The Future Center Smart Systems will be launched, 23-4-2014 in the Hague.
To prepare for the interactive part of the meeting this document has been written to provide some Food for Thought.
What is a Future Center?
A Future Center is a place to connect and innovate. We want to create an environment that facilitates interaction and stimulates collaborative action. We want to support cross-innovation and make it possible to make new combinations. Last but not least we want you to challenge Science to produce valuable insights at the right time and the right place.
A Future Center is a Smart System. At this moment it is an interaction system that helps Humans to innovate. In the Future we wil automate the Future Center and automate the innovation-process itself.
A Smart System looks like a human being. It is equipped with a Sensory-Motor-System, a Mind, Imagination and Emotions.
Smart Systems senses the outside (and his inside) world with much more sensors-types than the five sensors of his human look-a-like.
A Smart System is able to react very fast with its predefined processes on a event that is detected by its sensors.
A Smart System is an adaptable system. It is able to analyze and improve its behavior, communicate with a human being and other Smart Systems in an understandable way.
Smart Systems are there to compensate the human biases. Smart Systems are able to transform and optimize everything that contains some kind of structure.
Smart Systems can optimize software, data and content using software/data/text-mining, analyze patterns, predict the short and sometimes the long term.
Smart Systems are perfectly suited to provide the knowledge needed and answer the questions humans ask. They are able to train humans in an almost real situation using simulators.
Smart Systems can be fun to play with.
In 1931 the US Department of Commerce assigned Edward Dewey the task of discovering the cause and underlying dynamics of the Great Depression. Dewey created a special institute called the Foundation for the Study of Cycles that is still in existence.
The most interesting observation of Dewey is that Cycles restore themselves all the time and are connected by a Harmonic (“Musical”) Pattern. Dewey discovered that we cannot control the Cycles. Ups and downs are a fact of life.
The most researched Cycle in history by far is the Kondratiev-Cycle named after the Soviet economist Nikolai Kondratiev. The Kondratiev Cycle has a periodicity of 52 years.
The Kondratiev arises from the combination of basic innovations that launch technological revolutions that in turn create leading industrial or commercial sectors.
In the year 2000 the Kondratiev was at his top and is now in a decline that will take 26 years.
Currently we are in the Kondratiev Spring Phase. It is the time of what Schumpeter, a big fan of Kondratiev, called Creative Destruction.
The old structures are dying and the new structures that will start the new upward wave are created. It is a time of tremendous disruptions.
About the Software Factory
The last wave that started around 1950 was dominated by the rise of the centralized computer.
This computer was based on the factory-model of Henry Ford and Frederick Winslow Taylor of the previous wave.
Between 1950-2000 isolated creative programmers united in big software factories that are controlled by unified standardized methods and processes. Between 1950-2000 the programmers automated their own processes.
The methods are now transformed into standardized (BPML-)process-models that are abstracted into standardized (VDML-) business models that are filled with Industry-Models. An example is the ARTS-model that covers Retail.
Creative programmers are now replaced by creative business-modelers.
About the Next Wave, The Network of the Human Mind
On Christmas 1990 Tim Berners-Lee working at CERN published the first version of The World Wide Web. He launched the theme for the next wave, The Network.
From 1950 until 2000 the causal linear manual processes were automated but now the next level, the network of the human mind is at stake.
At the end of this wave around 2040 or much earlier as some people predict, the machines will imitate and surpass the human because they will unite in a global brain that can be connected to our Brains if we want that to happen.
At this moment we are creating the memory-banks of the Global Brain by producing billions of connected parts that contain complete human life’s, theories, music, movies, measurements and much more that we are now unable to imagine.
A Short Scenario for the Next Forty Years
It is clear that the Business-Domain-Models will speed up the process of value-chain-integration and value-chain-reversal.
This means that the customer will be in control of the value-chain en there will be direct contact between customer and producer. Value-chain-integration will in the end remove all the intermediaries in the value chain.
Value chains will finally converge into one standardized value chain. Best-practices of separate value-chains will become leaders in the new value-chain. Cross-innovation, combining the best of all worlds, is the way to move on.
To give customers control of the value-chain producers have to simplify their products and make it possible for the customers to create their own version of the product they want.
Products have to become configurations of simple building blocks that can be split into variable parts and infrastructure. Product-configurators will connect to other configurators. This makes it possible to create completely new combinations.
In the next step the data that is produced by the systems will be analyzed and processes will not be controlled by human made models but by models that are created by statistical pattern recognition tools. The systems will understand humans and predict human behavior and adapt themselves to the human needs.
In the last stage the software will produce an image that reduces the complexity of its whole. It will create a virtual human world that gives us the illusion that we are still in control.
At that time most people will play and not work.
The most important question you have to ask yourself is if your company is part of the “old world” that will finally be destructed by creativity or is already part of the new wave.
The big problem is change management, how to move from the current state to a for most companies and institutions unknown future. Companies, Institutions and People have to transform their collaboration patterns, their software, their data and their expertise.
The change process is accelerating. Almost all companies and institutions (and governments) are stuck in their installed base of software and their hierarchical organization structure that is not created to respond fast to the challenges that come from the outside word.
Alberti regarded mathematics as the common ground of Art and the Sciences. “To make clear my exposition in writing this brief commentary on painting,” Alberti began his treatise Della pittura, “I will take first from the mathematicians those things which my subject is concerned”.
Alberti stressed that “all steps of learning should be sought from nature“. The ultimate aim of an artist is to imitate nature.
Alberti did not mean that artists should imitate nature objectively, as it is, but the artist should be especially attentive to beauty, “for in painting beauty is as pleasing as it is necessary“.
The work of art is according to Alberti so constructed that it is impossible to take anything away from it or add anything to it, without impairing the beauty of the whole.
Beauty was for Alberti “the harmony of all parts in relation to one another,” and subsequently “this concord is realized in a particular number, proportion, and arrangement demanded by harmony“.
Alberti’s thoughts on harmony were not new – they could be traced back to Pythagoras – but he set them in a fresh context, which well fit in with the contemporary Aesthetic Discourse.
One of the earliest Artists to produce a book on how to draw in perspective was Albrecht Dürer. As well as discussing geometric methods, he also illustrated his book with a set of woodcuts showing practical tools for accurate perspective drawing. Other Artists like Leonardo Da Vinci developed comparable tools.
About Projective Geometry
Projective Geometry formalizes one of the Central Principles of Perspective Drawing and of Human Perception: Parallel Lines Meet at Infinity.
In Euclidean geometry, constructions are made with Ruler (Line) and Compass (Circle). Projective Geometry only require a Ruler.
In Projective Geometry one Never Measures Any Thing, instead, one Relates one Set of Points to another by a Line.
Alberti was the first to ask what two pictures have in common if two drawing screens are interposed between the viewer and the object, and the object is projected onto both resulting in two different pictures of the same scene.
The basic idea behind Linear Perspective is simple: in every painting an artist creates a “floor” or area of the painting where the figures and/or objects will be placed. The floor ends at a horizon line, and the horizon line has a Vanishing Point or Point of Convergence on it.
The artist then draws parallel lines radiating from the vanishing point outward. Images closest to the vanishing point should appear smaller and closer together, and images farthest from the vanishing point should appear larger and farther apart, giving the impression of depth and space in the painting.
Pappus of Alexandria ( 290 – 350), one of the last great Greek mathematicians of Antiquity, proved that that given one set of points A, B, C on a line, and another set of points a, b, c on another line, then the intersection points X, Y, Z of line pairs Ab and aB, Ac and aC, Bc and bC are also on a Line. This line originates at the Vanishing Point.
Later Desargues (1591-1661) proved Pappus Theorem for Triangels. He proved that the three vertices of one triangle a, b, and c, and those of the other A, B, and C meet in a third point, and that these three points all lie on a common line called the Axis of Perspectivity.
Finally 400 years later in 1803 Lazare Carnot found the answer to the Question of Leone Battista Alberti.
In his book “Géométrie de Position” he proved that the so called “Cross-Ratio” is always preserved in a Projection with One Point of View.
The Cross-Ratio is the Ratio of the Ratio of the Four Points A,B,C,D lying on a Line that intersects the Four Lines defined by a,b,c,d that orginate at the Vanishing Point O. Carnot proved that (AB)(CD)/(AC)(BD) = (A′B′)(C′D′)/(A′C′)(B′D′).
The Cross Ratio is not only the Cross-Ratio of the Four Points A,B,C,D. It is also the Cross-Ratio of the Four Lines and the Three Angles that originate out of the Vanishing Point. In this case (AB)(CD)/(AC)(BD)=Sin(AB) x Sin(CD)/Sin (AC) x Sin (BD).
This principle is called Duality. In 2D-Projective Geometry Connected Points and Lines, called an Incidence, are interchangeable.
There is a corresponding Duality in three-dimensional Projective Geometry between Points and Planes. Here, the line is its own Duality, because it is determined by either two points or two planes.
Two examples: 2D: Two distinct Points determine a unique Line and two distinct Lines determine a unique Point. 3-D: Three distinct Points not all on the same Line determine a unique Plane and three distinct Planes not all containing the same Line determine (meet in) a unique Point.
The 24 Permutations of A,B,C and D produce 6 possible values of the Cross-Ratio, depending on the order in which the points are given. If k = 1, the other Cross-Ratio’s are 0 and infinity. This happens when point A = point D. In this case the Geometric Entity is an Equilateral Triangle.
If k = -1, the other Cross-Ratio’s are -1/2 and 2. This is called a Harmonic Cross-Ratio. This happens when the Internal Ratio of AC determinated by B is Equal to the External Ratio of AC determinated by D. When k=-1/2 and 2 the Geometric Entity is a Square.
If the Four Points of the Cross-Ratio are on a Line or a Circle, then the Cross Ratio is a Real Number, otherwise the Cross-Ratio is a Complex Number.
About the Four Layers of Geometry and the Four Points of the Cross-Ratio
In 1872 Felix Klein, published a new Mathematical Research Program called the Erlangen Program under the title Vergleichende Betrachtungen über neuere geometrische Forschungen.
In this program Projective Geometry was emphasized as the Unifying Frame for all other Geometries.
Although lines in the Projective Plane meet in one point of Infinity Klein argued that there could be two points of Infinity if the Projective Plane was a Surface Closed in Itself.
When we look at the Origin of Projective Geometry, the Artist painting A Sphere, Earth, on a Flat Surface, it is not difficult to realize that this Closed Surface is a Sphere.
Geometry is now divided into Four Layers. Each Layer adds a set of Assumptions that creates certain Invariants for that Layer.
An invariant is a property of a configuration of Geometric Entities that is not altered by any transformation belonging to the specific layer.
A transformation is an operation applied to a Geometric Entity. The most common transformations are Translation, Rotation and their Combinations (Reflection).
What we will see is that the Four Points of the Cross-Ratio are highly related to the Four Layers. In Every Higher Layer One Point of the Cross-Ratio is moved to the Internal Landscape, the Mind, of the Observer. This principle is called “As Within so Without“.
The First and most fundamental Layer is the Layer of Projective Geometry. This is the Layer of Human Perception and is invariant under the Cross-Ratio also called a Moebius Transformation.
The Second Layer is called Affine Geometry. In this layer Parallel Lines are preserved and the Assumption of a Plane at Infinity, the Horizon, is created. This Plane generates Parallel and Orthogonal Relationships between Geometric Entities by placing One of the Four Points of the Cross-Ratio in the Plane at Infinity.
Affine Geometry is Euclidean Geometry with congruence (something is the same when Shape and Size are the Same) and a metric (a definition of a Distance) left out. An affine transformation preserves straight lines and ratios of distances between points lying on a straight line.
This the layer of the Emotions, “the harmony of all parts in affinity to one another” of Leone Batista Alberti. In Affine Geometry the Frame of Reference of the Painter, the Floor, is created. On this Floor, the Horizon, the Plane at Infinity is drawn. From the Point of View of the Observer, it is not possible to Judge Distance or the-Sameness because a given Visual Object may be Large and Far away or Small and Close.
The Third Layer, Metric Geometry, adds the concept of Distance (Metric, Scale) to the Affine Layer. A Distance is a relation between Two Points of the Cross-Ratio. This is the Layer of the Painter, Creator, Observer, who creates his own Distance to the Distances he is Painting in the External Frame he is looking at.
Since Projective Space is the Space of Actual Perception, the true function of Metric Space is the Coordination of Various Perspectives. This is illustrated in Perspective Drawing, in which there are always Two Perspectives being Coordinated—the Vanishing Point and a Point just behind the Eyes of the Observer. Each of these is an instance of the One Point at Infinity.
The last, Fourth, Layer is the layer of Euclidian Geometry. In Euclidean Geometry Distance is Fixed (not Relative) and Scaled to a Unity (Meters). This leaves us with just One Point of the Cross-Ratio, the Unity, the One.
Between 1926 and his death in 1983 Alfred Tarski worked on the Axiomatization of Euclidean Geometry. In Tarski’s system there is only one type of Object: the One, The Point.
There are just two Geometrical notions between Points: the Ternary Relation of “in-Betweenness” and the Quaternary Relation of “Equidistance” or Congruence. Betweenness captures the Affine aspect of Euclidean Geometry; Equidistance/Congruence, its Metric aspect.
This is the Layer of the Human Expectation who has not Distanced Itself and is Looking Outside Through a Small Hole at the Future. The Expectation considers the Future as an Extension of the Past (Memory).
In Euclidian Geometry we have to Move Outside to the Objects to Measure their Distance and the Sameness with a Pre-Defined Unity.
If we don’t move to the Object we will measure an Illusion.
About Space measured by Time and Space measured by Space
The Ancient Sumerians knew that the Length of one side of a Hexagon is the same length as is the Radius of the Circle that circumscribes this Hexagon (See Pascals Theorem).
They also knew that the Stars of the Constellations of the Zodiac shift Counterclockwise, at the rate of 72 years/degree, because of the Precession of the Earth’s axis. One Wobble takes 25.920 years.
The length of one side of the Earth Hexagon is therefore the Distance traveled by the Constellations of the Zodiac along the horizon during 25.920/6=4,320 years.
They then subdivided this distance by 7,200 which produced the Royal Mile that was subdivided into 1,760 Royal Cubits.
Before 3.117 BC the complete Earth was covered with a uniform Geodesic System that was based on the Rotation and Precession of the Constellations of the Zodiac. This System was implemented in the Megaliths.
At that Time Space was measured by Time.
The Physical System of the Megaliths was destroyed by the Great Flood of 3.117 BC but the Metric System survived thousands of years until the French Revolution.
On the 8th of May, 1790, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand at the end of the French Revolution, proposed before the National Assembly in Paris a Change to a Decimal Measurement System.
The Academy of Science recommended that the new definition for a Meter be equal to 1/10,000,000 of the distance between the North Pole and the Equator, and this was accepted by the National Assembly in 1791.
From that Time on Space was measured by Space.
Why the Future contains Infinite Possibilities
A Painter or a Human always looks Forwards in Space. If there are Parallel Lines visible they all Converge to a Vanishing Point at The Horizon. The Horizon is a Parallel Line at Infinity.
We all know that the Parallel Line of the Horizon is caused by the fact that the Earth is a Moving Sphere. This Moving Sphere moves around other Spheres that move around other Spheres.
The Rotation of the Spheres in Space is used as a Clock. Every time when the Cycle of the Spheres repeats itself we add one unit to a standard Time-Measure. One Sun Cycle is named a Year. One Cycle of the Precession takes 25,920 Years.
We Measure our Time by the Cyclic Movement of Objects in Space. The Cyclic Movements caused by the Rotations of Objects around Objects (around Objects) is really a Rotating Rotating Rotation, a Spiraling Spiral.
We don’t live in the Sphere but we live and Move on the Surface of a Moving Sphere. That is why our Geometry is an Elliptic Geometry (or Projective Geometry).
Euclides and Pythagoras were aware of Projective Geometry (See also Pappus) but the Scientists of the Enlightenmentstarted to interpret their Theory with a Different Eye. They saw Numbers in a completely different way the Greek did.
The Scientist disconnected Number from Magnitude (Form) and created an Abstract Static Number Theory and an Abstract Static Theory of Physics. The Movement of our Universe, the Ether, came to a stilstand.
The Theory of Perspective Drawing, based on our Real Perception of Reality, is the same theory that generated Projective Geometry. We are now back to Normal again.
He reinvented Physics and Projective Geometry in his own way, Calculated all the well known Physical Constants and based his Theory on a simple well know Assumption that Space and Time are Reciprocal (A Ratio of Ratio’s , the Cross-Ratio) because Velocity= dS(pace)/dT(ime).
Moving Movement is the Essence of our Reality.
What Larson calls “Motion” is the Ether Wind (or the Higgs Field) the Velocity which was measured in the North-South (Z) direction at 208 km/s in 1933 by Dayton C. Miller.
Einstein believed the results of the Michelson-Morley Experiments in 1887 that “proved” that the Moving Ether was non-existent. Now we know that the experiments were wrong. Einstein also did not believe that Space was Expanding. At this moment the Expanding Universe is confirmed by many observations.
When Space Expands, Time Compresses and fills up the Space to Keep Balance. Time Scales Space.
Space moves to Infinity. Time Moves to the Inverse of Infinity, Zero. Space is measured by the Linear Visible Scalar Number-System. Time is Measured with the Rotational Invisible Imaginary Number System.
Expanding Space is Linear Motion. Time is the Spiraling Motion of the Vortex.
Space is Yang and Time is Yin. Yin is feminine, Curved, Rotational, smooth or cold. Yang is masculine, Straight, Linear, rough or hot.
Space and Time are Complementary Duals that Move Around the Void.
If we look at the Human Perspective we now are able to understand what Time and Space Really are.
When we Look Forward we Experience Space. Time is always Behind our Back.
Human Senses and Conventional, Scientific Equipment can only Look Forward and therefore Measure Space (Distance) and the Change of Space (Velocity, Acceleration).
This is a Limitation of our Physical Sensory System, which evolved to measure Space, Scaled by Time, to produce what we Perceive as Causality–a Linear Ordering of Events.
Without the Cause-and-Effect System, the Sensory World of Space would just become Chaos.
The theory of the Wisdom of the Crowd supposes that it is possible to create collective wisdom out of the combination of the wisdom of many disconnected independent intelligent (wise) individuals.
This theory has nothing to do with a Crowd. As you will see Crowds are not intelligent. Crowds are groups of people that are totally synchronized and act out of their collective emotions.
When people talk they move into a state of entrainment within a few seconds. The reason is the dialogue itself. If focuses the participants on the same issue.
When many people focus their attention at the same subject (television, movie, music, soccer match, a ritual, ..) the same effect happens. Individuals in a crowd become the crowd.
When many individuals are not focused on a shared goal they will never become a crowd. In this case every individual will go his own way looking for a “real” crowd.
Human beings want to be part of a crowd because a crowd is one of the most effective ways to generate a lot of personal energy.
Most people, the generators, are energy producers. Some people are energy consumers. Extraverts take their energy out of the crowd. Introverts accumulate energy when they are alone and relaxed. It is not easy to entrain introverts.
Sociologist Randall Collins has called this interactive rhythmic entrainment the “hum of solidarity“.
As in an empassioned conversation, the synchrony of our rhythms forms an inaudibly low frequency, we hum. If you record such a conversation and speed up the recording a few octaves, you will hear it. Laughing together is a perfect example, often showing rapid synchronization.
Ritual practices (meals, parties, etc) help sustain these moments of solidarity over time. The local energy exchange is a fine-grained flow of micro-events that build up in patterns of split seconds and ebb away in longer periods of minutes, hours, days.
These local interactions combine, giving rise to another form at a ‘higher’ degree, a social emotion. Emotional energy is defined by Randall Collins as a feeling of confidence, elation, strength, enthusiasm, and initiative in taking action. And it is the giving and recieving of emotional energy that keeps a practice, an idea, a fad, a tune, and a people going.
Shamans and cultural leaders have known this for centuries and used rhythmic or emotional entrainment to heal, commune with, or even to brainwash and destroy one another.
The role of rhythm in trance music is largely in synchronizing an individual’s internal rhythms (heart rate, respiratory rate, blood flow, neural potentials) with those of others. And this is done by using a swift, loud, clear rhythm to drive everyone.
When people synchronize they experience a rise of their energy-level and this energy-level persists for about a week. That is why spiritual rituals are repeated every week on a Sun-day, the day of the Energy of the Center.
How to control Moving Masses
Events that create a huge amount of emotional energy like concerts and soccer-matches attract huge amount of people. There have been many incidents where the movement of the entrained crowds has created many casualties.
People in crowds obey just two rules. Copy the other and keep a certain distance to the other.
The distance is a very important variable. When the distance exceeds the limit of the personal field, the personal fields merge and the personal identity dissolves into the collective identity.
At that moment the crowd starts to move on its own. The “leader“, the first person in the crowd, becomes a very important person. When the “leader of the crowd” does not know what to do, the crowd will start to behave in a chaotic way. Experiments show that about 5% of the people in a crowd are “leading’ the crowd.
When you want to control a crowd you have to control the people that are in front of the crowd.
When you want to control a moving crowd you have to create a structure that guides the crowd (“way-finding”). One of the most important mistakes is to create a bottleneck in this structure.
When the crowd moves into this bottleneck it will slow down the speed of the crowd and the distance between the members of the crowd will decrease until the crowd will stop at a certain point creating a “traffic jam”. At that point people will be crushed.
When people participate in a crowd the Emotions of the crowd become dominant. When the crowd is attacked or is unable to find its way, the negative Primary Emotions appear.
In this state individuals are able to produce highly agressive behavior (Fight), extreme passive behavior (Freeze) or extreme avoidant behavior (Flight).
When the flow of the crowd is disturbed somewhere and the collective moves into the state of panic the bottleneck will certainly kill or injure many people.
How to manipulate the Masses
The predictable behavior of a crowd has been known for a very long time. This knowledge was used by intelligent “dictators” who wanted to use the masses for their own aim. Good examples are of course Hilter and Goering, his communications manager.
When they tried to move the masses, the mass media were in their infancy. At this moment it is possible to reach millions of people with ease. The “leaders” of this moment know that they have to behave and talk in a certain way to entrain their followers.
The big problem is that crowds are unable to think so they have to simplify their message and emphasize certain “mantra’s“. The effect of their behavior is that the world becomes very simple.
The most effective way to influence the Crowd is to divide the Crowd into two parts, the In-Crowd (“we’) and the Out-Crowd (“not-we”) and to project everything that is wrong on the Out-Crowd. Hitler used the Jews but at this moment the Muslims are the most used “Out-Crowd”.
There is nothing wrong when Leaders use the Psychology of the Masses to move the Masses. The masses, the Sheep, need a leader, the Shepherd. Without a leader they start to drift and will never reach the Promised Land.
When Leaders misuse innocent people of the Out-Crowd to increase their own power there is something terribly wrong. These Leaders are criminals and should be treated this way.
When a Search Engine crawls the web and indexes information so that you can access it quickly, the search engine is doing Proactive Computation.
Servers don’t wait for you to execute a search query to start crawling the web; they are being proactive because it takes Too Much Time to find and index what you want.
The Sensory Motor System of Our Body is constantly performing Proactive Computing because it has to be Ready to Act, when something happens that is fatal to the Body.
In a State of Arousal the Sensory Motor System Reacts with predefined Scripts (Impulses). The Sensory System fails completely when there is too much data available (Overload, Panic).
The Sensory Motor Computer is not able to calculate exactly what the Body really needs because it does not have the time and the capacity to calculate every possibility. Therefore the Human Body sometimes makes terrible mistakes, called a Gognitive Bias, when it is Highly Stressed.
The Rational System, the Human Predictor of the Future, the Expectation, is able to override the Sensory Motor System when there is enoughRelaxation, Time and Capacity available. This State of Mind is called Reflection.
To Reflect the System needs enough Data, Provided by the Senses and our Memory, and a Model, a Believe System, that describes the Context we want to Evaluate. Most of the time we are unable to collect the Facts or to define a suitable Model. We See what our Believe System guided by our Experiences in the Past wants Us to See.
The Imagination creates the images we See. Sometimes the Images are made by the Senses. We see Reality as it Really is. Most of the Time the Imagination projects the Images of the Reflection System. We See what our Believe System wants us to See.
The most interesting part of the Imagination is related to the Dream World, the Unconsciousness. The Dream World projects the Images we Have to See. They contain a “hidden meaning“, something we have to know but are unable to Express.
Making a Choice is one of the most difficult things to do. The Emotional System, the Oldest System in our Body, acts on the basis of Feelings. It wants to move to a situation where there is enough Certainty to Survive (Food, Shelter, Love,….) and avoids situations that are threatening to the Existence of the Body.
The Reflective System transforms Human Feelings into Values, Preferences and Selection Criteria.
The big problem is that the Emotions (the Movers, Our Moti-vation) change all the time because they are influenced by Situations (the Context), Others (Status) and all kinds of Fields in the Environment (Gravity (Moon), the Electro Magnetic Field).
The fifth human system, the Consciousness, monitors the four “organs” (the Senses, the Expectation, the Emotions and the Imagination) to make sure they stay in the right balance.
Path of Change is a generic fractal (scale-free) model that can be used to model an autonomous system on many scales.
What is Happening?
The Computer is a Cold Rational Calculator without any Emotions. The Computer is therefore perfectly suited to Support, Complement and Replace the Heavely Biased Impulsive Unconscious Emotional Human Being.
The Amount of Available Computer Memory, the Capacity to Calculate in Real-Time and the Intelligence of the Pro-Active Algorithms and Reaction Scripts is increasing by the day and the Costs of Computing are going down fast.
Smart Computing extends existing technologies by adding new real-time Situation Awareness based on Sensor Technology and Automated Analysis to help firms and people solve smarter and more complex problems.
Smart Computing integrates the Physical World of the Senses and the Body with Automatic Process Optimization via a Four Step Cycle: Awareness (Sense), (Statistical) Analysis (Reflect), (Generate) Alternatives (Feel, Evaluate, Select & Choose) and Act -> Sense.
Smart Systems look like Smart People.
What has Happened?
Until recently IT-Technology was only able to Replace the Repetitive, Predictable, Processes on a Very Small Scale. Most of the Humans soon get Bored by these processes. They need a little bit of Exitement (Arousal, Challenge, Change) to feel the Joy of Living.
The Repetitive processes are part of the Human Motor System, the Muscles. Until 1970 IT-Technology was only able to automate Manual Processes. Before that time many People made their living from these processes. At this moment Process Management (Workflow) and Case Management, have reached the level of maturity.
The introduction of the Internet Protocol, the Increase of the Capacity of the Infrastructure (Broadband, Glass Fiber, Optical Switches) and the Standards defined by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) have widened the Scale of the Automation of the Manual Processes until the World Level was reached.
One of the most exiting new standards of W3C are related to the Semantic Web. The Semantic Web will make it possible to Reason with the Data that is available on the Internet.
The Semantic Web will generate a Revolution in the Educational System (“Just in Time Learning“) because everybody will be able to Ask every Question that is possible. The Experts will not be needed anymore.
All kinds of processes in all kinds of Industries are now connected and are constantly redefined until every “useless” intermediary proces is removed. This trend is called Value Chain Integration.
The introduction of the PC and the Intelligent User-Interface opened up the Market to the Consumer and started a new wave of Value Chain Integration. Direct contact between Producer and Consumer is now possible. This development is called Supply Chain Reversal. Chain Reversal gives the customer the control of the complete supply chain.
Because of their Software Legacy most of the Companies have not opened up their Private Old Fashioned Infrastructures to their Customers and their Producers. If every company would do this many companies would disappear.
This is the main reason why these companies are not transforming their business. Most people (and companies) are Afraid to Reflect about their own Death. They wait until the Last Moment. At that time it is too Late to make a change.
The Removal of “Useless Manual Processes” (and “Useless Employees“) is now highly stimulated by the Economic Crisis, the Energy Crisis and the Climate Crisis.
The User-Interface made it possible to make a Connection with the Organ of Imagination. This started a Creative Phase in IT. Humans are now able to create their own Books, Music, Art and are able to Play Collective Games and use Simulators to Explore Alternatives in an almost Real Life Environment. The Creative Wave has almost destroyed the Old Fashioned Amusement Industry.
At this moment the Social Media (Facebook, Linked in, Twitter,..) are exploding. They are mostly used to have a dialogue (Chat, Forums,…) between people in a Network. The Social Media make it possible to make a Connection with the Organ of the Emotions (the Opinions) of large groups of people all over the World.
The Social Networks give us the Opportunity to Feel what is Happening and make it possible to Influence (and Manipulate) the Masses.
What is Smart Computing?
The next wave, Smart Computing, adds two things, new Senses (Sensors, Internet of Things, IoT) that are able to Sense much more than the Human is capable of and Artificial Intelligence (AI, Big Data, Reflection), the possibility to Detect and generate Scripts that are much more advanced than any pattern that is available in the Human Being.
One of the most important “Sensors” a this moment is the Mobile Phone. Many people fail to understand the significant sensor innovations that are being designed into smartphones. Today’s smartphones contain microphones, cameras, motion sensors, proximity sensors, and location sensors.
New internet-connected GPS applications also have built-in feedback loops, reporting your speed and using it to estimate arrival time in real time.
Don’t underestimate the “other Sensors” like the Social Networks, Smart Energy Meters, Global Satellite Monitor Systems, Earth-Based Integrated Camera Systems and Medical Sensors that are able to detect all kinds of Physical Changes in Your Body.
In the next step Smart Sensors will be incorporated in the Clothes you Wear and of course your Body (if you allow that!).
Soon the Collective Technical Infrastructure, the Global Brain, will be able to Alert, Control, Manipulate and Support the many people that live on Earth. When this happens the Role of the Humans in the System will be the same as the Cells in the Body.
To make sure that one of the “Organs” will not Dominate the Global Brain we have to incorporate a Monitor, a Global Conscioussness.
What can we do with Smart Computing?
When the Sensors are everywhere you are able to measure everything you want with a High Precision and a Fast Sample Time (Frequency).
The Sample Measurements can be Added Anytime you want (Real Time) and transformed into Transactions with a Flexible Price.
This Price is calculated by Adding the Real Time Transactions that are related to the Components You Buy subtracted by the Real Time Information of the Costs you are making. Smart Computing makes it possible to create a complete Autonomous Real Time Company.
You can measure human transport (movement), chemicals, temperature, pressure on every location and react to the these measurements on a real-time basis based on a highly advanced prediction system based on neural nets. In this way you can prevent traffic jams, calamaties and every other event that is predictable.
Software will be able to read billions of documents real-time and use the knowledge to diagnose every problem you want. With the help of this software (called Semantic Analytics) IBM’s Doctor Watson project will soon deliver an automatic Doctor that will know more than all the Doctors in the World.
It will also be possible to Design and Simulate every Structure you want and generate the Structure when you are satisfied.
Designing a House or a complete City will look like a Collaborative Game and Building can be done by everybody including Robots because “the System” will tell you what to do.
The Banking System will return to its ancient roots and will keep the Transaction-System in Short and Long Term Balance.
Will it be possible to incorporate the Human Emotions in a Machine?
Some Scientists think that the Universe is already an Emotional Machine, a Quantum Computer Creating Itself. The Emotions are a Random Quantum Fluctuation, a Wheel of Fortune, to make it possible that the Universes Explore Every Possible Path. The Unpredictable Human Emotions are the Source of Creation.
Predictable Automated Emotions are not Creative because they lack the ability to make Mistakes. Making Mistakes and Learning from Mistakes are the Motor of the Proces of Innovation.
Machines without Emotions are more Reliable than Machines with Emotions but the Machines will stay the Same until their Emotional Human Creator has Invented a new Type or a new Theory.
At this moment the Robots are Instruments but it will not take long until we give the Instruments the Freedom to Act because they are more Reliable (less Emotional) and much more Cheaper than a Human Being.
If this happens many people will be Out of Work. The only thing that will be left over for us is the Act of Creation and of course the Care for Others.
If we are able to Incorporate the Emotions into the Machines we, the Humans, will be Completely Out of Work.
The Machines will be able to Create new Types of Sensors, Robots, Systems and Theories until Eternity. The Machines will take Care of Themselves and of course You.
The Programmed Robot Nurse, the Robotic Pilot, the Robotic Money Market Trader, the Robot Soldier, the Robotic Surgeon and the Robot Barber are already there.
They wait Patiently until their Human Creator will give them a Soul.
The belief in Rational Decision Making has been the focus of Economic Theory for a very long time.
Although everybody knew that Humans are Highly Impulsive and Emotional, Economists based their theoretical models of the Market on a Rational Human Being who is always able to Calculate the best Alternative possible. This Theory is wrong. The Economic Behavior is controlled by the Emotions.
The current economic crisis shows that the old Rational Theory is not applicable and the attention for alternative theories of Economic Behavior is rising. These theories are called Behavioral Economics.
An important paper in the development of behavioral economics was written by Kahneman and Tversky in 1979 (Prospect Theory, Analysis of Decision Under Risk). Kahneman was awarded the 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics for his research in Prospect Theory.
According to Prospect Theory, Humans attach much greater weight to future losses than to future gains related to their personal reference point. When you expect a certain gain in the future and this gain is lower than you expect the gain is experienced as a loss.
Kahmeman and Tversky became the experts on Cognitive Bias. A Bias is a “not-rational” mostly fast response to a stressful situation. In this case the Human System uses old structures (The Reptile Brain) that were created a very long time ago when the human lived in a completely different environment. The Reptile Brain uses many shortcuts to save time.
Social and cognitive psychologists have identified a number of predictable errors in the ways that humans judge situations and evaluate risks. Biases have been documented both in the laboratory and in the real world. For example, people are prone to exaggerating their strengths: About 80 percent of us believe that our driving skills are better than average.
In 2009 Kahneman and Renshon wrote a paper called Hawkish Biases. It is an attempt to unite the many Cognitive Biases into one Model. The model shows that Humans are highly Confused Predators (Hawks).
As a Predator they protect their Territory with every means possible. They are Confused because they are incapable to Observe and Reason about their own behavior and the behavior of others.
Humans need the “Illusion of Control” to sustain their own Identity. Every time something happens they are looking for reasons to believe that they are the Primary Actor in their own context. They don’t want to believe that Other Human Beings are also Active Agents.
If they would believe this was the case their “Unrealistic Optimism” could change into “Realistic Pessimism”. Unrealistic Optimism makes managers, politicians and generals receptive to advisors who offer highly favorable estimates of the outcomes. Such a predisposition, often shared by leaders on both sides of a conflict, is likely to produce a disaster.
When a Human is Depressed by Realism he Loses his Face and moves down in the Picking Order of the Territory.
Humans believe that every other Human is always capable to see their Weaknesses (“the Illusion of Transparency“) just like they are convinced that the intentions of others are always clear to them (“the Fundamental Attribution Error“). To hide their Weaknesses they have to wear a Mask and Play the Strong Leader of the Pack. They have to Keep Up their Appearances.
Humans base their theory of the other on inferences about historical behavior and completely forget Situational aspects. When a context is hostile the other must be hostile too. When others behave differently from their expectations they suddenly introduce situational factors to sustain their believe system.
Humans need to sustain their believe-system because this system is the foundation of their personality. Their view on the World has to stay constant because when it changes too fast they will get into big psychological problems. When people get older their believe-system becomes very rigid.
Humans value their own possessions much higher as the possessions of others (“TheEndowment Effect”). They even consider possible, imaginary, possessions as real possessions if they are convinced there is an easy way to get them.
If they lose a real or imaginary possession they take tremendous risks to get their possessions back (“Risk Seeking in Losses“). People in general don’t like cutting their losses. They’re willing to gamble on in the hope of recovering them.
Humans simply believe that a Hawk always wins the Game and a Dove always loses. What Humans (want to) forget is that they are living in a group and their In-Group and the many Out-Groups contains many Hawks. They need the confidence that they are “the best” to Survive.
The world of the Human Hawk is a world of Competition (Winner takes all) and therefore highly Stressful. The Sad Thing is that the many faces of Stress are the Major Cause of the Cognitive Bias. When Humans relax and reflect they are much more capable to solve a complicated conflict.
The competitive Hawks always fall in the trap of the Prisoners Dilemma and don’t realize that Cooperation, the Win-Win is the only Certain Way to Leave the Prison.
At this moment another Behavioral Economist, Robert Shiller, is getting a lot of attention. Together with the Economic Nobel Prize Winner George Akerlof he wrote the book “Animal Spirits“.
In the book they identify five distinct elements that blur the theory of the Rational Economy. These elements or “animal spirits” are called: confidence, fairness, corruption; money illusion and the reliance on “stories”of others.
The first three have a lot to do with the “hawk“-theory of Kahneman. The Hawks use the Rational System for their own benifit. They Play with the Rules and invent new exiting possibilities to win more than they ever could imagine.
Sometimes they Play Dirty Games to beat their Opponents. The Doves believe the Economic (Rational) Fairy Tales of the Hawks and are unable to understand the Real Value of their Money.
The Money Illusion is caused by Inflation. Inflation happens when prices Rise but the value of the objects that are priced stays the same. Inflation give people the feeling that they are making money but in reality they are losing money.
The Hawks use Inflation to keep the Doves Buying and Investing. They also use the weapon of Inflation to win the war with the other Hawks.
The Majority of the Human Beings are Doves. They believe the Hawks or are afraid of the Hawks. The Doves are the Workers in the Economy and they make it possible for the Hawks to Hunt.
The Hawks provide the Workers with many things to live an easy life until other Hawks start to Attack the Territory. In this case the Hawks need the Workers to fight and win the War.
Sometimes even the Hawks lose their Rational Capacity. They see a Big Win and become Greedy and Vulnerable. If this happens the Territory is open for other Hawks (The Chinese?) to enter and to take over without any problem.
What has Happened?
The Economic System is just like the Weather System a Cyclic System. When the Economic Cycles and the Weather Systems move UP the Hawks have an Easy Time. Their is enough food for all the Hawks. When the System is going Down Competition starts.
The Hawks forgot to look at the patterns. They did not see or believe that the downfall was approaching. They did not take enough stock to survive the Seven Bad Years. Suddenly the Autumn turned into Winter.
At this moment they are regrouping to create a Powerfull Alliance to take from the other Hawks what they need. They don’t care about the Doves. They always believe the Tales they Tell.
They are afraid of the Other Hawks that are outside their Huge Territory and are Prepared to Fight the Wars that are needed. The Doves will believe them as usual.
The term Nadi comes from the Indian word for movement. The approximately 72.000 Nadis comprise a vast network of transport channels of the Force of Life in the Human Body.
The channels connect into 7 Major and 21 Minor Centers, called Chakras (Wheels). The Heart Chakra is in the Middle connecting The Spiritual and the Material World.
The amount of Nadi’s, Minor (21) and Major Centers (7) is not By Accident. The Enfolding of the Universe is based on a Pattern that is governed by the number Three (The Trinity).
The number 22 (21 + the Whole) divided by 7 stands for the number Pi which relates to Square of the Four Forces of the Human (Imagination, Control, Desire and the Emotions) to the Cycle of the Movement of the Force of Life through the Seven Chakra’s.
When the Four Forces are not in Balance the Cycle of the Chakra’s gets out of Balance. This Unbalance of the Chakra’s can be restored when we use the Middle of the Seven Chakra’s, the Heart Chakra.
When We Act out of the Heart the Wheels of the Chakra’s never get out of Balance.
Later in this Blog I will explain You more about the Heart Chakra and the Pattern of the Triangels.
The First Thing I want to do is explain the Relationship between the Old Knowledge of the Chakras and the Recent Knowledge about the Influence of the Electro-Magnetic Field on the Body.
As you will see the Old Scientists knew more than the New Scientists. The only thing that is different is Language. We have to translate Old Mystic Terminology into New Scientific Terminology.
As the Force of Life (Chi, Prana) moves through the Channels, it makes the Wheels of the Chakras Spin. The Chakras are the power stations in our body. They pump Excess Energy out of their environment or Attract energy from other power centres to keep their own cycles running.
There are three major Nadis. The Left-Side Channel Ida (Mind) and the Right-Side Channel Pingala (Body). The Third Major Nadi (Sushumna, the Self) moves inside the Spinal Chord.
The three nadis originate at the Base Chakra at the end of the Spinal Chord, the Filum Terminale, and move up into the Top Chakra right above the Head (the Crown).
Most Scientists consider the Indian theory of the Nadis and the related Chinese theory of the Meridians a very old fashioned theory without any proof in current science.
The most important reason is that nobody is able to explain the Force of Life (Chi, Prana).
The connective tissues in our body contain collagen, which makes up 70% or more of all the proteins of the connective tissues. The collagens in the body comprise a vast network of transport channels of Electro-Magnetic Energy.
Collagens are rope like liquid crystals that have dielectric and electrical conductive properties that are very sensitive to electromagnetic fields.
The electrical properties of collagen depend on the bound water molecules in and around the collagen’s triple-helix.
If the Nadis and the Meridians are the Collagen Ropes in our body than Chi or Prana could be the Electro-Magnetic (E/M) Force.
According to some scientists the Chi-field is a so called Scalar-Field, a Standing E/M-Wave.
A Standing Wave or a Stationary Wave preserves its Structure or Form in Time. They can be easily observed in Water (Surfing) and Air (Music) but Electro-Magnetic Waves can behave in the same way. We can even visualize the Body as a Standing Wave.
When we imagine the Human Body as a Wave instead of a Particle it becomes much easier to explain a lot of phenomena. The Human seen as a Wave is constantly interacting with many other Waves in the Universe including the Body Waves of the Other Human Beings.
One of the most interesting experimentors with Electro Magnetic Scalar Fields was the weird genius Tesla. He called the Chi-Field Radiant Energy. Our E/M-field is heavily influenced by outside E/M-Fields (Sun, Moon, Power Stations, and Mobile Network) and the E/M-Fields of Other Organisms.
The First Triangel, the Trinity, emerged out of the contradicting rotation of the split of the Void. When the two moving Parts connected they became the first Self, the Creator.
The Creator repeated the same process and the second Triangular Self, the Kernel of the Atom, was born. The Kernels of the Atoms are connected by the Electro-Magnetic Field. Electrons move from Kernel to Kernel.
The Atom repeated the process of Self-Replication. It splitted and combined Itself into the many Physical and Chemical Triangular structures of the Material Universe.
In the complex chemical structures the Electrons are taking care of the communication between all the different parts.
Every step in the Process of Creation is a vibratory center that rotates with a different Frequency in a different Pattern.
The First Trinity, a Flat Elliptical Frame, was rotating with a frequency faster than 10-43 second.
The Second Trinity, the Kernel of the Atum, rotates with a lower frequency and follows the path of a 3-dimensional Threefold Moebius Ring, the Triple Helix represented by the Celtic Triskele.
When many Atoms are combined into a Big structure like our Body the Cycle time of One Rotation of the Self slows down. The fastest cycle time in the body is 40 Cycles per Second, the Gamma Wave, the cycle of human consciousness.
The human cycle is entrained to many other outside cycles like the Sun and the Moon Cycle.
If a Full rotation of the Self is not possible the Self splits Itself in many (more or less) independent Sub-Cycles.
One of the most important splits is the split between the Trinity of the Self, the Mind (Up, Sky, Spirit, Left Brain) and the Body (Down, Matter, Earth, Right Brain). This Split is managed by the Ida/Pingala/ Sushumna Nadis.
The Seven Chakras are the result of the Enfolding of two Triangels. These triangels are the enfolding of the primary Triangel also called the Holy Trinity. In this way our universe consists of triangels in triangels in triangels in …At this moment we can determinate 42 levels of enfolding.
The Upper Triangel is the Trinity of the Father, the Spiritual World. The Lower Triangel is the Trinity of the Mother, Atom, the Material World, Earth.
The two Trinities are connected in the Middle by the Heart Chakra. The Middle of the Seven contains the connection to the center of the First Trinity, The Void.
The Human Brain consists of the Reptile Brain (Body), the Limbic System (the Heart, the Soul) and the Neo-Cortex (Spirit).
The Reptile Brain controls the Triangel of the Atom.It manages instinctual survival behaviors.
The Limbic System, The Heart, is the seat of the Emotions (Attraction, Avoidance).
The last part, the Neo Cortex, is connected to the Upper Triangel. It is responsible for Higher-Order Thinking Skills and Speech.
The Heart Chakra, the Soul, is the connector of the Spiritual Trinity, Mind, and the Material Trinity, the Body. The Heart Chakra is the boundary between the world of multiplicity and the world of unity.
The Heart Chakra is the Grail, the container that holds together the Physical and Spiritual worlds and acts as the transformer between the two.
The Heart Chakra, the Middle of the Seven (-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3), the Gate to Heaven, opens the Door to the Seat of Pure Consciousness, the Cosmic Center, the Sacred Heart of Jesus, the Pleroma, the Void, the Place where inside and outside merge and become one.
When the Heart is only connected to the Material World, the Reptile Brain generates Jealousy, Fear and Ambition.
When the Heart is only connected to the Spiritual World, the Mind will create Illusions and leave the Earth. The Human Voice will Utter highly abstract sentences.
When the Heart is connected to the UpsideTriangel of Spiritual WorldAND the Downside Triangel of the Material World, the Mind will give Clarity and the Love of the Spirit will guide the way.
“Before you embark on any path ask the question: Does this path have a heart? If the answer is no, you will know it, and then you must choose another path. A path without a heart is never enjoyable. You have to work hard to even take it. On the other hand, a path with heart is easy; it does not make you work at liking it. The path without heart will turn against men and destroy them. It does not take much to die, and to seek death is to seek nothing“.
Carlos Castaneda – The Teachings of Don Juan
Go sweep out the chamber of your heart.
Make it ready to be the dwelling place of the Beloved.
When you depart out, He will enter it.
In you, void of yourself, will He display His beauties.
The Emotions show themselves in the Feeling Component (Anger, Happiness) and the Bodily Expressions (Smile, Cry).
The Emotions are researched by many not communicating highly disconnected parts of Science (Psychology, Biology, Chemistry, Marketing,..). Therefore Science is unable to understand the Whole of the Emotions.
The Scientists don’t agree about the main components of the Emotions and the relationship between these components. They use different terms to talk about the same thing and use the same terms to talk about different things.
To understand the Emotions I want to stay out of Language and focus on the Mathematics of the Emotions. When we have understood the Mathematics we can find the right Words to name the concepts we have discovered.
I believe the Emotions were created in the First Step of Creation. At that moment, the Void, the Singularity, was splitted into Two Complementary Parts.
The first two parts of the creation have to Stay Apart. If they join they are voided and creation will stop. To avoid voiding they move around each other in a contradicting direction (with the clock, against the clock).
When two parts move around they create an elliptical (egg-like) curve. This curve contains a virtual center, the Center of Mass. This Center, the Third Part, is also moving.
During the Second Step of Creation the Kernel, The Trinity, the Atom appears. The Kernel is a Cyclic Pattern, a treefold Moebius Ring, of the Two Complementary Parts and the Center of Gravity now called Quarks.
The Kernel, the Self, is surrounded by a cloud of rotating Electrons, the Others. The Atoms combine into more complex Selfs (Molecules, Organisms). The Electrons, The Others, exchange information between the Selfs.
I hope you see that the Elliptical Cycle and other, more complex, Cycles are the Emotions.
The Emotions Are the Movement.
Every Object in the Universe takes part in a Cyclic Process. Sometimes this Cyclic Process has a very simple structure, a Circle, and the same Events come back all the time.
When this happens Life feels like a Merry-Go-Round. When the same Patterns comes back all the time the Human gets frustrated and the Negative Emotions appear.
When the pattern becomes more complex, Life is full of Surprises, and the Emotions change into Hope and Joy.
The Human Cognition is unable to handle unpredictable patterns. At that time the Expectation, the Calculator of the Future, fails and the Self loses the feeling of Control.
During their Cyclical Movement the Two and later the more than Two parts move towards each other (Like) and away from each other (Dislike).
They Attract and Repulse, are in Love, want to Unite, but just before they reach the perfect Union, the Void, they Move Away from each other and the Cycle Starts All over Again.
When Two Masses are Not Equal the rotating system changes its shape. When one of the masses is big (the Kernel) and the other is very small the center of gravity almost coincidences with one of the Parts.
The Earth appears to move in a circular motion around the Sun but in reality the Sun is also moving around the Earth.
The Human Emotions are determinated by the relationship between the Self and the Other(s). The Self and the Other(s) are circulating around each other and a virtual center, the Center of Gravity, their Relationship.
Everything Moves around Everything.
When The Self or the Other becomes too Big, the Shape of the Cycle changes. In this case the Self circulates around the Other (“Dependency”) or the Other circulates around the Self (“Dominance”).
To sustain a Relationship the Mass, the Weight, the Importance, the Value of the Parts has to be in Balance.
What are the Human Emotions?
The Human Emotions are the combined effect of many sometimes highly complex movements, Waves, in the Universe.
The Waves influence the Chemistry and the Electro Magnetic Field of the Body.
When the Chemistry of the Body changes Chemical Messengers are send to Balance the Body with the changes of the Outside Field. At that moment we start to Act and feel an Emotion (Fear). Later we rationalize this Action.
What Influences the Emotions?
I hope you see that the Human Emotions are influenced by Every Level of the Universe. They are influenced by the Big Structures (Gravity, The Moon) and the very Small Structures (the Electro Magnetic Field).
The most influential structure is the Human Self, the Mind. The Human Self is only able to stay It-Self when the connection with the Others in the Universe is in Balance. If this is not happening the Body starts to detoriate. The Kernel falls apart.