, it was forbidden to utter them because they could destroy or disrupt the delicate balance that was woven by the Logos into the fabric of Earth.

Suddenly a part of the created, The Annunaki, wanted to use their own Names to create independent material structures (The Tower of Babylon). To prevent the overtake of the Annunaki the Logos scattered the people and destroyed the Unity of the Magical Language, The Tones of Creation, of the Earth.

To prevent that the Humans started their own process of the creation the Logos created a confusing language-environment. Every thing was named with many different names and the way back to the original structures of creation was veiled. From that time on the Humans started to fight the War of the Words.

What To Do?

If we want to create Balance in our Material World we have to get the Names right again. We have to restore the unified magical language that was there before the Tower of Bable. To get the Names right we have to Remember what the Process of the Creation of the Material World was all about. We have to understand the original Intention behind the Uttering of the First Logos.

The First Logos is a Creator who is observing the enfolding of his own Creation, the Atum. The Atum generates beautiful, harmonic, musical, patterns of numbers that are connected to the Tones of Creation. These patterns can be analyzed to detect the original design or simply enjoyed. The Material World is a Piece of Art and we are here to enjoy the Artwork and to make new Artefacts.

We, The Humans, are part of the enfolding of the Material World. We are here to enjoy the beauty of it and to participate in the creation process. We are the Co-Creators of the Earth but we simply lost the original Blueprint and are desperately trying to repair the highly instable constructions that we have created ourselves.

We could learn a lot from the original Architect but we have lost contact. We feel very alone in the Universe but the only thing we have to do is Ask and He will answer all our Questions.

# About the Expansion of Space

The Universe, Space, is expanding at a constant speed, the speed of Light. If we try to imagine an expanding Space we imagine something, a balloon, which is expanding in Space.

When Space is expanding, outside Space is Nothing at All. Space is just creating Space.

Imagining “nothing at all” is a big problem for many people. They believe there are always Insides and Outsides.

Expanding Space, or Movement, is the Foundation of our Reality.

Space is creating all kinds of forms but Space is also a Form.

The expanding Space conforms to “geometric expansion rules” and many people will ask the question who has created these rules.

When we have established a principle we always want to know who has created this principle. When we have solved this problem the same question is asked again and again because it is almost impossible to imagine that a Dynamic Process is not caused by a Static Cause.

The Duality of the Inside and the Outside, the Static and the Dynamic have to be resolved on a higher level. On this higher level the Outside is the Inside and the Mover is Moving Itself.

At this moment many mathematical theories of Reality are constructed that are trying to avoid the “trap” of Duality. It is not difficult to translate their physical statements into spiritual statements. Spirituality and Mathematics are exploring the same domain, the Domain of Wholeness.

It all starts with The Light.

Light is something that is moving with the same speed as the expanding space, the Akasha, so expanding space could be seen as traveling Light Waves. Space/Light is moving with the speed of Light, c, but it is not necessary that the Light that is moving inside space is traveling with this speed.

When Light is not moving in a straight line the form of Light is changed and other structures (particles) are formed. The most interesting structures are complex cyclic structures (the Vâyu). They are the basic containers of the Universe.

Space is closed in Itself but there is an absolute boundary, the Edge of Space. This edge is a Mirror. When Light bounces against this Mirror it bounces back and influences the other Light Waves.

Because the Edge of expanding Space is a circle, The Light Waves move back in a different direction and create interference-patterns. Because space is limited and closed in itself one Wave of the Light, the Svara, is sufficient to create a complete spectrum of waves.

The Frequency of the Waves determinates the levels of Space. Conscioussness appears when something is able to Observe Itself or to Moves ItSelf. So every Level in Space is consciouss.

The interference of Light Waves creates “disturbances“. Some waves are starting to move in a cyclic pattern. Within these disturbances the Light is caught. They are rotating and rotation is linear speed transformed into rotating speed. The sum of the rotating and the linear movement is always constant.

The disturbances in space are influenced by the expansion of space. When Space is expanding the disturbances are extended until they break.

Just like a spring (a rotating circle, a spiral) breaks when the expanding pressure is too big. When the broken structures drift away from the “front-line of space” they are put together again. When this happens some of them are twisted.

Twisted structures (Moebius Ring, Klein Bottle, Knots) are forms with are different in behavior than normal cyclic structures like the Torus. They are without an inside and an outside, they are without a surface and they expand and contract in a different way. They increase the “tension” in space.

Space itself is expanding with a constant speed but the many different forms in space react differently to the expansion. When the resistance is increasing space is rippling (“zitterbewegung”) just like our skin is rippling when we get older. During the rippling phase, space expands by folding onto itself.

The wrinkles, ripples, buckles, bends, are the many appearances of energy and matter. They can again be visualized by a balloon with knots tied on its surface. Knots that are tied on the surface of the balloon represent matter, and surface wrinkles that emerge around knots represent the electromagnetic field.

The wrinkles and knots decreases the circumference of the balloon, and while the balloon is still expanding, the inner pressure, the torsion, increases until the Balloon collapses completely into itself. The pressure is so strong that space moves through a tine hole (bindu) in the surface (the Black Hole) of the Balloon and space expands at the other side of the balloon (the White Hole). From that time on “history” repeats itself.

The Universe is Breathing.

At this moment we have developed a very simple theory. Space is the expansion of Light. When the Light bounces against the Mirror of the Edge of Space it creates Interference Patterns.

These patterns behave differently under the stress of the expansion and the stress of the expansion starts to interfere with the other moving structures in space.

If you read the Story of the Universe one thing makes the Story rather complicated. To explain expanding space the metaphor of the Balloon is often used but the geometric structure of the Universe is not a Balloon.

We are not living Outside the Balloon but we are living Inside the Balloon. Outside the Balloon is non-existent. We are not moving Inside the Balloon but we are moving on the Surface of the Balloon. The Inside of the Balloon is non-existent.

Mathematics has used the flat structure, the Euclidian Universe, to explain reality. In this Universe all the geometric theories of Euclid were valid although one of the postulates of Euclid, the parallel postulate, was in discussion for a very long time. This postulate states that two lines intersect when the sum of their angles is less than 180°.

When people found out that we are not living on a flat earth they realized that the parallel postulate was wrong. The sum of the arcs of a triangle on a sphere is not 180°.

When mathematicians started to face the facts the Non-Euclidian Geometry was born and the parallel postulate was abandoned. The flat geometry was an exception. We are living in a curved universe.

The man in the street is not educated in the curved universe and many brilliant scientists who are operating outside the area of the exact sciences don’t have an idea about non-Euclidian geometry.

Non-Euclidian Geometry has had a huge impact on Science. The curved Universe is just like the “valid” postulates of Euclid an accepted fact.

If everybody would accept the “fact” of the curved universe and realize that every system in the Universe (also the Economic System) is always expanding and compressing we could anticipate the Waves of the Life Force, the Svara.

If everybody could accept that an always expanding system in our Universe always collapses in itself we could realize that an expanding economy wil create complex knots that cannot stand the tension of the expansion. The knotted, highly related, structures in our Reality are breaking and twisting.

They stop the expansion until the singularity is reached. At that time we will move trough the Black Hole and the White Hole in another Universe, Our Twin Universe.

The most interesting part is that it is possible to develop a theory of the Universe without any idea about the real Universe. It is a direct consequence of the postulates of Euclid. The only thing that is left to interpret are the results of the Geometric Theory of the Universe in our Reality. We have to find visual methaphors in our reality that look like the concepts of the geometric theory.

The only thing that is needed to Accept the Geometric Theory of the Universe is to Accept the Postulates of Euclid. They are more or less self-evident.

They are Visible in our Reality, but still you never know if somebody is capable of finding a new exception of the postulates. If this happens the Geometric Theory has to be adapted.

Until now nobody has a clue. The axiomes of Euclid are still the foundation of Mathematics.

The Old Scientists stated that our Reality is an Illusion. The only thing that is existent is the Movement of the Void. The Movement of the Void generated the Reflection of the Void, the Expansion of Space, The Interference Patterns of the Light and finally the final compression into The Void.

They stated that the Universe is an expansion of nothingness and the nothingness is preserved in every state of the Universe. Every duality that is constructed is voided in the nothing.

Consuming is voided by Production. The Good is voided by the Bad. The Up is voided by the Down. Life is voided by Death. Everything wants to return to the original state of the Rotating Void.

If the population of the Earth is consuming to the extremes one day the opposite will happen and we will be consumed to bring back the balance of the void.

When we lend we have to pay back our debts to the Universe.

About Reflecting Waves at the Edge of the Universe

A recent Geometric Theory of the Universe

About the Moebius Ring, The Klein Bottle, Knots and Physics

About Heisenberg and the Rippling of the Universe

A very old Geometric Theory of the Universe based on the Upanishads

# About the Matrix and the Process Physics of Reginald Cahill

## Are we Living in The Matrix?

The Movie the Matrix states an ancient belief that we are living in a Dream World.

In the old Gnostic version the Matrix is created by the Demiurg, the Creator of our Material Universe.

In the new version the Dream World is created by a Computer Simulator.

At this moment Physicists and Mathematicians are exploring the Concept of the Matrix and are achieving remarkable results.

## Process Physics

One of these scientists is Reginald Cahill. He has developed a challenging theory called Process Physics.

## Measuring the Aether

One of the most important experiments in Physics was the Michelson and Morley experiment in 1887. The aim of this experiment was to discover the speed of the AEther. At that time the physicists believed space (aether) was moving. The result of the experiment was spectacular.

Michelson and Morley found that the speed of light was a constant (now called c) and the Ether (Space) was empty and static.

Cahill (and many others) analyzed the experiments and many other comparable experiments and detected a fatal error. The fatal error was a scientific “script”, the theory of Newton.

At that time Quantum Mechanics was not invented. Cahill found what they were looking for, the Absolute Motion of Space.

## Relativity Theory

The result of the Michelson and Morley Experiment was used by Einstein in 1905 to create his Special Theory of Relativity.

This theory has been verified by many experiments so almost nobody started to question the theory of Einstein. Cahill proved that the absolute motion of space is not contradictory to the experiments that verified the theory of Einstein. Einstein was totally wrong!

## Quauntum Space

Everything that is, is Space itself and Space is generating Space. This statement is a “self-reference” and can be formulated as an iterative function Space (i) = Function (Space (i-1)) + Randomness.

This Randomness is the result of Quantum Mechanics.

Every Self-Propelling Extension of Space has a Free Will to choose a “direction”. This “direction” can be organized as a causal system in which case Time appears. In general “space” is trying to create a Space-Time that is the most predictable to give the objects in Space-Time a chance to survive and grow.

Cahill found the “Function” and suddenly many disjoint fields of physics were united. Like every other big “paradigm shift” the theory of Cahill is officially banned.

Attacking Einstein is “not done” because when the foundation of Einstein falls the new (old) Physics falls apart

The paradigm shift of Cahill is not really a paradigm shift at all. It brings Physics back to a very ancient track that was abandoned a 100 years ago.

## What is Happening

Space now called Quantum Foam is creating Space. In this process of continuous creation, every possible form is created.

Space is Relational, a connector of forms, and the connectors have a lot in common with the cells in our body. The fabric of Space is self-referential which means that the creative pattern behind every form is basically the same.

Cahill shows that the creation of space, the creation of the Stars and the Planets, the creation of the body and the cells is based on the same iterative process.

This process can be seen as the calculation of a very fast quantum computer that is creating itself. Cahill has discovered the software-design of the Matrix.

The interpretation of the output of the quantum computer is done by a conscious mind but the conscious mind is also the output of the quantum computer.

## The Mind of Space

The feedback-loops in the cell-like structures of self-propelling space can be seen as a giant mind (a neural network) that is split into many (in)dependent minds. One of these minds is the mind of the Human but cells, the body, the brain, earth, our galaxy, and the universe are also mindful.

What we are able to see depends on what we are able to see. If we want to look through the lens of Special Relativity we are able to get a long way. At some point we get stuck.

Our interpretation system is desperately trying to fit our experiments with our theory. We measure what we want to see and we are able to get a long way. We develop instruments that contain our current theory and we prove the theory we want to prove.

Is there an end to our Interpretation System?

Our interpretation system fails if we don’t see a structure anymore. At that moment we think our interpretation system is seeing Chaos but Chaos is non-existent. Chaos is an interpretation of something we don’t understand.

The Limits of Chaos are just like Space extending every time we embrace a new form. Our Knowledge of our Reality expands just like the creator of forms, space, is expanding.

There is a Limit to our Understanding. This limit is the smallest self-referential pattern that is able to generate every form there is. Finding this pattern, the Essence is the Quest of Mathematics.

## Wolfram

One of the most briljant mathematicians, Stephen Wolfram, the founder of Mathematica, a software package to program mathematics has spend many years, playing with his own software, to find this pattern. He even created a completely new science, a New Kind of Science, to explore this issue.

The mathematician Chaitin has proved that we, the Humans, are unable to find this pattern, with the help of programming languages and computers. He proves that we are able to get a long way but at a certain moment, Time is going to bother us. We will simply not be able to beat the speed of the creative wave of ever-expanding Space.

Is there an end to the expansion of space?

In our current thinking space looks like a bubble and bubbles can be expanded into eternity. The new forms of space are different

The interpretation of space is changing and space could be expanding until eternity in a closed system.

Space could be bounded by itself. It is not impossible that space could find another form to expand again and again.

If space is creative and mindful it could create every space that is possible but we the Humans have no idea what this could be because we are moving behind space itself.

If we could become space itself we could imagine everything we wanted.

How could we move out of the Matrix?

We are a part of the consciousness that contains the consciousness that..

If we merge the splits in our simulated consciousness and merge the splits between our consciousness and the consciousness of the other simulated consciousnesses and ….we could move out of the Matrix.

What are we doing in the Simulator?

The ancient Gnostic Mystics believed that Our Universe was created by Demiurg, the Great Architect. The Demiurg was a “high level’ Consciousness that was allowed by the Creator (The Light, The Void) to create a Universe that would speed up the awareness of many “splitted” consciousnesses, The Sparks of the Light.

The Earth Simulator is a Learning Device and every Soul is allowed to enter the Simulator to (re-)play a Game.

When the Soul enters the Matrix his memory of past lives, other games played, is erased (the Veil). On Earth we are playing the Games we have chosen. When you are aware of the Game you are able to move out of the Simulator to move to another place to play different games of creation.

What are the possibilities when you leave the Simulator?

Create Your Own Universe. You don’t need to be a Game Designer to do this. The Simulator is already in place and Old Designs are never repeated in the Multi-Universe.

Our Universe could contain tiny Universes we are not aware of

How to compress space

Reginald Cahill, About the Michelson and Morley Experiments

Constructur Theory of David Deutsch

A lot of documents about Process Physics

# Why God is a Topologist

Sometimes I am getting very frustrated when I read spiritual books. I am getting frustrated because those books are a very complicated mixture of many other books that are also very complicated mixtures of other books.

The most complicated spiritual books are the books that use mathematical or physical theories to proof they are Right. The main reason is of course that mathematics and physics is complicated stuff to understand.

Mathematics contains the essence of Physics. You have to understand a little bit of mathematics to understand elementary Physics. The essence of Mathematics is Geometry. When you understand Geometry the rest of mathematics is just calculation (Algebra).

Geometry started as a very practical science concerned with navigation in space and the measurement of all kinds of forms. Soon the old scientists discovered interesting and unexplainable patterns. They discovered a hidden, sacred, structure behind reality and started to find ways to proof their intuiton was right.

It was not for nothing that Einstein believed God was a Geometer. Much earlier the Mystic School of Pythagoras tried to find the Sacred Geometry behind the Numbers to understand the Whole. At this moment Geometry has advanced a lot in relation to the old days of Pythagoras and even Einstein. Geometry is now called Topology, the Science of Spaces. In terms of Einstein, God was a Topologist.

To proof the theorems of Geometry the concept of congruency was used. Two figures are congruent if they have the same shape and size, but are in different positions or in more difficult language,  if they can be transformed by a combination of translation, rotation and reflection. When two figures are congruent they are “the same” and when things are “the same” you are able to prove theorems.

During the Renaissance to understand perspective drawing, two things are considered the same if they are both views of the same object. In the Renaissance the perspective, looking from a different angle, was added as a “the sameness”. Circles and ellipses became part of one class.

A “the sameness” has a lot to do with Identities and Wholes. When your view on “the sameness” changes you are able to identify a different whole. The new concept of the Perspective made is possible to “see” the Sun as a persistent object instead of an ever changing object.

During the Renaissance the Sun became the Center of the Whole. The highly confusing worldview of the Middle Ages where something was the same when it really was the same object in reality slowly faded away. The external world became the world of the Eye, the microscope and the telescope.

Topology changed this view dramatically. In topology, any continuous change which can be continuously undone is allowed. So a circle is the same as a triangle or a square, because you just pull on parts of the circle to make corners and then straighten the sides, to change a circle into a square.

In the View of Topology the Sun is nothing but a small part of an ever expanding and contracting Universe. Topology transformed the external World of the Eye into the Internal World of Moving Water, Waves and the Emotions, the Felt Sense.  Topology is the Science that prepares the Way for the Water Bearer, Aquarius.

Topology is just like Geometry not only the science of space. It is also the science of transformation and transformation is also the essence of spirituality.

The major issue of Topology is the Contraction and Expansion of forms and again the essence of spiritual transformation is the Breath of God, the Holy Spirit. Topology has also a lot to do with Harmony or Symmetry and again Realizing Harmony is one of the major issues in Spirituality.

The interesting part of Topology is that you are able to do research on a huge scientific mathematical domain by exploring just one structure which is a representative of all the other structures.

The first object of interest are the Circle and The Line. It is not possible to transform a Circle into a Line without cutting the Cycle in one Point, Infinity.

In a circular, moving world, Infinity is non existent or every Point of the Circle corresponds with Infinity.

This is an  interesting insight because  almost nobody doubts about the fact that the space we live is a Circular Rotating Space. In the World of the Circle  The very Small and the very Big are the Same.

According to the Physicists our Space is a much stranger Space than a Circular Space.

Our Universe is highly dimensional because the complicated symmetry of our Universe simply does not fit in a lower dimensional space.

The most symmetric object, strangely called the Monster, uses 196,884 dimensions.

We, the Humans, travel a small part of the Monster, because we are not able to see enough perspectives. A perspective is a dimension.

One of the most interesting subjects is Self-Reference. The most simple Self-Referential structure is a Circle.

Topology contains very special Self-Referencial Structures like the Moebius Ring and the Klein-Bottle. The Moebius Ring is a Space without an Outside. It is closed in Its Self. You always travel the same surface.

A Klein Bottle is even stranger. Its surface is Closed in Itself but it has no Inside and no Outside. It simply IS.

A Moebius Ring exists in our 3-dimensional space.

A Klein Bottle needs 4-dimensional space. The Klein Bottle has a lot in common with a very old concept, the Ouroburos, the Snake who eats Himself. The Snake is a symbol for the Kundalini, the Force of Enlightment.

More complicated topological structures are Knots and to give you a quick insight, the Universe is a Web that was never Woven, a beautiful Veil that is difficult to See when you are travelling a small part of it.

I know this small blog will not help to get an insight but I assure you that when you start to explore Topology You will encounter new Concepts (or Paradigms) that will surprise You.

Topology will  give You a still small but highly extended perspective on the Creation of the One that expanded in so many Harmonic structures.

The History of Topology

About our Limited Perspective and the Limits of Reasoning

About the Topology of Art, a Short Introduction to Bahktin

About Free Will, Time and the Monster

About the Moebius Ring and the Klein Bottle in Philosophy

# The Age of Commercial Space Exploration is Near

I am involved in a new company that is selling a new product of Richard Branson called Virgin Galactic. Virgin Galactic is selling suborbital spaceflights for the price of \$200.000.

Our principal aim behind this is not to make money. The principal aim is to reinvest any money we make into space exploration,” Branson said. “We expect to double, triple, quadruple the number of astronauts in the next few years that have currently experienced space,” he said.

To date, Branson said, about a 100 pioneers have been willing to pay \$200,000 to be the first people to go into space via Virgin Galactic. “These are the kinds of people who are going to enable us to bring the cost of space travel down,” he stated.

Space Tourism is not the primary target of the Company. It wants to be the first commercial company involved in Space Exploration.

Space Exploration is a major theme of Science Fiction. When I was young I read all the books in this Genre I could find. Science Fiction has stimulated Science extensively. Many Scientist got their inspiration out of explorations of the Future. When the Theme was set it was only a matter of time when somebody would realize the Inspiration of the Author.

The step from Idea to Realization is mostly not the issue of a Science Fiction novel. In most cases we have realized all the technology and our just “doing it”. Most of the time the final realization takes much longer than the writer could imagine. Jules Verne put a Man on the Moon about a hundred years ago.

The major theme of Space Exploration in Science Fiction is War. We meet Extraterrestrials and they or we don’t like each other. We are part of a Federation (mostly the Good Ones) and in the end we beat the Bad Ones. Interesting enough many of the Stories related to UFO’s look a lot like the Science Fiction Stories. The only difference is that THEY are visiting US.

In the Renaissance the people in the West started to explore Earth like we want to explore Space. After The Renaissance the Age of Exploitation started, The Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution followed by the Age of Information made Space Exploration finally possible.

History repeats itself so I can imagine what will happen next. Both stages are part of a bigger cycle, the Cycle of Culture. It takes about 1250 years to turn around.

At this moment we are in a situation comparable to the year 758. The only thing that is different from that time is that we have moved to another Level, Earth.

What happened around 750?

At 750 we are in the Middle of the Middle Ages called the Dark Ages. It was the time when the Great Empire of Rome was collapsing because of a huge movement of hungry people. The world was struggling with a sudden change of the Climate. Everywhere States were fighting to expand and defend their territories. Around this time a new Spiritual Leader, Mohammed, created a new Religion. It was the start of the expansion of the Arab World and the Arab Empires..

Conditions in Western Europe slowly began to improve after 700 as Europe experienced an agricultural boom caused by a substantial increase in solar radiation. About 600 years later the Renaissance started.

The Great Empire of the West is currently collapsing because of a huge movement of hungry people. Just like the Roman Empire we are really not aware of the collapse. In the last days Romans spend all their time playing very expensive games and were enjoying life to the extremes. They forced all the other states to pay enormous amounts of taxes to keep the Entertainment Business running. In the End their stable infrastructure collapsed.

I hope you see the relationship.

Replace the Arab Expansion in the Middle Ages by the coming Chinese Expansion in you will know Who’s gone Win.

Millions of people are waiting for the Coming of the new Messiah, the new Spiritual Leader of the World. According to the Cycle He (or She!) will come soon.

In the West we are playing Games. Leslie Benzies, the producer of Grand Theft Auto IV recently revealed in an interview that the amount of money spent on the development of the game was right around \$100 million. The budget of the movie Pirates of the Caribbean was \$300 million. The development costs of all the movies and games exceeds the budget of the World Food Organization with ease.

Why do we need to move into Space?

The first reason could be to escape Earth. We need another place to live because life on earth is not the way it was. If we do this and Science Fiction is Right at the long term we will move into a comparable situation, Competition on the Level of the Galaxy. We have to learn who are our friends and who are our enemies.

The second reason could be “Spin-Off”. Space Exploration has boosted Science and Technology.

The last reason could be to see Earth as it is. A Beautiful Blue Slowly Turning Globe without any Borders. From Space Earth looks like a Paradise. I imagine the Extraterrestials are seeing this also! This could be the reason they are here!

The Cycle of Civilization is a slow cycle but there are cycles with a much longer periodicity. Many “Old Civilizations” found the Cycle of the Precession of the Equinox and “calculated” the Center of this Cycle, The Mother Goddess situated in the Pleiades.

The coming Years the Very Long Cycle and the Cycle of Civilization are coming into a Conjuction. The Effect of this Conjunction is unknown. Human Civilization has not gathered enough data to make an understandable prediction. The only thing we know is that we are living in a Very Special Time of History.

One of the people that analyzed the very Long Cycle (Terrence McKenna) predicted Time/Space-Travel as a major Novelty that would soon appear. Just like the Mayas and many other Civilizations he knew there is a very cheap alternative, DMT (a psychedelic drug).

The Old Civilizations predicted a return of the (Virgin!) Mother Goddess of the Pleiades (Ises, Mary Magdalene, The Black Madonna, Alcyone). Perhaps She is the New Spiritual Leader many religions are waiting for. I hope the Male Religions don’t mind She is a Female!

Perhaps Richard Branson should start a new Company soon, Virgin TimeTravel. She Will Love It.

Wait and See.

# How to Create Human Scale Tools: About Movers, Memories and Comparators

Humans are the most advanced toolmakers in nature. The main reason is that they are the less specialized organisms. They need tools to survive. People are also the most complex organisms in nature. This complexity makes it possible to invent new possibilities and to work with specialized tools and animals (horse, cow, hammer, car, computer).

All the time people have tried to make a better living by inventing new tools. If the basic needs were met (food, housing, health, safety), people got the time to get their emotional system into balance (love, self-esteem) and satisfy their imagination (play, explore, self-actualization).

At this moment, the amount of leisure-time to enjoy family life, relax, play and explore is going down. The number of people with heavy levels of stress is growing. The pressure on the emotions is increased by the current state of technology. The tools have overlapping functionality, take too much of the attention, do not communicate with each other and dominate the human being.

Tools have to be integrated completely in the cognitive system of the human being. If a tool takes over a part of the sensory-motor system (glasses, hammer, car) the imagination has to learn a new way to create the outside world. In the end, after practicing, people become united with their hammer or their car. They are not aware that they are carrying their glasses. If people have to practice too long or the tool is constantly intervening in their workflow the emotions get involved. They get frustrated and angry.

Tools were first invented to support basic human activities like talking, moving, looking,  hearing, remembering and learning.

In a later stage of development, the use of the tools generated a new space of exploration. In this space, new tools emerged.

The invention of symbols started the exploration of Mental Space. Program Languages, Telecommunication and especially the Internet has opened up a new space to explore, called Cyberspace.

Advisors and masters involve the emotions. An advisor helps to make a choice or to set priorities. A master (e.g. a physician, teacher, manager) makes a choice for a person. The Cyberspace version of the master and the advisor is the Expert System. It uses advanced ways of pattern-recognition (e.g. Neural Networks).

• Simulator

Simulators stimulate the imagination. Theaters and movies are examples of passive simulators.  Games are actively involving many people. The Cyberspace version of the active simulator is the Collaborative Computer Game. The passive form can be seen in the Movie and the Television-program.

• Memory

A memory archives the results of an internal or external dialogue. In the beginning, human communication was only verbal. Important issues to remember were incorporated in stories that were told from one generation to the other. When people specialized their activities, they needed a method (bookkeeping) to keep track of all the transfers. People invented symbols and the external memory to do this.  The writing-symbols made it possible to share and exchange memories (letters, books) without talking. Writing enabled the movement of memories. The library was invented to store the external memories and protect them from fading away. Cyberspace is filled with the versions of static and moving memory called the Electronic Message (Email, Transaction) and the Database.

• Mover

Movers were the first tools used in human society. A mover is an extension of the muscles. The first generation was invented to help the human move in physical space. Examples are hammers, cows, horses, steam-machines, cars, bicycles and robots. The next generation supported the movement of symbols (e.g. moving numbers) in mental space. The Difference Engine of Charles Babbage was invented to automate the calculation of mathematical tables. The most advance version of the mover, the telecommunication network, enables the movement of external memory’s in cyberspace.

• Sensor

Sensors transform and filter data. Glasses and hearing aids were invented to support people when they get old.  Humans looked at the stars and invented the telescope. In a later stage very advanced sensors were developed (Radio-telescope, MRI). They use complex statistical calculations to filter and transform the sampled data into pictures or sounds.

• Comparator

Human survival and learning is based on comparing data and acting on the result. A comparator acts on an exception. To compare data a measurement instrument is needed and a agreement about the object of measure.

Human beings started to measure time and space a long time ago. It was needed to navigate and to predict the movement of the stars. In the first phase, the human body was used as a measure-instrument of space and the cycle of the sun and the moon as a measurement for time. The big problem with this approach was that every person and every place on earth came up with a different measurement and a different time.

When the human networks started to connect, standardization on a global level became necessary.  The process of standardization of time and space took many ages. It needed numerous inventions in technology to support the process. The measure-instruments changed from mechanical devices (the clock) to software-devices.

• Servant (Operating System)

A servant coordinates the activities of sensors, comparators and memories. Servants take over repetitive patterns.  Humans find these activities boring (not imaginative). A servant has to act invisible (a black box).

When the use of a servant is prohibited, humans get frustrated. It has to be there all the time and do its job inconspicuous. With the help of the comparator and the sensor, the servant has to detect events and take appropriate action (coordinated movements, action patterns).

The big problem at this moment is the visibility and the interference of the servant in the human activity. People have to fill in the same form all the time. Processes stop in the middle of a company. The customer has to handover the data to the other processes.

Humans do not like to be emotional involved in boring activities.  Therefore, the needs (their wishes) have to be defined in a very simple way. It must be possible to imagine the behavior of the complete system without knowing how the system is operating.

A good example of a perfect servant is the central heating system. People define their needs (a temperature) and everything works. The temperature is a control variable that represents the performance of the total heating system. People are able to imagine the effect of adjusting the thermostat (a comparator) on the environment they live in. They do not need to know how the servant works. His behavior is hidden. The central heating system is a black box, loosely coupled with another invisible servant-system, the utility-system (gas, electricity).

The servant and its associates were in the first era of IT locked into the physical space of the general-purpose computer controlled by its general purpose operating System. The servants had to stay close together because of the speed of communication. The speed and the capacity of the telecommunication network is going up fast.  This makes it possible to distribute, specialize and connect Servants (now called Appliances).